Desempenho e disponibilidade em sistemas distribuídos em larga escala

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❇❘❯◆❖ ❘❖❈❍❆ ❈❖❯❚■◆❍❖

❉❊❙❊▼P❊◆❍❖ ❊ ❉■❙P❖◆■❇■▲■❉❆❉❊ ❊▼

❙■❙❚❊▼❆❙ ❉■❙❚❘■❇❯❮❉❖❙ ❊▼ ▲❆❘●❆ ❊❙❈❆▲❆

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❯♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❋❡❞❡r❛❧ ❞❡ ▼✐♥❛s ●❡r❛✐s

■♥st✐t✉t♦ ❞❡ ❈✐ê♥❝✐❛s ❊①❛t❛s

Pr♦❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ Pós✲●r❛❞✉❛çã♦ ❡♠ ❈✐ê♥❝✐❛ ❞❛ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦

❉❊❙❊▼P❊◆❍❖ ❊ ❉■❙P❖◆■❇■▲■❉❆❉❊ ❊▼

❙■❙❚❊▼❆❙ ❉■❙❚❘■❇❯❮❉❖❙ ❊▼ ▲❆❘●❆ ❊❙❈❆▲❆

❉✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ❛♦ ❈✉rs♦ ❞❡ Pós✲ ●r❛❞✉❛çã♦ ❡♠ ❈✐ê♥❝✐❛ ❞❛ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❯♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❋❡❞❡r❛❧ ❞❡ ▼✐♥❛s ●❡r❛✐s ❝♦♠♦ r❡q✉✐s✐t♦ ♣❛r❝✐❛❧ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♦❜t❡♥çã♦ ❞♦ ❣r❛✉ ❞❡ ▼❡str❡ ❡♠ ❈✐ê♥❝✐❛ ❞❛ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛✲ çã♦✳

❇❘❯◆❖ ❘❖❈❍❆ ❈❖❯❚■◆❍❖

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❯◆■❱❊❘❙■❉❆❉❊ ❋❊❉❊❘❆▲ ❉❊ ▼■◆❆❙ ●❊❘❆■❙

❋❖▲❍❆ ❉❊ ❆P❘❖❱❆➬➹❖

❉❡s❡♠♣❡♥❤♦ ❡ ❉✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❡♠ ❙✐st❡♠❛s ❉✐str✐❜✉í❞♦s ❡♠

▲❛r❣❛ ❊s❝❛❧❛

❇❘❯◆❖ ❘❖❈❍❆ ❈❖❯❚■◆❍❖

❉✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ ❞❡❢❡♥❞✐❞❛ ❡ ❛♣r♦✈❛❞❛ ♣❡❧❛ ❜❛♥❝❛ ❡①❛♠✐♥❛❞♦r❛ ❝♦♥st✐t✉í❞❛ ♣♦r✿

P❤✳ ❉✳ ❲❛❣♥❡r ▼❡✐r❛ ❏✉♥✐♦r ✕ ❖r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r ❯♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❋❡❞❡r❛❧ ❞❡ ▼✐♥❛s ●❡r❛✐s

P❤✳ ❉✳ ❉♦r❣✐✈❛❧ ❖❧❛✈♦ ●✉❡❞❡s ◆❡t♦ ❯♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❋❡❞❡r❛❧ ❞❡ ▼✐♥❛s ●❡r❛✐s

P❤✳ ❉✳ ❘❡♥❛t♦ ❆♥t♦♥✐♦ ❈✳ ❋❡rr❡✐r❛ ❯♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❋❡❞❡r❛❧ ❞❡ ▼✐♥❛s ●❡r❛✐s

P❤✳ ❉✳ ▲ú❝✐❛ ▼❛r✐❛ ❞❡ ❆✳ ❉r✉♠♠♦♥❞ ❯♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❋❡❞❡r❛❧ ❋❧✉♠✐♥❡♥s❡

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❘❡s✉♠♦

◆❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✱ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛♠♦s ✉♠ ♥♦✈♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ t♦❧❡râ♥❝✐❛ ❛ ❢❛❧t❛s ♣♦r ❝❤❡❝❦✲ ♣♦✐♥t ❡ r❡❝✉♣❡r❛çã♦✱ ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ❡♠ t❛r❡❢❛s✳ ❊st❡ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ q✉❡ ❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❝♦♥t✐♥✉❡ ♣r♦❣r❡❞✐♥❞♦ s✉❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❡♥q✉❛♥t♦ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❢❛③ ❛ ❝ó♣✐❛ ♣r✐♠ár✐❛ ❞♦s ❞❛✲ ❞♦s✱ ♣❛r❛❧❡❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ❊✴❙✳ ◆❡ss❡ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✱ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ ❝❤❡❝❦♣♦✐♥t ♥ã♦ ❜❧♦q✉❡✐❛ ❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ♥❡♠ r❡❞✉③ s✉❛s ♦♣♦rt✉♥✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ♣❛r❛❧❡❧✐③❛çã♦ ✐♠♣♦♥❞♦ ❜❛rr❡✐r❛s ♦✉ ♦✉tr♦s t✐♣♦s ❞❡ s✐♥❝r♦♥✐③❛çã♦✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ❡❧❡ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✐♠♣❧❡✲ ♠❡♥t❛❞♦ ✉s❛♥❞♦ ❝❤❡❝❦♣♦✐♥ts ♥ã♦ ❝♦♦r❞❡♥❛❞♦s s❡♠ ❝♦rr❡r ♦ r✐s❝♦ ❞❡ q✉❡ ♦ ♣❛❞rã♦ ❞❡ tr♦❝❛ ❞❡ ♠❡♥s❛❣❡♥s ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❣❡r❡ ❞❡♣❡♥❞ê♥❝✐❛s ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ✐♥t❡r✈❛❧♦s ❞❡ ❝❤❡❝❦✲ ♣♦✐♥ts q✉❡ ❝❛✉s❛r✐❛♠ ✉♠ ❡❢❡✐t♦ ✏❞♦♠✐♥ó✑ ♥♦ ♠♦♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ r❡❝✉♣❡r❛çã♦✱ ♦❜r✐❣❛♥❞♦ ❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ✈♦❧t❛r ❛♦ s❡✉ ✐♥í❝✐♦✳

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❙✉♠ár✐♦

✶ ■♥tr♦❞✉çã♦ ✶

✶✳✶ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸

✶✳✷ ❈♦♥tr✐❜✉✐çõ❡s ❞♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸

✶✳✸ ❈♦♥❝❡✐t♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹

✶✳✹ ❖r❣❛♥✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ t❡①t♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼

✷ ❚r❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❘❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ✾

✷✳✶ ❚r❛❜❛❧❤♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ♦ ❆♥t❤✐❧❧ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾

✷✳✶✳✶ ❉❛t❛❈✉tt❡r ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾

✷✳✶✳✷ ▼❛♣❘❡❞✉❝❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵ ✷✳✶✳✸ ❇♦r❡❛❧✐s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶ ✷✳✷ ❙✐st❡♠❛s ❞❡ t♦❧❡râ♥❝✐❛ ❛ ❢❛❧t❛s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹ ✷✳✷✳✶ ❙✐st❡♠❛s ❞❡ ❈❤❡❝❦♣♦✐♥t ❡♠ ▼P■ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹ ✷✳✷✳✷ ❋❚❖P ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✼

✸ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛çã♦ ✷✶

✸✳✶ ❚❛r❡❢❛s ❡ ❊s♣❛ç♦s ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✸ ✸✳✷ ❆♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❊①❡♠♣❧♦✿ P❛r❛❧❡❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❆❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❊❝❧❛t ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✽ ✸✳✷✳✶ ❆❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❊❝❧❛t ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✾ ✸✳✷✳✷ P❛r❛❧❡❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❊❝❧❛t ♥♦ ❆♥t❤✐❧❧ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✶ ✸✳✷✳✸ ❚♦❧❡râ♥❝✐❛ ❛ ❢❛❧t❛s ♥❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛❧❡❧❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✷ ✸✳✸ ❙✉♠ár✐♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✸

✹ ▼♦❞❡❧♦s ❞❡ t♦❧❡râ♥❝✐❛ ❛ ❢❛❧t❛s ✸✹

✹✳✶ ▼♦❞❡❧♦s ❞❡ ❢❛❧t❛s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✹ ✹✳✷ ▼♦❞❡❧♦s ❞❡ t♦❧❡râ♥❝✐❛ ❛ ❢❛❧t❛s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✾ ✹✳✷✳✶ ◆í✈❡❧ ❞❡ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✶ ✹✳✷✳✷ ❈♦♦r❞❡♥❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✶ ✹✳✸ ▼♦❞❡❧♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✸

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✺ ■♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ✹✻ ✺✳✶ ▼❡❝❛♥✐s♠♦ ❞❡ t♦❧❡râ♥❝✐❛ ❛ ❢❛❧t❛s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✼ ✺✳✶✳✶ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ❈❛❝❤❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✾ ✺✳✶✳✷ Pr♦t♦❝♦❧♦ ❞❡ ❘❡❝✉♣❡r❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✾

✻ ❊①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s ✺✸

✻✳✶ ❈♦♥✜❣✉r❛çã♦ ❞❡ t❡st❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✸ ✻✳✷ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✸ ✻✳✸ ❙✉♠ár✐♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✼

✼ ❈♦♥❝❧✉sã♦ ❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❢✉t✉r♦s ✺✾

✼✳✶ ❚r❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❋✉t✉r♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✾

❘❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛s ❇✐❜❧✐♦❣rá✜❝❛s ✻✶

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▲✐st❛ ❞❡ ❋✐❣✉r❛s

✶✳✶ ❈❛♥❛✐s ❝♦♠♣♦♥❞♦ ✉♠ ✢✉①♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺

✶✳✷ ▲✐♥❤❛s ❞❡ ❝❤❡❝❦♣♦✐♥t ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻

✷✳✶ ❉✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛s ❡♥tr❡ ♦ ❆♥t❤✐❧❧ ❡ ♦ ❇♦r❡❛❧✐s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷ ✷✳✷ Pr♦t♦❝♦❧♦ ❞❡ ❝❤❡❝❦♣♦✐♥t ❞♦ ▲❆▼✴▼P■ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺ ✷✳✸ Pr♦t♦❝♦❧♦ ❞❡ r❡❝✉♣❡r❛çã♦ ❞♦ ▲❆▼✴▼P■ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✻ ✷✳✹ Pr♦t♦❝♦❧♦ ❞❡ ♣♦♥t♦s ❞❡ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡ ♥♦ ❋❚❖P ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽ ✷✳✺ Pr♦t♦❝♦❧♦ ❞❡ r❡❝✉♣❡r❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❋❚❖P ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✵

✸✳✶ ❱✐sõ❡s ♦❢❡r❡❝✐❞❛s ♣❡❧♦ ♣❛r❛❞✐❣♠❛ ❋✐❧tr♦✲❋❧✉①♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✷ ✸✳✷ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❆♥t❤✐❧❧ ❡♠ ❛❧t♦ ♥í✈❡❧ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✷ ✸✳✸ ❘❡❝✉♣❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❢❛❧t❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✼ ✸✳✹ ➪r✈♦r❡ ❞❡ ♣r❡✜①♦s ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❊❝❧❛t ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✵ ✸✳✺ ❉✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦ ❞♦s ✐t❡♠s❡ts ♥♦s ✜❧tr♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✶

✺✳✶ ❆rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❞♦ ❆♥t❤✐❧❧ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✻ ✺✳✷ Pr♦t♦❝♦❧♦ ❞❡ r❡❝✉♣❡r❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✵ ✺✳✸ ▼❡♥s❛❣❡♥s tr♦❝❛❞❛s ♥♦ ♣r♦t♦❝♦❧♦ ❞❡ r❡❝✉♣❡r❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✶

✻✳✶ ❚❡♠♣♦ ❞❡ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ t❡♠♣♦ ❞❡ ✐♥❥❡çã♦ ❞❛ ❢❛❧t❛ ✭♦s t❡♠♣♦s

❞❡ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ s❡♠ ❢❛❧t❛ sã♦ ✐♥❞✐❝❛❞♦s ❝♦♠♦ r❡t❛s ♣❛r❛❧❡❧❛s ❛♦ ❡✐①♦x✮ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✹

✻✳✷ ❚❡♠♣♦ ❞❡ r❡❝✉♣❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡❝♦♠♣♦st♦ ❡♠ t❡♠♣♦ ♥♦ ❣❡r❡♥t❡ ❡ t❡♠♣♦ ♥♦s ✜❧tr♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✺ ✻✳✸ ❉❡❝♦♠♣♦s✐çã♦ ❞♦ t❡♠♣♦ ❞❡ r❡❝✉♣❡r❛çã♦ ♥♦s ✜❧tr♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✻ ✻✳✹ ❚❡♠♣♦ ❞❡ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ út✐❧ ✭t❡♠♣♦ t♦t❛❧ ❞❡ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ♠❡♥♦s t❡♠♣♦ ❞❡ r❡❝✉✲

♣❡r❛çã♦✮ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✼ ✻✳✺ ❚❡♠♣♦ t♦t❛❧ ❞❡ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❡ ✐t❡♠s❡ts ♣r♦❝❡ss❛❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✼

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▲✐st❛ ❞❡ ❚❛❜❡❧❛s

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❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✶

■♥tr♦❞✉çã♦

◆❛s ú❧t✐♠❛s ❞é❝❛❞❛s✱ ❛✈❛♥ç♦s ♥❛s t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❞❡ s❡♠✐❝♦♥❞✉t♦r❡s ❡ ❝✐r❝✉✐t♦s ✐♥t❡✲ ❣r❛❞♦s tê♠ ♣❡r♠✐t✐❞♦ ❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r❡s ❝❛❞❛ ✈❡③ ♠❛✐s rá♣✐❞♦s ❡ ❡✜❝✐❡♥✲ t❡s✳ ❊ss❡ ❛✉♠❡♥t♦ ❝♦♥tí♥✉♦ ❞❛ ❝❛♣❛❝✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦s s✐st❡♠❛s tê♠ ♣❡r♠✐t✐❞♦ ❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ❛✐♥❞❛ ♠❛✐s ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❡①✐❣❡♥t❡s✱ q✉❡ ♣♦r s✉❛ ✈❡③ ✐♥t❡♥s✐✜❝❛♠ ❛✐♥❞❛ ♠❛✐s ❛ ❞❡♠❛♥❞❛ ♣♦r ♠áq✉✐♥❛s ♠❛✐s ♣♦❞❡r♦s❛s ❬❞❘❈✾✹❪✳ ■ss♦ ❣❡r❛ ✉♠❛ r❡❛çã♦ ❡♠ ❝❛❞❡✐❛✱ ❝✉❥♦ ❡❢❡✐t♦ é ❣❡r❛r ❞❡♠❛♥❞❛ ♣♦r ♠❛✐♦r ❝❛♣❛❝✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ♥ã♦ ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥❞♦ ♦ q✉ã♦ ❛❧t♦ ❛ ♦❢❡rt❛ ❞❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ❛t✐♥❥❛✳

❊♥tr❡t❛♥t♦✱ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r❡s ❞❡ ❣r❛♥❞❡ ♣♦rt❡ sã♦ ❝♦♥str✉í❞♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥✲ t❡s ❡s♣❡❝✐❛❧✐③❛❞♦s ❡ ♣r♦❥❡t❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ tr❛❜❛❧❤❛r❡♠ ❡♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❬❇▼P❙✵✸❪✳ ❊ ❡ss❡s ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s ♥ã♦ ❡✈♦❧✉❡♠ ♥❛ ♠❡s♠❛ ✈❡❧♦❝✐❞❛❞❡ q✉❡ ♦s ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s ❣❡♥ér✐❝♦s ✉t✐❧✐✲ ③❛❞♦s ♥❛ ❝♦♥str✉çã♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r❡s ♣❡ss♦❛✐s ❡ ♣❡q✉❡♥♦s s❡r✈✐❞♦r❡s✱ ♦ q✉❡ ❢❛③ ❝♦♠ q✉❡ ♦ ❝✉st♦✴❜❡♥❡❢í❝✐♦ ❞❡ss❡s ú❧t✐♠♦s s❡❥❛ ♠✉✐t♦ ♠❡❧❤♦r q✉❡ ♦s ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r❡s ❞❡ ❣r❛♥❞❡ ♣♦rt❡✳

❉✐❛♥t❡ ❞❡ss❡ ❢❛t♦✱ ✈❡♠ s✉r❣✐♥❞♦ ✉♠ ✐♥t❡r❡ss❡ ❝r❡s❝❡♥t❡ ❡♠ s✉❜st✐t✉✐r ❡ss❛s ❣r❛♥✲ ❞❡s ♠áq✉✐♥❛s ♣♦r ❣r✉♣♦s ❞❡ ♠áq✉✐♥❛s ❞❡ ❜❛✐①♦ ❝✉st♦✱ ❝♦♥❡❝t❛❞❛s ♣♦r r❡❞❡✱ t❛♠❜é♠ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞♦s ❝♦♠♦ ❝❧✉st❡rs ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r❡s ❬❇▼P❙✵✸❪✳ ❊ss❡ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ s♦❧✉çã♦ ♣♦❞❡ ♣r♦♣♦r❝✐♦♥❛r ❛ ♠❡s♠❛ ❝❛♣❛❝✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ q✉❡ ✉♠ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r ❞❡ ❣r❛♥❞❡ ♣♦rt❡ ❛ ✉♠ ❝✉st♦ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡ ❝❤❡❣❛r ❛ s❡r ✉♠❛ ♦r❞❡♠ ❞❡ ❣r❛♥❞❡③❛ ♠❡♥♦r ❬❚✉r✵✵❪✳ ❖✉tr❛ ✈❛♥t❛❣❡♠ é ❛ ❝❛♣❛❝✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❡①♣❛♥sã♦ ❞❡ss❡ s✐st❡♠❛✿ ♣❛r❛ ❛✉♠❡♥t❛r ♦ ♣♦❞❡r ❞❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❝❧✉st❡r ❜❛st❛ ❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛r ♠❛✐s ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r❡s ❬❇r❡✵✶❪✱ ♦ q✉❡ ♥♦r♠❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ♥ã♦ é tã♦ s✐♠♣❧❡s ❡♠ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r❡s ❞❡ ❣r❛♥❞❡ ♣♦rt❡✳

◆♦ ❡♥t❛♥t♦✱ ✉♠ ❢❛t♦r ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❛✉♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛s ❢❛❧t❛s✶ ♥♦s s✐st❡♠❛s ❝♦♠✲

♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❜❛s❡❛❞♦s ❡♠ ♠áq✉✐♥❛s ❞❡ ❜❛✐①♦ ❝✉st♦ é q✉❡ ❡❧❛s ♥ã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠ ✉♠❛ ❝♦♥✜❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ♠✉✐t♦ ❛❧t❛✱ ❛♦ ❝♦♥trár✐♦ ❞♦s ❣r❛♥❞❡s ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r❡s q✉❡ sã♦ ❝✉✐❞❛❞♦s❛✲ ♠❡♥t❡ ✐♥t❡❣r❛❞♦s✱ r❡s✉❧t❛♥❞♦ ❡♠ s✐st❡♠❛s ❛❧t❛♠❡♥t❡ r♦❜✉st♦s ✭✐ss♦ é ✉♠❛ ❞❛s r❛③õ❡s

❆♥♦♠❛❧✐❛ ♥♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳ P❛r❛ ✉♠❛ ❡①♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ♠❛✐s ❞❡t❛❧❤❛❞❛✱ ✈❡❥❛ ❛ ❙❡çã♦ ✶✳✸✳

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✶✳ ■♥tr♦❞✉çã♦ ✷

❞♦ s❡✉ ❛❧t♦ ❝✉st♦✮✳ ■ss♦ ❢❛③ ❝♦♠ q✉❡ ♦s ❝❧✉st❡rs s♦❢r❛♠ ✉♠❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❢❛❧t❛s ♠✉✐t♦ ♠❛✐♦r q✉❡ ✉♠ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r ❞❡ ❣r❛♥❞❡ ♣♦rt❡✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ ♣❛r❛ ❛♣r♦✈❡✐t❛r ❛ ♠❡❧❤♦r r❡❧❛çã♦ ❝✉st♦✲❜❡♥❡❢í❝✐♦ ❞♦s ❝❧✉st❡rs ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r❡s é ❡ss❡♥❝✐❛❧ ♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ❝❛♣❛③❡s ❞❡ ❧✐❞❛r ❝♦♠ ❢❛❧t❛s ❞✉r❛♥t❡ s✉❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦✳ ❆ ✐♠♣♦rtâ♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ s❡ ❧✐❞❛r ❝♦♠ ❢❛❧t❛s ❡♠ ❝❧✉st❡rs ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✐❧✉str❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ❢❛t♦ ❞❡ ♠✉✐t♦s ♣❡sq✉✐✲ s❛❞♦r❡s ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛r❡♠ ❛ ❝❛♣❛❝✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦❝✉r❛ ●♦♦❣❧❡ ❞❡ ♦♣❡r❛r ❝♦♠ ❝❧✉st❡rs ❝♦♠♣♦st♦s ♣♦r ♠✐❧❤❛r❡s ❞❡ ♠áq✉✐♥❛s ❞❡ ❜❛✐①♦ ❝✉st♦ ✭❡ ❝♦♥s❡qü❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ ❜❛✐①❛ ❝♦♥✜❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡✮ ♠❛✐s ✈❛❧✐♦s❛ q✉❡ ♦ ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛ q✉❡ ❞❡✉ ♦r✐❣❡♠ ❛♦ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ❬◆❡✇✵✺❪✳

❖✉tr♦ ❢❛t♦r q✉❡ ❛✉♠❡♥t❛ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❢❛❧t❛s ♥♦s s✐st❡♠❛s ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❛❞✈é♠ ❞♦ ❢❛t♦ ❞❡ q✉❡✱ q✉❛♥t♦ ♠❛✐s ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s t❡♠ ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛✱ ♠❛✐♦r é ❛ ♣r♦❜❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❞❡❧❡s ❢❛❧❤❛r✳ ❚♦❞♦s ♦s s✐st❡♠❛s ❛t✉❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ t❛♥t♦ ❝❧✉st❡rs q✉❛♥t♦ ❣r❛♥❞❡s s✉♣❡r❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r❡s✱ t❡♥❞❡♠ ❛ t❡r ✉♠ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❝❛❞❛ ✈❡③ ♠❛✐♦r ❞❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛❞♦r❡s✱ ❛✉✲ ♠❡♥t❛♥❞♦ ❛ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❢❛❧t❛s✳ ❚♦❞❛s ❛s q✉✐♥③❡ ♠áq✉✐♥❛s ♥♦ t♦♣♦ ❞❛ ❧✐st❛ ❚♦♣✺✵✵ ❞♦s s✐st❡♠❛s ♠❛✐s rá♣✐❞♦s ❞♦ ♠✉♥❞♦ ❬▼❙❉❙✵✺❪ tê♠ ♠❛✐s ❞❡ ✷✵✵✵ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛✲ ❞♦r❡s ❡ ♦ ❇❧✉❡●❡♥❡✴▲ ❞❛ ■❇▼ t❡♠ ✸✷✼✻✽ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛❞♦r❡s✱ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ♠❛✐♦r q✉❡ ❛s ✶✽✳✵✵✵ ✈á❧✈✉❧❛s ❞♦ ❊◆■❆❈ ✭✈ár✐❛s ❞❡❧❛s q✉❡✐♠❛✈❛♠ t♦❞♦s ♦s ❞✐❛s✱ ❢❛③❡♥❞♦ ❝♦♠ q✉❡ ❡❧❡ ✜✲ ❝❛ss❡ ✐♥❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ♠❡t❛❞❡ ❞♦ t❡♠♣♦ ❬❲✐❦❪✮✳ ❈♦♠ ♦ s✉r❣✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ♠❛❧❤❛s ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ✭●r✐❞s✮✱ ♦♥❞❡ ❛s ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ❡①❡❝✉t❛♠ s♦❜r❡ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❞✐str✐❜✉í❞♦s✱ ❝♦♠♣♦st♦s ♣♦r ✉♠ ❣r❛♥❞❡ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ♠áq✉✐♥❛s ❤❡t❡r♦❣ê♥❡❛s✱ ❛❞♠✐♥✐str❛❞❛s ♣♦r ❞✐✲ ❢❡r❡♥t❡s ✐♥st✐t✉✐çõ❡s ❡ ❝♦♥❡❝t❛❞❛s ♣❡❧❛ ■♥t❡r♥❡t q✉❡ é s✉❥❡✐t❛ ❛ ✈ár✐♦s t✐♣♦s ❞❡ ❢❛❧t❛s ❡ ❛t❛q✉❡s ✐♠♣r❡✈✐sí✈❡✐s✱ ❛ t❛①❛ ❞❡ ❢❛❧t❛s s❡rá ♠✉✐t♦ ♠❛✐♦r✳

❙❡ ♣♦r ✉♠ ❧❛❞♦ ❛ ♣r♦❜❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❢❛❧t❛s é ❝❛❞❛ ✈❡③ ♠❛✐♦r✱ ♣♦r ♦✉tr♦✱ ♠✉✐t♦s ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛s ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ❝✐❡♥tí✜❝❛ ❡stã♦ s❡♥❞♦ ❝♦♥❝❡❜✐❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❡①❡❝✉t❛r ♣♦r ♣❡rí♦✲ ❞♦s ❝❛❞❛ ✈❡③ ♠❛✐♦r❡s✱ ♣♦❞❡♥❞♦ ❝❤❡❣❛r ❛ ❞✐❛s ♦✉ ❛té ♠❡s❡s ❞❡ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦✳ ■ss♦ ❡①✐❣✐rá s✐st❡♠❛s q✉❡ ❝♦♥s✐❣❛♠ ❡①❡❝✉t❛r ❝♦♠♣✉t❛çõ❡s ♣♦r ❧♦♥❣♦s ♣❡rí♦❞♦s s❡♠ ✐♥t❡rr✉♣çã♦✳ Pr♦❣r❛♠❛s ❞❡ ❝❡rt✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❆❞✈❛♥❝❡❞ ❙✐♠✉❧❛t✐♦♥ ❛♥❞ ❈♦♠♣✉t✐♥❣ Pr♦❣r❛♠ ✭❆❙❈✮ ❞♦ ❉❡♣❛rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❊♥❡r❣✐❛ ❞♦s ❊st❛❞♦ ❯♥✐❞♦s ❡ ❞❡ ❝á❧❝✉❧♦ ❞❡ ❡♥♦✈❡❧❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦t❡í♥❛s ❛❜✲✐♥✐t✐♦ ❝♦♠♦ ♦s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❇❧✉❡●❡♥❡✴▲ ❞❛ ■❇▼ ❢♦r❛♠ ❢❡✐t♦s ♣❛r❛ ❡①❡❝✉t❛r❡♠ ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ♠❡s❡s ❛ ✜♦ ❬❇▼P❙✵✸❪✳

❙❡ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛r♠♦s ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ❝♦♠❡r❝✐❛✐s ♦ ❝❡♥ár✐♦ é ❛✐♥❞❛ ♠❛✐s ❝rít✐❝♦✱ ✉♠❛ ✈❡③ q✉❡ ❛ ♠❛✐♦r✐❛ ❞❡❧❛s ✈❡♠ s❡♥❞♦ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞❛ ♥❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❲❡❜✱ ❡①✐❣✐♥❞♦ q✉❡ ❡st❡❥❛♠ ✷✹ ❤♦r❛s ♣♦r ❞✐❛ ❡ ✼ ❞✐❛s ♣♦r s❡♠❛♥❛ ♥♦ ❛r✳ ❉❡♣❡♥❞❡♥❞♦ ❞♦ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦

q✉❛❧q✉❡r ♣❛r❛❞❛✱ ♠❡s♠♦ q✉❡ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛❞❛✱ ♣♦❞❡ ❝✉st❛r ♠✉✐t♦ ❝❛r♦ ❬P❇❇+✵✷❪✳ ❉❡

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✶✳ ■♥tr♦❞✉çã♦ ✸

♠é❞✐❝♦s✱ ✈♦t❛çã♦ ❡❧❡trô♥✐❝❛ ♦✉ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡ ❞❡ trá❢❡❣♦ ❛ér❡♦✱ ❢❛❧❤❛s ❡♠ s✐st❡♠❛s ❞❡ s♦❢t✇❛r❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ ❝❛✉s❛r ❝♦♥s❡qüê♥❝✐❛s ❛✐♥❞❛ ♣✐♦r❡s ❡♠ t❡r♠♦s ❞❡ s❡❣✉r❛♥ç❛✳

❊♥tr❡ ♦s ✈ár✐♦s t✐♣♦s ❞❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ❡①✐st❡♥t❡s✱ ❡st❛♠♦s ✐♥t❡r❡ss❛❞♦s ❡♠ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥✲ t❛r t♦❧❡râ♥❝✐❛ ❛ ❢❛❧t❛s ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛♠❡♥t❡ ♥♦s q✉❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♠ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛çã♦ ✜❧tr♦✲✢✉①♦✳ ◆❡ss❡ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✱ ❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ é r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠ ♣✐♣❡❧✐♥❡ ❞❡ ✜❧tr♦s q✉❡ s❡ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛♠ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ✢✉①♦s✳ ❊ss❡ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ é ♠✉✐t♦ s❡♠❡❧❤❛♥t❡ ❛♦s ♣✐♣❡s ❞♦ ❯♥✐①✱ ❜✉✛❡rs q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ❡s❝r✐t♦s ♣♦r ✉♠ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❡ ❧✐❞♦s ♣♦r ♦✉tr♦✱ ♣♦❞❡♥❞♦ s❡r ✉s❛❞♦s ♥❛ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s ❡ ♣❛r❛ ♠♦♥t❛r ♣✐♣❡❧✐♥❡s ❞❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s✳

P❛r❛ ✐ss♦ ❝r✐❛♠♦s ❛ ❛❜str❛çã♦ ❞❡ t❛r❡❢❛✳ ❯♠❛ t❛r❡❢❛ é ✉♠❛ ❡✈❡♥t♦ ❣❧♦❜❛❧ ❝♦♠ ✐♥í❝✐♦ ❡ ✜♠ ❜❡♠ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦s ❡♠ ❝❛❞❛ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛❞♦r ✭❛tr❛✈és ❞❛s ❝❤❛♠❛❞❛s ❝r❡❛t❡❚❛s❦✭✮ ❡ ❡♥❞❚❛s❦✭✮ ♥♦ ❝ó❞✐❣♦ ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦✮ ♦♥❞❡ é ♣❡r♠✐t✐❞❛ ❛ tr♦❝❛ ❞❡ ♠❡♥s❛❣❡♥s ❝♦♠ ♦✉tr♦s ♣r♦❝❡ss❛❞♦r❡s q✉❡ ❡stã♦ ❡①❡❝✉t❛♥❞♦ ❛ ♠❡s♠❛ t❛r❡❢❛✳

✶✳✶ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦

◆♦ss♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ é q✉❡ ♣❛r❛ ❛♣r♦✈❡✐t❛r ♦ ❣r❛♥❞❡ ❝✉st♦✲❜❡♥❡❢í❝✐♦ ❞❡ s✐st❡♠❛s ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❛❧t♦ ❞❡s❡♠♣❡♥❤♦ ♠♦♥t❛❞♦s ✉s❛♥❞♦ ❤❛r❞✇❛r❡ ❞❡ ♣r❛t❡❧❡✐r❛ é ♥❡❝❡s✲ sár✐♦ q✉❡ ❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ s❡❥❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ t♦❧❡râ♥❝✐❛ ❛ ❢❛❧t❛s✳ P♦ré♠✱ ❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❡ss❛s té❝♥✐❝❛s é ♠✉✐t♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s❛ ❡ ❡①✐st❡ ✉♠ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ♠✉✐t♦ ♣❡q✉❡♥♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛❞♦r❡s ❝♦♠ tr❡✐♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❢♦r♠❛❧ ♥❡ss❛s té❝♥✐❝❛s✳

❆ss✐♠✱ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ é ❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛r t♦❧❡râ♥❝✐❛ ❛ ❢❛❧t❛s ❛ ✉♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛çã♦ ✜❧tr♦✲✢✉①♦✱ ❛❜str❛✐♥❞♦ ♦s ❞❡t❛❧❤❡s ❞❡ t♦❧❡râ♥❝✐❛ ❛ ❢❛❧t❛s ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ♦s ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛❞♦r❡s ♣♦ss❛♠ ❝♦♥str✉✐r ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ❝❛♣❛③❡s ❞❡ ❡①❡❝✉t❛r s♦❜r❡ s✐st❡♠❛s ❝♦♠♣♦st♦s ♣♦r ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s ❞❡ ❜❛✐①♦ ❝✉st♦✱ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ ❢❛❧❤❛r ❛ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ♠♦♠❡♥t♦✱ ♠❡s♠♦ s❡♠ tr❡✐♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❢♦r♠❛❧ ❡♠ t♦❧❡râ♥❝✐❛ ❛ ❢❛❧t❛s✳

✶✳✷ ❈♦♥tr✐❜✉✐çõ❡s ❞♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦

❆ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉✐çã♦ ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ é ✉♠ ♥♦✈♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ t♦❧❡râ♥❝✐❛ ❛ ❢❛❧t❛s ♣♦r ❝❤❡❝❦♣♦✐♥t ❡ r❡❝✉♣❡r❛çã♦ ❜❛s❡❛❞♦ ❡♠ t❛r❡❢❛s✳ ❯♠❛ t❛r❡❢❛ é ✉♠ ❡✈❡♥t♦ ❣❧♦❜❛❧ ❝♦♠ ✐♥í❝✐♦ ❡ ✜♠ ❜❡♠ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦s ❡♠ ❝❛❞❛ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛❞♦r ✭❛tr❛✈és ❞❛s ❝❤❛♠❛❞❛s ♥♦ ❝ó❞✐❣♦ ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦✮ ♦♥❞❡ é ♣❡r♠✐t✐❞❛ ❛ tr♦❝❛ ❞❡ ♠❡♥s❛❣❡♥s ❝♦♠ ♦✉tr♦s ♣r♦❝❡ss❛❞♦r❡s q✉❡ ❡stã♦ ❡①❡❝✉t❛♥❞♦ ❛ ♠❡s♠❛ t❛r❡❢❛✳

❊st❡ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ q✉❡ ❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❝♦♥t✐♥✉❡ ♣r♦❣r❡❞✐♥❞♦ ❡♠ s✉❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❡♥✲

q✉❛♥t♦ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❢❛③ ❛ ❝ó♣✐❛ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡stá✈❡❧✷✱ ♣❛r❛❧❡❧✐③❛♥❞♦

❆r♠❛③❡♥❛♠❡♥t♦ q✉❡ s♦❜r❡✈✐✈❡rá ♠❡s♠♦ q✉❡ ❛❧❣✉♠ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ♦✉ ♠áq✉✐♥❛ ❢❛❧❤❡✳ ❉❡s❝r✐t♦ ♥❛

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✶✳ ■♥tr♦❞✉çã♦ ✹

♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ❊✴❙✳ ◆❡ss❡ ♠♦❞❡❧♦✱ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ ❝❤❡❝❦♣♦✐♥t ♥ã♦ ❜❧♦q✉❡✐❛ ❛ ❡①❡❝✉✲ çã♦ ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ♥❡♠ r❡❞✉③ s✉❛s ♦♣♦rt✉♥✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ❛ss✐♥❝r♦♥✐❛ ✐♠♣♦♥❞♦ ❜❛rr❡✐r❛s ♦✉ ♦✉tr♦s t✐♣♦s ❞❡ s✐♥❝r♦♥✐③❛çã♦✳

❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ❡❧❡ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞♦ ✉s❛♥❞♦ ❝❤❡❝❦♣♦✐♥ts ♥ã♦ ❝♦♦r❞❡♥❛❞♦s s❡♠ ❝♦rr❡r ♦ r✐s❝♦ ❞❡ q✉❡ ♦ ♣❛❞rã♦ ❞❡ tr♦❝❛ ❞❡ ♠❡♥s❛❣❡♥s ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❣❡r❡ ❞❡♣❡♥❞ê♥❝✐❛s ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ✐♥t❡r✈❛❧♦s ❞❡ ❝❤❡❝❦♣♦✐♥ts q✉❡ ❝❛✉s❛r✐❛♠ ✉♠ ❡❢❡✐t♦ ❞♦♠✐♥ó ♥♦ ♠♦♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ r❡❝✉♣❡r❛çã♦✱ ♦❜r✐❣❛♥❞♦ ❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❛ ✈♦❧t❛r ❛♦ s❡✉ ✐♥í❝✐♦✳

✶✳✸ ❈♦♥❝❡✐t♦s

❊①✐st❡ ♠✉✐t❛ ❝♦♥❢✉sã♦ ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ à tr❛❞✉çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ♣♦rt✉❣✉ês ❞♦s t❡r♠♦s té❝♥✐❝♦s ❜ás✐❝♦s ❞❡ t♦❧❡râ♥❝✐❛ ❛ ❢❛❧t❛s ❡♠ ✐♥❣❧ês✿ ❢❛✉❧t ✭❝♦♥❞✐çã♦ ❛♥ô♠❛❧❛✮✱ ❡rr♦r ✭♠❛♥✐❢❡s✲ t❛çã♦ ❞❡ss❛ ❝♦♥❞✐çã♦ ♥♦ s✐st❡♠❛✮ ❡ ❢❛✐❧✉r❡ ✭♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♥ã♦ ❝♦♥s❡❣✉✐r ❝✉♠♣r✐r s✉❛ ✏♠✐ssã♦✑✮✳ ◆❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r❡♠♦s ❛ t❡r♠✐♥♦❧♦❣✐❛ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ♣♦r ❱❡ríss✐♠♦ ❡ ▲❡✲

♠♦s ❬❱❞▲✽✾❪✱ ♦✉ s❡❥❛✱ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r❡♠♦s ❢❛❧t❛→❡rr♦→❢❛❧❤❛ ❝♦♠♦ tr❛❞✉çã♦ ❞❡ ❢❛✉❧t→❡rr♦r→❢❛✐❧✉r❡✳

▼❡s♠♦ q✉❡ ❡ss❛ t❡r♠✐♥♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❡st❡❥❛ ♠❛✐s ❧♦♥❣❡ ❞♦ s❡♥s♦ ❝♦♠✉♠ ❡ ❡①✐st❛♠ tr❛❜❛✲ ❧❤♦s ♠❛✐s r❡❝❡♥t❡s q✉❡ ♣r♦♣õ❡♠ ♠❡t♦❞♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❛❧t❡r♥❛t✐✈❛s✱ ♦ ❛✉t♦r ❞❡st❛ ❞✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛ ❡ss❛ ❛ ♠❡♥♦s ❝♦♥❢✉s❛✳ ❆ s❡❣✉✐r ❡ss❡s ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦s s❡rã♦ ❡①♣❧✐❝❛❞♦s ♠❛✐s ❞❡✲ t❛❧❤❛❞❛♠❡♥t❡✿

❚♦❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♣♦ss✉✐ ✉♠❛ ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛çã♦ q✉❡ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡ s❡✉ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦✳ ❈❛s♦ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❝✉♠♣r❛ s✉❛ ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛çã♦✱ ❡❧❡ é ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞♦ ❝♦rr❡t♦✳ ■♥❢❡❧✐③♠❡♥t❡ é ❡①tr❡♠❛✲ ♠❡♥t❡ ❞✐❢í❝✐❧ ❝♦♥str✉✐r s✐st❡♠❛s ❝♦♠♣❧❡①♦s q✉❡ s❡ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❡♠ ❞❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❝♦rr❡t❛ t♦❞♦ ♦ t❡♠♣♦ ❞❡✈✐❞♦ à ❣r❛♥❞❡ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛s q✉❡ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♣♦❞❡ r❡❝❡❜❡r ❡ ❞❡ ❡st❛❞♦s q✉❡ ❡❧❡ ♣♦❞❡ t❡r✳ ❆ss✐♠ ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ ♣♦❞❡ r❡❝❡❜❡r ✉♠❛ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ ♦✉ s♦❢r❡r ✉♠❛ ♣❡rt✉r❜❛çã♦ q✉❡ ♦ ❧❡✈❡ ❛ s❡ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛r ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡ ❞❛ ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛❞❛✳ ◗✉❛♥❞♦ ✐ss♦ ❛❝♦♥t❡❝❡✱ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛♠♦s q✉❡ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❢❛❧❤♦✉ ❬▼❙✾✷✱ ❈r✐✾✶❪✳

❯♠❛ ❢❛❧t❛ é ✉♠❛ ❝♦♥❞✐çã♦ ❛♥ô♠❛❧❛✱ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡ ❝❛✉s❛r ❛ ❢❛❧❤❛ ❞❡ ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛✳ ❋❛❧t❛s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ❝❛✉s❛❞❛s ♣♦r ❞✐stúr❜✐♦ ❡①t❡r♥♦ ✭✐♥t❡♥❝✐♦♥❛❧ ♦✉ ♥ã♦✮✱ ❢❛❞✐❣❛✱ ❞❡❢❡✐t♦ ❞❡ ❢❛❜r✐❝❛çã♦✱ ❡rr♦ ❞❡ ❝♦❞✐✜❝❛çã♦ ♦✉ ❡✈❡♥t♦ ♥ã♦ ♣r❡✈✐st♦ ♥♦ ♣r♦❥❡t♦ ✭❡rr♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦❥❡t♦✮✳ ❆❧❣✉♠❛s ✈❡③❡s ♦❝♦rr❡ ❛❧❣✉♠❛ ❢❛❧t❛ ❡ ♦s ♣ró♣r✐♦s ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s ♦✉ s✉❜s✐st❡♠❛s ❝♦♥s❡❣✉❡♠ tr❛tá✲❧❛✳ ◆❡ss❡ ❝❛s♦ ❡❧❛ s❡ t♦r♥❛ ✉♠❛ ❢❛❧t❛ ♠❛s❝❛r❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦ r❡st♦ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳ P♦ré♠ ♠✉✐t❛s ✈❡③❡s ✐ss♦ ♥ã♦ ❛❝♦♥t❡❝❡ ❡ ♦ ❡s❝♦♣♦ ❞❛ ❢❛❧t❛ ✉❧tr❛♣❛ss❛ ♦s ❧✐♠✐t❡s ❞❡ ✉♠ ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡✱ s❡ ♠❛♥✐❢❡st❛♥❞♦ ❡♠ ♦✉tr❛s ♣❛rt❡s ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳ ◗✉❛♥❞♦ ✐ss♦ ❛❝♦♥t❡❝❡ t❡♠♦s ✉♠ ❡rr♦✳

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✶✳ ■♥tr♦❞✉çã♦ ✺

❊ss❛s ❞✉❛s ú❧t✐♠❛s ♣r♦♣r✐❡❞❛❞❡s sã♦ ❝❤❛♠❛❞❛s ❞❡ ✈✐t❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❡ s❡❣✉r❛♥ç❛ ❬●är✾✾❪✳ ❱✐t❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ✭❧✐✈❡♥❡ss✮ é ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❝♦♥t✐♥✉❛r ❛ r❡s♣♦♥❞❡r r❡q✉✐s✐çõ❡s✱ ♦✉ s❡❥❛✱ ❝♦♥t✐♥✉❛r ❛ s❡ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛r ❝♦♠♦ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡ ❛ s✉❛ ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛çã♦✱ r❡❛❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ❛ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡ ♣❛r❛ ❛ q✉❛❧ ❢♦✐ ❝♦♥str✉í❞♦ ✭s✉❛ ♠✐ssã♦✮✳ ❙❡❣✉r❛♥ç❛ ✭s❛❢❡t②✮ ❝♦♥s✐st❡ ❡♠ ❡✈✐t❛r q✉❡ ✉♠❛ ❢❛❧t❛ ❢❛ç❛ ❝♦♠ q✉❡ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ t♦♠❡ ❛çõ❡s ♣❡r✐❣♦s❛s ❝♦♠♦ ❡♥tr❛r ❡♠ ✉♠ ❡st❛❞♦ ✐♥✈á❧✐❞♦✱ ❡♠✐t✐r ✉♠❛ s❛í❞❛ ❡rr❛❞❛✱ ♦✉ ❞✐s♣❛r❛r ❝♦♠❛♥❞♦s q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ ❝♦♠♣r♦♠❡t❡r ♦✉tr♦s s✐st❡♠❛s ♦✉ ❢❡r✐r ♣❡ss♦❛s✳ ❆♣❡s❛r ❞♦ t❡r♠♦ s❡r ✏s❡❣✉r❛♥ç❛✑✱ ♥ã♦ ❡stá ♥❡ss❡ ❡s❝♦♣♦ ✭s❛❢❡t②✮ ❧✐❞❛r ❝♦♠ ❢❛❧t❛s ❝❛✉s❛❞❛s ✐♥t❡♥❝✐♦♥❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ❝♦♠♦ ✐♥✈❛sõ❡s✱ r♦✉❜♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♦✉ ❛t❛q✉❡s ❞❡ ♥❡❣❛çã♦ ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ✭❞❡♥✐❛❧ ♦❢ s❡r✈✐❝❡✮✳ ❆ ár❡❛ ❞❡ ❡st✉❞♦ q✉❡ t❡♥t❛ ❡✈✐t❛r ❢❛❧t❛s ✐♥t❡♥❝✐♦♥❛✐s é s❡❝✉r✐t② ✭q✉❡ t❛♠❜é♠ é tr❛❞✉③✐❞❛ ❝♦♠♦ s❡❣✉r❛♥ç❛✮ ❬❱❞▲✽✾❪✳

❚♦❞❛s ❡ss❛s té❝♥✐❝❛s ❝♦♥s✐st❡♠ ❡♠ r❡♣❧✐❝❛r ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ ❢❛❧❤❛r✱ ❝❛✉s❛♥❞♦ ❛ ❢❛❧t❛ ♥♦ s✐st❡♠❛✱ ♦✉ ❢❛③❡r r❡♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ t❡♠♣♦r❛❧ ✭❝❛s♦ ✉♠ ❝♦♠✲ ♣♦♥❡♥t❡ ❢❛❧❤❡✱ r❡❡①❡❝✉t❛✲s❡ ❛ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ q✉❡ ❡❧❡ ❡st❛✈❛ ❢❛③❡♥❞♦✮✳ ❆ ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛ ♦♣✲ çã♦ ❣❡r❛❧♠❡♥t❡ é ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞❛ ✉s❛♥❞♦✲s❡ ❤❛r❞✇❛r❡ r❡❞✉♥❞❛♥t❡✱ ♦ q✉❡ t❡♥❞❡ ❛ s❡ t♦r♥❛r ♠✉✐t♦ ❝❛r♦✳ ❆ s❡❣✉♥❞❛ é ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦✲s❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ r❡❞✉♥✲ ❞â♥❝✐❛ ♣♦r s♦❢t✇❛r❡✱ t❛✐s ❝♦♠♦ ❝❛♠❛❞❛s ❞❡ ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❡st❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ r❡♣❧✐❝❛✲ çã♦ ❬▲❋✵✸✱ ●r✐✵✶❪✱ ♣♦♥t♦s ❞❡ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡ ✭❝❤❡❝❦♣♦✐♥ts✮ ♦♥❞❡ ♦ ❡st❛❞♦ ❞❛ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ é r❡♣❧✐❝❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ s❡r r❡❝✉♣❡r❛❞♦ ♥❛ ♦❝♦rrê♥❝✐❛ ❝❛s♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❢❛❧t❛ ❬❊❆❲❏✵✷✱ ❇▼P❙✵✸❪❀ r❡✐♥í❝✐♦ ❞❡ s✉❜s✐st❡♠❛s ❢❛❧t♦s♦s ♣❛r❛ tr❛③ê✲❧♦s ❞❡ ✈♦❧t❛ ❛ ✉♠ ❡st❛❞♦ ❜❡♠ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞♦ ✭♦ ❡st❛❞♦ ✐♥✐❝✐❛❧✮✱ té❝♥✐❝❛ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ♥♦♠❡ ❞❡ ♠✐❝r♦r❡❜♦♦ts r❡❝✉rs✐✈♦s ❬❈❋✵✶✱ ❈❋✵✸✱

❈❈❋✵✹✱ P❇❇+✵✷❪ ♦✉ s✐♠♣❧❡s r❡❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛çõ❡s q✉❡ ❢♦r❛♠ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛s ♣♦r

❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s q✉❡ ❢❛❧❤❛r❛♠ ❬❉●✵✹❪✳

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✶✳ ■♥tr♦❞✉çã♦ ✻

❚é❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ♣♦♥t♦s ❞❡ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡ ❡ r❡❝✉♣❡r❛çã♦ ♣♦r r♦❧❧❜❛❝❦ ❝♦♥s✐st❡♠ ❡♠ r❡❝✉♣❡r❛r ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❢❛❧t❛✱ tr❛③❡♥❞♦✲♦ ❞❡ ✈♦❧t❛ ❛ ✉♠ ❡st❛❞♦ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r ❛ ❡❧❛✳ ❊❧❛s tr❛t❛♠ ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞✐str✐❜✉í❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s q✉❡ s❡ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛♠ tr♦❝❛♥❞♦ ♠❡♥s❛❣❡♥s ♣♦r ✉♠❛ r❡❞❡✳ ❆ t♦❧❡râ♥❝✐❛ ❛ ❢❛❧t❛s é ❝♦♥s❡❣✉✐❞❛ s❛❧✈❛♥❞♦ ♣❡r✐♦❞✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡ ♦ ❡st❛❞♦ ❞♦s ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ✉♠❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ♥♦r♠❛❧✳ ◆❛ ♦❝♦rrê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❢❛❧t❛✱ ♦s ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s ❛❢❡t❛❞♦s sã♦ r❡✐♥✐❝✐❛❞♦s ❞❡ ✉♠ ❞❡ s❡✉s ❡st❛❞♦s s❛❧✈♦s✱ r❡❞✉③✐♥❞♦ ❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ♣❡r❞✐❞❛✳ ❈❛❞❛ ❡st❛❞♦ s❛❧✈♦ é ❝❤❛♠❛❞♦ ❞❡ ♣♦♥t♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡✳

❖ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ é ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛r ♣♦♥t♦s ❞❡ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡ ❡ r❡❝✉♣❡r❛çã♦ ♣♦r r♦❧❧❜❛❝❦ ♣❛r❛ s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♣♦r ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ❝♦♥str✉í❞❛s s♦❜r❡ ♦ ❆♥t❤✐❧❧✳ ❯♠❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❡①❡❝✉t❛♥❞♦ s♦❜r❡ ♦ ❆♥t❤✐❧❧ é ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞✐str✐❜✉í❞♦✱ ♦♥❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ✜❧tr♦ é ✉♠ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❡ ✉♠ ✢✉①♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❞♦✐s ✜❧tr♦s é ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❝❛♥❛✐s ✉♥✐✲ ❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛✐s✱ ❝✉❥❛ ❞✐r❡çã♦ é ❛ ❞✐r❡çã♦ ❞♦ ✢✉①♦✿ ❞❡ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❞♦ ✜❧tr♦ q✉❡ ❡s❝r❡✈❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♥♦ ✢✉①♦ ♣❛r❛ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❞♦ ✜❧tr♦ q✉❡ ❧ê ❞❛❞♦s ❞♦ ✢✉①♦ ✭❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✳✶✮✳

✭❛✮ ❈❤❡❝❦♣♦✐♥t ❝♦♥s✐st❡♥t❡ ❝♦♠ ♠❡♥✲

s❛❣❡♠ ❡♠ trâ♥s✐t♦ ✭❜✮ ❈❤❡❝❦♣♦✐♥t ✐♥❝♦♥s✐st❡♥t❡

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✳✷✿ ▲✐♥❤❛s ❞❡ ❝❤❡❝❦♣♦✐♥t

❖ ❡st❛❞♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞✐str✐❜✉í❞♦ é ❝♦♥st✐t✉í❞♦ ❞♦ ❡st❛❞♦ ❞❡ t♦❞♦s ♦s ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s q✉❡ ♦ ❝♦♥st✐t✉❡♠ ♠❛✐s ♦ ❡st❛❞♦ ❞♦s ❝❛♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❡❧❡s✳ ❖ ❡st❛❞♦ ❞♦s ❝❛♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çã♦ é ❝♦♥st✐t✉í❞♦ ♣❡❧❛s ♠❡♥s❛❣❡♥s ❡♠ trâ♥s✐t♦ ✭❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✳✷✭❛✮✮✳ ❈♦♠♦ ♦ ♣ró♣r✐♦ ♥♦♠❡ ❞✐③✱ ♠❡♥s❛❣❡♥s ❡♠ trâ♥s✐t♦ sã♦ ♠❡♥s❛❣❡♥s q✉❡ ❢♦r❛♠ ❡♥✈✐❛❞❛s ♠❛s ❛✐♥❞❛ ♥ã♦ ❝❤❡❣❛r❛♠ ❛♦ ❞❡st✐♥❛tár✐♦✳

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✶✳ ■♥tr♦❞✉çã♦ ✼

❙✐st❡♠❛s ❞✐str✐❜✉í❞♦s ❝♦♠♣❧✐❝❛♠ ❛ r❡❝✉♣❡r❛çã♦ ♣♦r r♦❧❧❜❛❝❦ ❞❡✈✐❞♦ ❛♦ ❢❛t♦ ❞❡ ❣❡✲ r❛r❡♠ ❞❡♣❡♥❞ê♥❝✐❛s ❡♥tr❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ✉♠❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ♥♦r♠❛❧✳ ◗✉❛♥❞♦ ❛❧❣✉♠ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ s♦❢r❡ ✉♠❛ ❢❛❧t❛✱ ❡ss❛s ❞❡♣❡♥❞ê♥❝✐❛s ♣♦❞❡♠ ❢♦rç❛r ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s q✉❡ ♥ã♦ s♦❢r❡✲ r❛♠ ❢❛❧t❛s ❛ ✈♦❧t❛r ❛trás✱ ❝r✐❛♥❞♦ ♦ q✉❡ é ❝❤❛♠❛❞♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦♣❛❣❛çã♦ ❞❡ r♦❧❧❜❛❝❦✳ ◆♦ ♣✐♦r ❝❛s♦✱ ❛ ♣r♦♣❛❣❛çã♦ ❞❡ r♦❧❧❜❛❝❦ ♣♦❞❡ ❝❤❡❣❛r ❛té ♦ ❡st❛❞♦ ✐♥✐❝✐❛❧ ❞❛ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦✱ ♣❡r❞❡♥❞♦ t♦❞♦ ♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ❛♥t❡s ❞❛ ❢❛❧t❛✳ ❊st❛ s✐t✉❛çã♦ é ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞❛ ❝♦♠♦ ❡❢❡✐t♦ ❞♦♠✐♥ó ❬❘❛♥✼✺✱ ❊❆❲❏✵✷❪✳

P❛r❛ ✈❡r ♣♦r q✉❡ ❛ ♣r♦♣❛❣❛çã♦ ❞❡ r♦❧❧❜❛❝❦ ♦❝♦rr❡✱ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❡ ✉♠❛ s✐t✉❛çã♦ ♦♥❞❡ ♦ r❡♠❡t❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ♠❡♥s❛❣❡♠ ♠ ✈♦❧t❛ ❛trás ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ ❡st❛❞♦ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r ❛♦ ❡♥✈✐♦ ❞❡ ♠✳ ■ss♦ ❢♦rç❛ ♦ ❞❡st✐♥❛tár✐♦ ❛ ✈♦❧t❛r t❛♠❜é♠ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ ❡st❛❞♦ ❛♥t❡r✐♦r à r❡❝❡♣çã♦ ❞❡ ♠✱ ❝❛s♦ ❝♦♥trár✐♦ ♦s ❡st❛❞♦s ❞♦s ❞♦✐s ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s ❢♦r♠❛r✐❛♠ ✉♠ ❡st❛❞♦ ❣❧♦❜❛❧ ✐♥❝♦♥s✐st❡♥t❡ ✭❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✳✷✭❜✮✮ ♣♦✐s✱ s❡❣✉♥❞♦ ❡❧❡s✱ ❛ ♠❡♥s❛❣❡♠ ♠ ❢♦✐ r❡❝❡❜✐❞❛ s❡♠ t❡r s✐❞♦ ❡♥✈✐❛❞❛✱ ♦ q✉❡ é ✐♠♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ s❡♠ ❢❛❧t❛s✳ P❛r❛ ✐ss♦ ♥ã♦ ❛❝♦♥t❡❝❡r✱ ♦s ❡st❛❞♦s ❞♦s ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s ❞❡✈❡♠ ❢♦r♠❛r ✉♠ ❡st❛❞♦ ❣❧♦❜❛❧ ❝♦♥s✐st❡♥t❡✱ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡r✐❛ ❡①✐st✐r ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ s❡♠ ❢❛❧t❛s✳

❯♠❛ ✈❡③ q✉❡ ❛s ❞❡♣❡♥❞ê♥❝✐❛s ♥❡♠ s❡♠♣r❡ ♣❡r♠✐t❡♠ q✉❡ ♦s ❡st❛❞♦s ♠❛✐s r❡❝❡♥t❡s ❞❡ t♦❞♦s ♦s ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s s❡❥❛♠ ❛♣r♦✈❡✐t❛❞♦s ♥❛ r❡❝✉♣❡r❛çã♦✱ ❢♦✐ ❝r✐❛❞♦ ♦ ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦ ❞❡ ❧✐♥❤❛ ❞❡ r❡❝✉♣❡r❛çã♦✳ ❆ ❧✐♥❤❛ ❞❡ r❡❝✉♣❡r❛çã♦ é ♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❡st❛❞♦s ❧♦❝❛✐s ❞❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s q✉❡ s❡rã♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♥❛ r❡❝✉♣❡r❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❡st❛❞♦ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛✳ ❙❡ ✉♠ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❣r❛✈❛ ✉♠ ♣♦♥t♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡ q✉❡ ❞❡♣❡♥❞❡ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ♠❡♥s❛❣❡♠ ❝✉❥♦ ❡♥✈✐♦ ❛♥❞❛ ♥ã♦ ❢♦✐ r❡❣✐str❛❞♦✱ ❡❧❡ ♥ã♦ ♣♦❞❡rá ❢❛③❡r ♣❛rt❡ ❞❛ ❧✐♥❤❛ ❞❡ r❡❝✉♣❡r❛çã♦✳

✶✳✹ ❖r❣❛♥✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ t❡①t♦

❊st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❡stá ❞✐✈✐❞✐❞♦ ❡♠ ✼ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦s✳ ❖ r❡st♦ ❞❡❧❡ ❡stá ♦r❣❛♥✐③❛❞♦ ❞❛ s❡❣✉✐♥t❡ ❢♦r♠❛✿

❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✷✳ ❬❈♦♥❝❡✐t♦s ❡ ❚r❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❘❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s❪ ◆❡st❡ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦✱ s❡rã♦ ✐♥✲ tr♦❞✉③✐❞♦s ♦s ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♥❛ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛ ❞❡ t♦❧❡râ♥❝✐❛ ❛ ❢❛❧t❛s ❡ ❞✐s❝✉✲ t✐❞♦s ❛❧❣✉♥s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s✳

❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✸✳ ❬▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❆♥t❤✐❧❧❪ ◆❡st❡ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦ s❡rã♦ ❛♣r❡✲ s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❆♥t❤✐❧❧ ❡ ❛s ❡①t❡♥sõ❡s ❝r✐❛❞❛s ♥❡ss❡ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ♣♦ss❛ ❧✐❞❛r ❝♦♠ t♦❧❡râ♥❝✐❛ ❛ ❢❛❧t❛s✳

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✶✳ ■♥tr♦❞✉çã♦ ✽

❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✺✳ ❬■♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦❪ ❊st❡ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦ ❞❡t❛❧❤❛ ♦s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s✱ ♣r♦t♦❝♦❧♦s ❡ ❛s ❡str✉t✉r❛s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♥❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ t♦❧❡râ♥❝✐❛ ❛ ❢❛❧t❛s ❞♦ ❆♥t❤✐❧❧✳

❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✻✳ ❬❊①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s❪ ❆q✉✐ sã♦ ❞❡s❝r✐t♦s ♦s ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡ ♠❡❞✐çã♦ ❞❡ ❞❡s❡♠♣❡♥❤♦ ❡ ✐♥❥❡çã♦ ❞❡ ❢❛❧t❛s✱ ❜❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❛ ♠❡t♦❞♦❧♦❣✐❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ♥❛ ❛✈❛✲ ❧✐❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❞❡s❡♠♣❡♥❤♦ ❡ ❞❛ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ t♦❧❡râ♥❝✐❛ ❛ ❢❛❧t❛s ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞♦✳

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❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✷

❚r❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❘❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s

◆❡st❡ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛r❡♠♦s ♦s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s à t♦❧❡râ♥❝✐❛ ❛ ❢❛❧t❛s ♥♦ ❆♥t❤✐❧❧✳ ❊st❡ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦ ❡stá ❞✐✈✐❞✐❞♦ ❡♠ ❞✉❛s ♣❛rt❡s✿ ♥❛ ❙❡çã♦ ✷✳✶ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛r❡♠♦s ♠✐❞❞❧❡✇❛r❡s ❝♦♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛çã♦ ♣❛r❡❝✐❞♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❞♦ ❆♥t❤✐❧❧ ❡ ♥❛ ❙❡çã♦ ✷✳✷ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛r❡♠♦s ♠❡❝❛♥✐s♠♦s ❞❡ t♦❧❡râ♥❝✐❛ ❛ ❢❛❧t❛s q✉❡ ❢♦r❛♠ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞♦s ❡♠ ♦✉tr♦s s✐st❡♠❛s ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ❞✐str✐❜✉í❞❛ ❡①✐st❡♥t❡s ♥❛ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛✳

✷✳✶ ❚r❛❜❛❧❤♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ♦ ❆♥t❤✐❧❧

◆❡ss❛ s❡çã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛r❡♠♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❞❡ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛çã♦ ❞✐str✐❜✉í❞❛ ❝♦♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛çã♦ s❡♠❡❧❤❛♥t❡ ❛♦ ❞♦ ❆♥t❤✐❧❧✳ ◆❛ ❙❡çã♦ ✷✳✶✳✶ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡r❡♠♦s ♦ ❉❛t❛❈✉t✲ t❡r✱ ✉♠ ♠✐❞❞❧❡✇❛r❡ ❝✉❥♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛çã♦✱ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ✜❧tr♦✲✢✉①♦✱ ❢♦✐ ❡st❡♥❞✐❞♦

♣❡❧♦ ❆♥t❤✐❧❧ ❬❋❏●+✵✺✱ ❱❏❋+✵✹❪✱ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ s♦❜r❡ ♦ q✉❛❧ ❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛

t♦❧❡râ♥❝✐❛ ❛ ❢❛❧t❛s✳ ◆❛ ❙❡çã♦ ✷✳✶✳✷ s❡rá ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♦ ▼❛♣❘❡❞✉❝❡✱ ✉♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ❞✐str✐❜✉í❞❛ ❡♠ ❧❛r❣❛ ❡s❝❛❧❛ ❛♠♣❧❛♠❡♥t❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♥♦ ●♦♦❣❧❡ ❡ ✜♥❛❧✲ ♠❡♥t❡ s❡rá ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♦ ❇♦r❡❛❧✐s✱ ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✢✉①♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❞✐str✐❜✉í❞♦ ❡♠ t❡♠♣♦ r❡❛❧✳

✷✳✶✳✶ ❉❛t❛❈✉tt❡r

❖ ❉❛t❛❈✉tt❡r ❬❇❑❈+✵✶✱ ❇❈❈+✵✷✱ ❆❑❙❙✵✶✱ ◆❈❑+✵✸✱ ◆❑❈❙✵✸✱ ❙❋❇+✵✷❪ é ✉♠

♠✐❞❞❧❡✇❛r❡ ♣❛r❛ ❡①♣❧♦r❛çã♦ ❡ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡ ❜❛s❡s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❝✐❡♥tí✜❝❛s ❡♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❞✐str✐❜✉í❞♦s ❡ ❤❡t❡r♦❣ê♥❡♦s✳ ❙❡✉ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛çã♦✱ ❝❤❛♠❛❞♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛çã♦ ✜❧tr♦✲✢✉①♦✱ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠ ♣✐♣❡❧✐♥❡ ❞❡ ✜❧tr♦s✳ ❈❛❞❛ ✜❧tr♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❡①❡❝✉t❛❞♦ ❡♠ ✈ár✐❛s ♠áq✉✐♥❛s ❡♠ ✉♠❛ r❡❞❡✳ ❆ tr♦❝❛ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♥tr❡ ❞♦✐s ✜❧tr♦s é ❢❡✐t❛ ♠❡❞✐❛♥t❡ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❡ ✢✉①♦s✱ q✉❡ sã♦ ❝❛♥❛✐s ✉♥✐✲❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛✐s q✉❡ ❡♥✈✐❛♠ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❜✉✛❡rs ❞❡ t❛♠❛♥❤♦ ✜①♦✳

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✷✳ ❚r❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❘❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ✶✵

❖ ❉❛t❛❈✉tt❡r ♣r♦✈ê ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❜ás✐❝♦ ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛r ♦✉tr♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ♠❛✐s ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦s ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ♦✉ s❡r ❝♦♠❜✐♥❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ♠❛❧❤❛s ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ✭❣r✐❞s✮ ❝♦♠♦ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ♠❡t❛❞❛❞♦s✱ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ r❡❝✉rs♦s ❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ❛✉t❡♥t✐❝❛çã♦✳ P♦ré♠✱ ♦ ❉❛t❛❈✉tt❡r ❛✐♥❞❛ ♥ã♦ t❡♠ ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ t♦❧❡râ♥❝✐❛ ❛ ❢❛❧t❛s✳

✷✳✶✳✷ ▼❛♣❘❡❞✉❝❡

❖ ▼❛♣❘❡❞✉❝❡ ❬❉●✵✹❪ é ✉♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ❞✐str✐❜✉í❞❛s ♣❛r❛ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❧❛r❣❛ ❡s❝❛❧❛ ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ❉❛t❛❈✉tt❡r ❡ ♦ ❆♥t❤✐❧❧✳ ❖s três sã♦ ❜❛st❛♥t❡ ♣❛r❡❝✐❞♦s ❡♠ t❡r♠♦s ❞❡ ♠♦❞♦ ❞❡ ♦♣❡r❛çã♦✿ ❛♠❜♦s ♣♦ss✉❡♠ ✉♠ ❣❡r❡♥t❡ q✉❡ ❢❛③ ❛ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐çã♦ ❡ ❡s❝❛❧♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❡♠ ✈ár✐❛s ♠áq✉✐♥❛s ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛r ♦ st❛t✉s ❞❛ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ❡ ❢❛③❡r ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ ❞❡ ❢❛❧t❛s✳

❆♠❜♦s ❢❛③❡♠ ♣❛r❛❧❡❧✐③❛çã♦ ❛✉t♦♠át✐❝❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ♦ ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦ ❞❡ ❝ó♣✐❛s tr❛♥s✲ ♣❛r❡♥t❡s✳ ❖ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈❡❞♦r ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛ ❝♦♠♦ s❡ ❡st✐✈❡ss❡ ❢❛③❡♥❞♦ ✉♠ ❝ó❞✐❣♦ s❡qü❡♥❝✐❛❧✱ ♣♦ré♠ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ✐♥✐❝✐❛rá ✈ár✐❛s ❝ó♣✐❛s ❞♦ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛ ✭q✉❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤❛rã♦ ❡♠ ♣❛r❛❧❡❧♦✮ ❡ ❧✐❞❛rá ❝♦♠ ♦s ❞❡t❛❧❤❡s ❞❡ tr♦❝❛ ❞❡ ♠❡♥s❛❣❡♥s ❡♥tr❡ ♦s ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s ❡ s✐♥❝r♦♥✐③❛çã♦ ✭♠❡s♠♦ q✉❡ ✐♠♣❧í❝✐t❛✮✳

❆s s✐♠✐❧❛r✐❞❛❞❡s ♥ã♦ ❛❝❛❜❛♠ ♣♦r ❛í✿ ✉♠❛ ✐♥♦✈❛çã♦ ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞❛ ♥♦ ❆♥t❤✐❧❧ ❡♠ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❛♦ ❉❛t❛❈✉tt❡r é ♦ ✢✉①♦ r♦t✉❧❛❞♦✳ ◆♦ ✢✉①♦ r♦t✉❧❛❞♦ ♦ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛❞♦r ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ✐♥❞✐❝❛ ✉♠❛ ❢✉♥çã♦ q✉❡ ❡①tr❛✐ ✉♠ rót✉❧♦ ❞❛ ♠❡♥s❛❣❡♠ q✉❡ s❡rá ✉s❛❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ❝❤❛✈❡ ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ❢✉♥çã♦ ❤❛s❤ q✉❡ ✐rá r♦t❡á✲❧❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛❧❣✉♠ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛❞♦r ❞❛ ♠❡s♠❛ ❢♦r♠❛ q✉❡ ♥♦ ▼❛♣❘❡❞✉❝❡ ♦ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛❞♦r ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❣❡r❛ ✈❛❧♦r❡s ✐♥t❡r♠❡❞✐ár✐♦s ♥❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡ ♣❛r❡s ❝❤❛✈❡✴✈❛❧♦r q✉❡ sã♦ r♦t❡❛❞♦s ♣❡❧❛ ❝❤❛✈❡✳

◆♦ ▼❛♣❘❡❞✉❝❡✱ ♦s ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ sã♦ ❞✐✈✐❞✐❞♦s ❡♠ ❞♦✐s t✐♣♦s✿ ♦s ❞❡ ♠❛♣❡❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ♦s ❞❡ r❡❞✉çã♦✳ ❖s ✈❛❧♦r❡s ✐♥t❡r♠❡❞✐ár✐♦s sã♦ ❞❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❝❤❛✈❡✴✈❛❧♦r ❡ ♦s t♦❞♦s ♦s ✈❛❧♦r❡s ❝♦♠ ❛ ♠❡s♠❛ ❝❤❛✈❡ ♣r♦❞✉③✐❞♦s ♣♦r t♦❞♦s ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s ❞❡ ♠❛♣❡❛♠❡♥t♦ ✈ã♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♠❡s♠♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ r❡❞✉t♦r✳ ■ss♦ é ♦ ❡q✉✐✈❛❧❡♥t❡ ❛ ✉♠❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❆♥t❤✐❧❧ ♣❛r❛ ❢❛③❡r r❡❞✉çã♦✳ ❊ss❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ t❡r✐❛ ✷ ✜❧tr♦s✿ ♦ ♠❛♣❡❛❞♦r ❡ ♦ r❡❞✉t♦r✱ ♦ ♠❛♣❡❛❞♦r ❧ê ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ ❡ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ✐♥t❡r♠❡❞✐ár✐♦s sã♦ ❡♥✈✐❛❞♦s ♥❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡ ♠❡♥s❛❣❡♥s ❡♠ ✉♠ ✢✉①♦ r♦t✉❧❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ✜❧tr♦ r❡❞✉t♦r q✉❡ ❣❡r❛ ❛ r❡s♣♦st❛ ✜♥❛❧✳

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✷✳ ❚r❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❘❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ✶✶

❛❧✐③❛r ♦ ♠❛♣❡❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡♠ ♣❛r❛❧❡❧♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ r❡❞✉çã♦ ✭✉♠❛ ❞❛s ❢♦r♠❛s ❞❡ ♣❛r❛❧❡❧✐③❛çã♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ♣❡❧♦ ❆♥t❤✐❧❧✮✳ ❆❧é♠ ❞✐ss♦✱ ♦ ▼❛♣❘❡❞✉❝❡ r❡❛❧✐③❛ ❛♣❡♥❛s ❛ ♦♣❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ r❡❞✉çã♦ ❞✐str✐❜✉í❞❛✱ ❥á ♦ ❉❛t❛❈✉tt❡r ❡ ♦ ❆♥t❤✐❧❧ sã♦ ♠❛✐s ❣❡r❛✐s✱ ♣❡r♠✐t✐♥❞♦ ♠❛✐s ♦♣❡r❛çõ❡s ❛❧é♠ ❞❛ ❝♦♠♣♦s✐çã♦ ❞❡ ♣✐♣❡❧✐♥❡s ♠❛✐s ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦s q✉❡ ❞♦✐s ✜❧tr♦s ❧✐❣❛❞♦s ♣♦r ✉♠ ✢✉①♦✳

❆ t♦❧❡râ♥❝✐❛ ❛ ❢❛❧t❛s ♥♦ ▼❛♣❘❡❞✉❝❡ é ❢❡✐t❛ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ r❡❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞❛s ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s q✉❡ ❡st❛✈❛♠ ♥❛s ♠áq✉✐♥❛s q✉❡ ❢❛❧❤❛r❛♠✳ ❈❛s♦ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ s❡❥❛ ❞❡ ♠❛✲ ♣❡❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ❥á t❡♥❤❛ t❡r♠✐♥❛❞♦✱ ♦ ♠❡str❡ ♥♦t✐✜❝❛rá ♦s r❡❞✉t♦r❡s q✉❡ ❡st❛✈❛♠ ❧❡♥❞♦ ❞❛❞♦s ♥♦ ❞✐s❝♦ ❞❛ ♠áq✉✐♥❛ q✉❡ ❢❛❧❤♦✉ ♣❛r❛ ❧❡r❡♠ ❞❛ ♠áq✉✐♥❛ q✉❡ ❡stá r❡❡①❡❝✉t❛♥❞♦ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦✳

❆ ❝♦♥s❡qü❡♥t❡ ❢❛❝✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛çã♦ ❡ ❞❡ t♦❧❡râ♥❝✐❛ ❛ ❢❛❧t❛s ♥♦ ▼❛♣❘❡❞✉❝❡ t❡♠ ♦ ❝✉st♦ ❞❡ ✐♠♣♦r ✉♠❛ s✐♥❝r♦♥✐❛ ♠✉✐t♦ ❛❧t❛ à ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦✱ ♦ q✉❡ ❛❝❛❜❛ ❞✐♠✐♥✉✐♥❞♦ ❛ s✉❛ ❡✜❝✐ê♥❝✐❛✳ ❯♠ ❞♦s r❡q✉✐s✐t♦s q✉❡ t✐✈❡♠♦s ♠✉✐t♦ ❝✉✐❞❛❞♦ ❡♠ ❣❛r❛♥t✐r q✉❛♥❞♦ ♣r♦❥❡t❛♠♦s ❡ss❡ ♣r♦t♦❝♦❧♦ ❞❡ t♦❧❡râ♥❝✐❛ ❛ ❢❛❧t❛s ❢♦✐ ❡✈✐t❛r q✉❡ ❡❧❡ ❧✐♠✐t❡ ❛s ♦♣♦rt✉✲ ♥✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ❛ss✐♥❝r♦♥✐❛ ❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ♦✉ ❛tr❛s❡ s❡✉ ♣r♦❣r❡ss♦✳

✷✳✶✳✸ ❇♦r❡❛❧✐s

❇♦r❡❛❧✐s ❬❆❆❇+✵✺✱ ❇❇▼❙✵✺❪ é ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✢✉①♦s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s

✭❙tr❡❛♠ Pr♦❝❡ss✐♥❣ ❊♥❣✐♥❡ ♦✉ ❙P❊✮ ❞✐str✐❜✉í❞♦ ❡♠ t❡♠♣♦ r❡❛❧✳ ❊❧❡ é ✈♦❧t❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♦r✐❣✐♥❛❞♦s ❞✐r❡t❛♠❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ❢♦♥t❡s ❣❡r❛❞♦r❡s ❝♦♠♦ r❡❞❡s ❞❡ s❡♥s♦r❡s✱ s✐st❡♠❛s ❞❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ tr❛♥s❛çõ❡s✱ s✐st❡♠❛s ❞❡ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ❡♥tr❡ ♦✉tr♦s✳ ❊ss❛s ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ❞❡✜♥❡♠ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ♦♣❡r❛❞♦r❡s ♣❛r❡❝✐❞♦s ❝♦♠ ♦♣❡r❛❞♦r❡s ❙◗▲ ✭s❡❧❡çã♦✱ ♣r♦❥❡çã♦✱ ✉♥✐ã♦✱ ❥✉♥çã♦ ❡t❝✳✮ q✉❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤❛♠ ❡♠ ❥❛♥❡❧❛s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡s❧✐③❛♥t❡s✳ ❖s ❞❛❞♦s sã♦ ♣r♦❞✉③✐❞♦s ❡ ❞❡✈❡♠ s❡r ♣r♦❝❡ss❛❞♦s ❝♦♥t✐♥✉❛♠❡♥t❡

❝♦♠ ❜❛✐①❛ ❧❛tê♥❝✐❛✶✳ P♦r ✐ss♦ ❡ss❡s s✐st❡♠❛s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞♦s ❞❡ t❡♠♣♦ r❡❛❧

✢❡①í✈❡❧✳

❈❛❞❛ ♦♣❡r❛❞♦r é ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞♦ ♣♦r ✉♠ ♥♦❞♦ q✉❡ é ✉♠ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ s✐♠✐❧❛r ❛ ✉♠ ✜❧tr♦ ❞♦ ❆♥t❤✐❧❧✱ ♣♦ré♠ ♥ã♦ ❡①✐st❡ ♦ ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦ ❞❡ ♠ú❧t✐♣❧❛s ❝ó♣✐❛s tr❛♥s♣❛r❡♥t❡s ♦✉ ♠ú❧t✐♣❧❛s ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❞❡ ✉♠ ✜❧tr♦✱ ❛ss✐♠ ❝❛❞❛ ♥ó ♣♦ss✉✐ ❛♣❡♥❛s ✉♠❛ ❝ó♣✐❛ ♥♦ ♣✐♣❡❧✐♥❡✱ t❛♠❜é♠ ❝❤❛♠❛❞♦ ❞❡ q✉❡r② ♥❡t✇♦r❦✳ ❖s ♥♦❞♦s s❡ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛♠ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ❝❛♥❛✐s ✉♥✐❞✐r❡❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡♥♦♠✐♥❛❞♦s ✢✉①♦s✱ ♣♦r ♦♥❞❡ ♣❛ss❛♠ ♠❡♥s❛❣❡♥s ♥❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡ t✉♣❧❛s✳ ◗✉❛♥❞♦ ✉♠ ♥ó ❡stá ❧✐❣❛❞♦ ❛ ♦✉tr♦ ♣♦r ✉♠ ✢✉①♦✱ ❡❧❡s sã♦ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞♦s ✈✐③✐♥❤♦s✱ ♦ q✉❡ ❡♥✈✐❛ ❞❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ ♥ó é ❝❤❛♠❛❞♦ ❞❡ ✈✐③✐♥❤♦ ✉♣str❡❛♠ ♦ q✉❡ r❡❝❡❜❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❣❡r❛❞♦s ♣♦r ✉♠ ♥ó é ♦ ✈✐③✐♥❤♦ ❞♦✇♥str❡❛♠✳ ❆♦ ❝♦♥trár✐♦ ❞♦ ❆♥t❤✐❧❧ ❝✉❥♦s ✢✉①♦s

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✷✳ ❚r❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❘❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ✶✷

♣♦❞❡♠ ❝♦♥❡❝t❛r ▼ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s ❞❡ ✜❧tr♦ ❛ ◆ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛s✱ ♦s ✢✉①♦s ❞♦ ❇♦r❡❛❧✐s sã♦ ❞❡ ✶ ♣r❛ ✶✳ ❆s ❞✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛s ❡♥tr❡ ♦ ❆♥t❤✐❧❧ ❡ ♦ ❇♦r❡❛❧✐s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ✈✐st❛s ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶✳

P❛r❛ t❡r ❛❧t❛ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡✱ ♦ ❇♦r❡❛❧✐s ❡①❡❝✉t❛ ♠ú❧t✐♣❧❛s ❝ó♣✐❛s ❞❛ q✉❡r② ♥❡t✇♦r❦✳ ❈♦♠♦ t♦❞❛s ❛s ❝ó♣✐❛s ❞❛ q✉❡r② ♥❡t✇♦r❦ ❞❡✈❡♠ ♣r♦❞✉③✐r ♦s ♠❡s♠♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s✱ ♦s ✢✉①♦s ❣❛r❛♥t❡♠ ❛ ❡♥tr❡❣❛ ❞❛s ♠❡♥s❛❣❡♥s ❡♠ ♦r❞❡♠ ❡ ❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦ ❞❡ t♦❞♦s ♦s ♦♣❡✲ r❛❞♦r❡s ❞❡✈❡ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥✐st❛✳ ❆✐♥❞❛ ❛ss✐♠ ❡①✐st❡ ✉♠❛ ❢♦♥t❡ ❞❡ ♥ã♦ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥✐s♠♦✿ s❡ ✉♠ ♦♣❡r❛❞♦r ♣♦ss✉✐ ✈ár✐♦s ✢✉①♦s ❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛✱ ❛♣❡s❛r ❞❡ ❡①✐st✐r ✉♠❛ ♦r❞❡♠ ❡♥tr❡ ❛s ♠❡♥s❛❣❡♥s ❞❡♥tr♦ ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ✢✉①♦✱ ♥ã♦ ❡①✐st❡ ✉♠❛ ♦r❞❡♠ ❡♥tr❡ ❛s ♠❡♥s❛❣❡♥s ❞❡ ✉♠ ✢✉①♦ ❡ ❞❡ ♦✉tr♦✳ P❛r❛ ❣❛r❛♥t✐r ♦ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥✐s♠♦ ♥❡ss❡ ❝❛s♦✱ ❢♦✐ ❝r✐❛❞♦ ♦ ♦♣❡r❛❞♦r ❙❯✲

♥✐♦♥✳ ❊❧❡ ❞❡✈❡ s❡r ✐♥s❡r✐❞♦ à ❢r❡♥t❡ ❞❡ t♦❞♦ ♦♣❡r❛❞♦rO q✉❡ ♣♦ss✉✐ ♠❛✐s ❞❡ ✉♠ ✢✉①♦

❞❡ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ r❡♣❛ss❛r t♦❞♦s ♦s ❞❛❞♦s q✉❡ r❡❝❡❜❡r ❞❡ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ✢✉①♦ ❞❡ ♠❛♥❡✐r❛

❞❡t❡r♠✐♥✐st❛ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♦♣❡r❛❞♦rO ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ✉♠ ú♥✐❝♦ ✢✉①♦✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ❡st❛❞♦ ❡

❛ s❛í❞❛ ❞♦s ♦♣❡r❛❞♦r❡s ❞❡♣❡♥❞❡ ❛♣❡♥❛s ❞❛s ❡♥tr❛❞❛s r❡❝❡❜✐❞❛s ❡ t♦❞❛s ❛s ❝ó♣✐❛s ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ♦♣❡r❛❞♦r r❡❝❡❜❡♠ ❛s ♠❡s♠❛s ❡♥tr❛❞❛s ♥❛ ♠❡s♠❛ ♦r❞❡♠✱ t♦❞❛s ❛s ❝ó♣✐❛s ❞♦s ♦♣❡r❛❞♦r❡s t❡rã♦ ♦s ♠❡s♠♦s ❡st❛❞♦s ❡ ❡♠✐t✐rã♦ ❛s ♠❡s♠❛s ♠❡♥s❛❣❡♥s✳

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✷✳ ❚r❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❘❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ✶✸

(22)

✷✳ ❚r❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❘❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ✶✹

t❛♠❡♥t♦ ♠❡❧❤♦r q✉❡ ❧♦♥❣❛s ❡s♣❡r❛s✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ ❣❛r❛♥t✐r q✉❡ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❡✈❡♥t✉❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ✐rá ❣❡r❛r ✉♠ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❝♦♥s✐st❡♥t❡✳

✷✳✷ ❙✐st❡♠❛s ❞❡ t♦❧❡râ♥❝✐❛ ❛ ❢❛❧t❛s

P♦r s✐♠♣❧✐❝✐❞❛❞❡ ❡ ♣❛r❛ ❣❛r❛♥t✐r ♠❛✐♦r ❣❡♥❡r❛❧✐❞❛❞❡✱ q✉❛♥❞♦ s❡ ♣r♦❥❡t❛ ✉♠ ❛❧❣♦✲ r✐t♠♦ ❞❡ ❝❤❡❝❦♣♦✐♥t ❞✐str✐❜✉í❞♦✱ ❛ss✉♠❡✲s❡ ❛♣❡♥❛s q✉❡ ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ é ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s q✉❡ s❡ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛♠ ❡♠ ❝❛♥❛✐s ♣♦♥t♦ ❛ ♣♦♥t♦ ❝♦♥✜á✈❡✐s ❝♦♠ ♣r❡s❡r✈❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♦r❞❡♠ ❞❛s ♠❡♥s❛❣❡♥s✳ ❆♣❡s❛r ❞♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s s♦❜r❡ ♦s q✉❛✐s sã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♦s ❛❧✲ ❣♦r✐t♠♦s ♥❡ss❛ s❡çã♦✱ P❱▼ ❡ ▼P■✱ t❡r❡♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦s ❞❡ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛çã♦ ♠✉✐t♦ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞♦ ❆♥t❤✐❧❧✱ t♦❞♦s ❡ss❡s s✐st❡♠❛s ♥♦ ❢✉♥❞♦ sã♦ s✐st❡♠❛s ❞✐str✐❜✉í❞♦s q✉❡ ❢❛③❡♠ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çã♦ ❡♠ ❝❛♥❛✐s ♣♦♥t♦ ❛ ♣♦♥t♦✳ ❈♦♠♦ ❡ss❡ é ♦ ú♥✐❝♦ ♣ré✲r❡q✉✐s✐t♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦s ❛❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ❞❡ ❝❤❡❝❦♣♦✐♥t q✉❡ s❡rã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s✱ t♦❞♦s ❡❧❡s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ♣♦rt❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❆♥t❤✐❧❧✳

✷✳✷✳✶ ❙✐st❡♠❛s ❞❡ ❈❤❡❝❦♣♦✐♥t ❡♠ ▼P■

❆ ▼❡ss❛❣❡ P❛ss✐♥❣ ■♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ✭▼P■✮ é ✉♠ ♣❛❞rã♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛❧❡❧❛ ♣♦r ♣❛s✲

s❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ♠❡♥s❛❣❡♥s ❡♠ s✐st❡♠❛s ❞✐str✐❜✉í❞♦s ❡♠ ❧❛r❣❛ ❡s❝❛❧❛ ❬●●❍▲+✾✻✱ ●❍▲▲+✾✽✱

●▲❙✾✹✱ ❲●❚✾✾✱ ▼P■✾✹✱ ❙❖❍▲+✾✻✱ ❙❙❇+✵✸✱ ❇▼P❙✵✸❪ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦ ♣❡❧♦ ▼P■ ❋♦✲

r✉♠ ❬▼P■✾✹❪✳ ❊ss❛ ♣❛❞rã♦ é ♦ ♠❛✐s ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ❛t✉❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ ♣❛ss❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ♠❡♥s❛✲ ❣❡♥s ❡ s✉❛s ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çõ❡s ❢❛③❡♠ ♣❛rt❡ ❞♦ ♠✐❞❞❧❡✇❛r❡ ❞❡ ✈ár✐❛s ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❛❧t♦ ❞❡s❡♠♣❡♥❤♦ ❬❇❉❱✾✹✱ ●▲❉❙✾✻✱ ●▲✾✻✱ ❚❡❛✾✽❪✳

❆♣❡s❛r ❞❡ ♦ ♣❛❞rã♦ ▼P■ ♣r♦♣r✐❛♠❡♥t❡ ❞✐t♦ ♥ã♦ ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛r ♥❡♥❤✉♠ t✐♣♦ ♣❛rt✐❝✉✲ ❧❛r ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣♦rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ t♦❧❡râ♥❝✐❛ ❛ ❢❛❧t❛s ❡ ❛s ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ▼P■ ♠❛✐s ✉s❛❞❛s ♥ã♦ ❢♦r❡♠ ♣r♦❥❡t❛❞❛s ♣❛r❛ s❡r❡♠ t♦❧❡r❛♥t❡s ❛ ❢❛❧t❛s✱ ♥♦s ú❧t✐♠♦s ❛♥♦s ▼P■ t❡♠ s✐❞♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ❡♠ ❝❧✉st❡rs ❝❛❞❛ ✈❡③ ♠❛✐♦r❡s✱ ❝❤❡❣❛♥❞♦ ❛ ♠✐❧❤❛r❡s ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r❡s✳ P♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ♦ ❝❧✉st❡r ❚❤✉♥❞❡r❜✐r❞ ❞♦s ❧❛❜♦r❛tór✐♦s ❙❛♥❞✐❛ ♥♦s ❊❯❆ t❡♠ ✽✵✵✵ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛✲ ❞♦r❡s ❬▼❙❉❙✵✺❪✳ ❈♦♠ ❡ss❛ ❣r❛♥❞❡ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛❞♦r❡s✱ ❛ ❝❤❛♥❝❡ ❞❡ ❛❧❣✉♠ ❞❡❧❡s ❢❛❧❤❛r é ♠✉✐t♦ ❣r❛♥❞❡✱ ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ♣❡r❞✐❞❛ ❝❛s♦ ✐ss♦ ❛❝♦♥t❡ç❛✳ ❆ss✐♠ s✉r❣✐✉ ✉♠❛ ❞❡♠❛♥❞❛ ♠✉✐t♦ ❢♦rt❡ ♣♦r ♠❡❝❛♥✐s♠♦s ❞❡ t♦❧❡râ♥❝✐❛

❛ ❢❛❧t❛s ♥❛s ✐♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛çõ❡s ▼P■✱ q✉❡ ❣❡r♦✉ ✈ár✐♦s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❬❇▼P❙✵✸✱ ❙❙❇+✵✸❪✳

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