Utilização de Sistemas Inteligentes para Classificação de Tráfego Malicioso.

Texto

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❘❆❋❆❊▲ ❆◆❚❖◆■❖ ●❖◆➬❆▲❱❊❙ ▲■▼❆

❯❚■▲■❩❆➬➹❖ ❉❊ ❙■❙❚❊▼❆❙ ■◆❚❊▲■●❊◆❚❊❙

P❆❘❆ ❈▲❆❙❙■❋■❈❆➬➹❖ ❉❊ ❚❘➪❋❊●❖

▼❆▲■❈■❖❙❖

❉✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ à ❯♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❋❡✲ ❞❡r❛❧ ❞❡ ❱✐ç♦s❛✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♣❛rt❡ ❞❛s ❡①✐❣ê♥❝✐❛s ❞♦ Pr♦❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ Pós✲●r❛❞✉❛çã♦ ❡♠ ❈✐ê♥❝✐❛ ❞❛ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦✱ ♣❛r❛ ♦❜t❡♥çã♦ ❞♦ tít✉❧♦ ❞❡ ▼❛❣✐st❡r ❙❝✐❡♥t✐❛❡✳

❱■➬❖❙❆

▼■◆❆❙ ●❊❘❆■❙ − ❇❘❆❙■▲

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❉❡❞✐❝♦ ❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❛ ♠✐♥❤❛ ❡s♣♦s❛ ▲í✈❡❛ ❡ ♠❡✉s ♣❛✐s✱ ❈❛r❧♦s ❡ ❈❡❧✐♥❛ ♣♦r t♦❞❛ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❡ ✐♥❝❡♥t✐✈♦s✳

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✏▼❡s♠♦ q✉❡ ❥á t❡♥❤❛ ❢❡✐t♦ ✉♠❛ ❧♦♥❣❛ ❝❛♠✐♥❤❛❞❛✱ s❡♠♣r❡ ❤❛✈❡rá ♠❛✐s ✉♠ ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦ ❛ ♣❡r❝♦rr❡r✳✑ ✭❙❛♥t♦ ❆❣♦st✐♥❤♦✮

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❆❣r❛❞❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦s

❆♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r ❡ ♦r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r✱ ❈❛r❧♦s ❞❡ ❈❛str♦ ●♦✉❧❛rt✱ ♣❡❧❛s ♦r✐❡♥t❛çõ❡s ✈❛❧✐♦s❛s ❡✱ s♦✲ ❜r❡t✉❞♦ ♣❡❧♦s ❡♥s✐♥❛♠❡♥t♦s tr❛♥s♠✐t✐❞♦s ❡ ♣❡❧❛ ♣❛❝✐ê♥❝✐❛ ❡ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❞❡♣♦s✐t❛❞❛✳

❆♦ ❡①✲❛❧✉♥♦ ❡ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r ❏❛❝s♦♥ ❘♦❞r✐❣✉❡s✱ q✉❡ ♠✉✐t♦ ♠❡ ✐♥❝❡♥t✐✈♦✉ ❡ tr❛♥s♠✐t✐✉ s✉❛ ❡①♣❡r✐ê♥❝✐❛ ❛❞q✉✐r✐❞❛ ❛ r❡s♣❡✐t♦ ❞♦ t❡♠❛ ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳

❆♦s ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r❡s ♣♦r t♦❞♦ ❛♣♦✐♦ ❡ ❡♥s✐♥❛♠❡♥t♦s r❡♣❛ss❛❞♦s ❞✉r❛♥t❡ t♦❞❛ ❣r❛❞✉❛çã♦ ❡ ♠❡str❛❞♦✳

❆♦s ♠❡✉s ❝♦❧❡❣❛s ♣♦r t♦❞♦s ♦s ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦s ❝♦♠♣❛rt✐❧❤❛❞♦s✱ ❞✐s❝✉t✐❞♦s ❡ ❞✐✜✲ ❝✉❧❞❛❞❡s s✉♣❡r❛❞❛s✳

❆♦s ♠❡✉s ♣❛✐s✱ ❈❛r❧♦s ❡ ❈❡❧✐♥❛✱ ♣♦r t♦❞♦ ❛♣♦✐♦ ❡ ❡♥s✐♥❛♠❡♥t♦s ❞✉r❛♥t❡ t♦❞❛ ♠✐♥❤❛ ✈✐❞❛✳

❆s ♠✐♥❤❛s ✐r♠ãs✱ ■❧❧✐❛♥ ❡ ▲❛✉r❛✱ ♠❡✉s ❛♠✐❣♦s ❡ ❞❡♠❛✐s ❢❛♠✐❧✐❛r❡s ♣♦r t♦❞♦s ♦s ❛♣♦✐♦s ❡ ✐♥❝❡♥t✐✈♦s✳

❆ ♠✐♥❤❛ ❡s♣♦s❛✱ ▲í✈❡❛✱ q✉❡ ♠❡s♠♦ ♥❛s ❤♦r❛s ♠❛✐s ❞✐❢í❝❡✐s✱ s❡♠♣r❡ ♠❡ ❛♣♦✐♦✉ ❡ ♠❡ ❛❥✉❞♦✉ ❛ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛r ♦ t❡♠♣♦ q✉❡ s❡♠♣r❡ ♥❡❝❡ss✐t❛✈❛✳

❆ ❉❡✉s ♣♦r ✐❧✉♠✐♥❛r ♠✐♥❤❛ ✈✐❞❛ ❡ ♣❡r♠✐t✐r q✉❡ ❡✉ ❝❤❡❣❛ss❡ ❛té ❡ss❛ ❡t❛♣❛ ❝♦♠ ✜r♠❡③❛✱ ❝r❡s❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ♣❡ss♦❛❧ ❡ ♣r♦✜ss✐♦♥❛❧✳

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❙✉♠ár✐♦

▲✐st❛ ❞❡ ❋✐❣✉r❛s ✈✐✐

▲✐st❛ ❞❡ ❚❛❜❡❧❛s ✐①

❘❡s✉♠♦ ①

❆❜str❛❝t ①✐

✶ ■♥tr♦❞✉çã♦ ✶

✶✳✶ ❖ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❡ s✉❛ ✐♠♣♦rtâ♥❝✐❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷ ✶✳✷ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹ ✶✳✸ ❖r❣❛♥✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺

✷ ❘❡❢❡r❡♥❝✐❛❧ ❚❡ór✐❝♦ ✻

✷✳✶ ❘❡❞❡s ❞❡ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻ ✷✳✶✳✶ Pr♦t♦❝♦❧♦s ■P✱ ❯❉P ❡ ❚❈P ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼ ✷✳✷ ❙❡❣✉r❛♥ç❛ ❡♠ ❘❡❞❡s ❞❡ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✵ ✷✳✷✳✶ ❈❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❆t❛q✉❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶ ✷✳✸ ❙✐st❡♠❛s ❞❡ ❉❡t❡❝çã♦ ❞❡ ■♥tr✉sã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✸ ✷✳✹ ❉❡t❡❝çã♦ ❞❡ ❆♥♦♠❛❧✐❛s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✼ ✷✳✺ ❚é❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❈❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✽ ✷✳✺✳✶ ➪r✈♦r❡ ❞❡ ❉❡❝✐sã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✵ ✷✳✺✳✷ ❘❡❞❡s ◆❡✉r❛✐s ❆rt✐✜❝✐❛✐s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✹ ✷✳✺✳✸ ❆❧❣♦r✐t♠♦s ●❡♥ét✐❝♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✵ ✷✳✺✳✹ ▼áq✉✐♥❛ ❞❡ ❱❡t♦r❡s ❞❡ ❙✉♣♦rt❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✺ ✷✳✺✳✺ ❙✐st❡♠❛s ■♥t❡❧✐❣❡♥t❡s ❍í❜r✐❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✼ ✷✳✻ ❚r❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❘❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✾

✸ ▼ét♦❞♦s ✹✶

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✸✳✶ ❇❛s❡s ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ❚rá❢❡❣♦ ❞❡ ❘❡❞❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✶ ✸✳✷ Pr❡♣❛r❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❇❛s❡ ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✸ ✸✳✸ ❚❡st❡s ❞❡ ❈❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✼

✹ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ✺✵

✹✳✶ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞❛s ❚é❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❈❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✶ ✹✳✷ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞♦ ❙✐st❡♠❛ ■♥t❡❧✐❣❡♥t❡ ❍í❜r✐❞♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✻

✺ ❈♦♥❝❧✉sõ❡s ✺✽

❘❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛s ❇✐❜❧✐♦❣rá✜❝❛s ✻✵

❆♥❡①♦ ❆ ❈ó❞✐❣♦ ♣❛r❛ ♣❛❞r♦♥✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❛rq✉✐✈♦s ✳❝s✈ ✻✸

❆♥❡①♦ ❇ ❈ó❞✐❣♦ ♣❛r❛ ❣❡r❛r ❛rq✉✐✈♦ ✳❛r✛ ✻✽

❆♥❡①♦ ❈ ❈ó❞✐❣♦ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ✐♥t❡❧✐❣❡♥t❡ ❤í❜r✐❞♦ ✼✹

❆♥❡①♦ ❉ ❈ó❞✐❣♦ ❞♦ ❛✈❛❧✐❛❞♦r ❞❛ ❘◆❆ ✼✼

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▲✐st❛ ❞❡ ❋✐❣✉r❛s

✶✳✶ ❚♦t❛❧ ❞❡ ✐♥❝✐❞❡♥t❡s r❡♣♦rt❛❞♦s ❛♦ ❈❊❘❚✳❜r ♣♦r ❛♥♦ ❬❈❊❘❚✳❜r✱ ✷✵✶✹❪ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷ ✶✳✷ ■♥❝✐❞❡♥t❡s r❡♣♦rt❛❞♦s ❛♦ ❈❊❘❚✳❜r ✭❥✉♥❤♦ ❛ s❡t❡♠❜r♦ ❞❡ ✷✵✶✸✮ ❬❈❊❘❚✳❜r✱

✷✵✶✹❪ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸ ✶✳✸ ■♥❝✐❞❡♥t❡s r❡♣♦rt❛❞♦s ❛♦ ❈❊❘❚✳❜r ✭❛❜r✐❧ ❛ ❥✉♥❤♦ ❞❡ ✷✵✶✸✮ ❬❈❊❘❚✳❜r✱ ✷✵✶✹❪ ✸

✷✳✶ ❖ ❝❛❜❡ç❛❧❤♦ ■P✈✹ ❬❚❛♥❡♥❜❛✉♠✱ ✷✵✶✶❪ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✼ ✷✳✷ ❖ ❝❛❜❡ç❛❧❤♦ ❯❉P ❬❚❛♥❡♥❜❛✉♠✱ ✷✵✶✶❪ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽ ✷✳✸ ❖ ❝❛❜❡ç❛❧❤♦ ❚❈P ❬❚❛♥❡♥❜❛✉♠✱ ✷✵✶✶❪ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✾ ✷✳✹ ❯♠ ❝❡♥ár✐♦ ❞❡ r❡❞❡ ❝♦♠ s❡♥s♦r❡s ♣❛r❛ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ ❞❡ ✐♥tr✉sã♦ ❬❑✉r♦s❡ ✫ ❘♦ss✱

✷✵✶✵❪ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺ ✷✳✺ ❈❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❝♦♠♦ ❛ t❛r❡❢❛ ❞❡ ♠❛♣❡❛r ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s x ♥♦ s❡✉

rót✉❧♦ ❞❡ ❝❧❛ss❡ y ❬❚❛♥ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✵✾❪ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✾

✷✳✻ ❯♠❛ ár✈♦r❡ ❞❡ ❞❡❝✐sã♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❞❡ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♠❛♠í❢❡r♦s ❬❚❛♥ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✵✾❪ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✵ ✷✳✼ ❈❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ✈❡rt❡❜r❛❞♦ s❡♠ rót✉❧♦ ❬❚❛♥ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✵✾❪ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✶ ✷✳✽ ❈♦♠♣♦♥❡♥t❡s ❞♦ ♥❡✉rô♥✐♦ ❜✐♦❧ó❣✐❝♦ ❬❇r❛❣❛ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✵✼❪ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✹ ✷✳✾ ◆❡✉rô♥✐♦ ❞❡ ▼❝❈✉❧❧♦❝❤ ❡ P✐tts✱ ♥♦ q✉❛❧ P r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛ s♦♠❛ ♣♦♥❞❡r❛❞❛

❞❛s ❡♥tr❛❞❛s ❡ f(·) ❛ ❢✉♥çã♦ ❞❡ ❛t✐✈❛çã♦ ❬❇r❛❣❛ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✵✼❪ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✺ ✷✳✶✵ ❋✉♥çã♦ ❞❡ ❛t✐✈❛çã♦ ❞❡❣r❛✉ ✭❛✮ ❡ s✐❣♠♦✐❞❛❧ ✭❜✮ ❬❇r❛❣❛ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✵✼❪ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✻ ✷✳✶✶ ❋✉♥çã♦ ❞❡ ❛t✐✈❛çã♦ ❧✐♥❡❛r ✭❛✮ ❡ ❣❛✉ss✐❛♥❛ ✭❜✮ ❬❇r❛❣❛ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✵✼❪ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✻ ✷✳✶✷ ❘❡❞❡ ❢❡❡❞❢♦r✇❛r❞ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❝❛♠❛❞❛ ✭❛✮ ❡ ❞❡ ❞✉❛s ❝❛♠❛❞❛s ✭❜✮ ❬❇r❛❣❛ ❡t ❛❧✳✱

✷✵✵✼❪ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✼ ✷✳✶✸ ❘❡❞❡ ❝♦♠ r❡❝♦rrê♥❝✐❛ ❡♥tr❡ s❛í❞❛s ❡ ❝❛♠❛❞❛ ✐♥t❡r♠❡❞✐ár✐❛ ✭❛✮ ❡ r❡❞❡ ❝♦♠

r❡❝♦rrê♥❝✐❛ ❛✉t♦✲❛ss♦❝✐❛t✐✈❛ ✭❜✮ ❬❇r❛❣❛ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✵✼❪ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✼ ✷✳✶✹ ❊t❛♣❛s ❞♦ ❆❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ●❡♥ét✐❝♦ ❬❆rt❡r♦✱ ✷✵✵✾❪ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✶ ✷✳✶✺ ❆❧❣♦r✐t♠♦ ❞❡ ❛❧t♦ ♥í✈❡❧ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❆● ❬❘❡③❡♥❞❡✱ ✷✵✵✺❪ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✷ ✷✳✶✻ ❘♦❧❡t❛ ❝♦♠ t❛♠❛♥❤♦s ❞❡ s❡t♦r❡s ♣r♦♣♦r❝✐♦♥❛✐s à ❝❤❛♥❝❡ ❞♦ ❝r♦♠♦ss♦♠♦ s❡r

s❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛❞♦ ❬❆rt❡r♦✱ ✷✵✵✾❪ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✷

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✷✳✶✼ ❈r✉③❛♠❡♥t♦s ❝♦♠ ✉♠ ❝♦rt❡ ✭❛✮ ❡ ❝♦♠ ❞♦✐s ❝♦rt❡s ✭❜✮ ❬❆rt❡r♦✱ ✷✵✵✾❪ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✸ ✷✳✶✽ ▼❛r❣❡♠ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❧✐♠✐t❡ ❞❡ ❞❡❝✐sã♦ ❬❚❛♥ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✵✾❪ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✺ ✷✳✶✾ ▲✐♠✐t❡ ❞❡ ❞❡❝✐sã♦ ❞❡ ❙❱▼ ♣❛r❛ ❝❛s♦ ♥ã♦ s❡♣❛rá✈❡❧ ❬❚❛♥ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✵✾❪ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✻ ✷✳✷✵ P❛r❛❞✐❣♠❛s ❡ ♠ét♦❞♦s s❡ s♦❜r❡♣õ❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ r❡s♦❧✉çã♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦✲

❜❧❡♠❛ ❬❘❡③❡♥❞❡✱ ✷✵✵✺❪ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✽ ✷✳✷✶ ❈❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ s✐st❡♠❛s ❤í❜r✐❞♦s ✐♥t❡❧✐❣❡♥t❡s ❬❘❡③❡♥❞❡✱ ✷✵✵✺❪ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✽

✸✳✶ ❆rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❞❡ r❡❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ♥❛ ■❙❈❳ ✷✵✶✷ ❬❙❤✐r❛✈✐ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✶✷❪ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✷ ✸✳✷ Pr♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❉❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛ ❞❡ ❈♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❡♠ ❇❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ✭❑❉❉✮ ❬❍❛♥

❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✶✶❪ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✹

✹✳✶ ❘♦♦t ❘❡❧❛t✐✈❡ ❙q✉❛r❡❞ ❊rr♦r ✭❘❘❙❊✮ ✲ ❱❛❧✐❞❛çã♦ ❈r✉③❛❞❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✸ ✹✳✷ ❚❡♠♣♦ ❣❛st♦ ❝♦♠ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ✭s✮ ✲ ❱❛❧✐❞❛çã♦ ❈r✉③❛❞❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✸ ✹✳✸ ❉✐❢❡r❡♥ç❛ ❘❘❙❊ ✭❍♦❧❞♦✉t ✲ ❱❛❧✐❞❛çã♦ ❈r✉③❛❞❛✮ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✹ ✹✳✹ ❚❡♠♣♦ ❣❛st♦ ❝♦♠ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ✭s✮ ✲ ❍♦❧❞♦✉t ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✻

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▲✐st❛ ❞❡ ❚❛❜❡❧❛s

✸✳✶ ▲✐st❛ ❞❡ ❛tr✐❜✉t♦s ❞❛ ❜❛s❡ ■❙❈❳ ✷✵✶✷ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✸ ✸✳✷ ❉❡s❝r✐çã♦ ❞♦ trá❢❡❣♦ ❞❡ r❡❞❡ ♣♦r ❞✐❛ ❞❛ ❜❛s❡ ■❙❈❳ ✷✵✶✷ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✺ ✸✳✸ ❋♦r♠❛t♦ ❞♦s ❛rq✉✐✈♦s ✳❛r✛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✺ ✸✳✹ ❆tr✐❜✉t♦s ❞♦s ❛rq✉✐✈♦s ❣❡r❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❢♦r♠❛t♦ ✳❛r✛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✻ ✸✳✺ ▼❡❧❤♦r❡s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞♦ ❆● ♣❛r❛ ❛s ❘◆❆s ▼▲P ❝♦♠ ✶✸ ❡♥tr❛❞❛s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✽ ✸✳✻ ▼❡❧❤♦r❡s ♣❛râ♠❡tr♦s ❞♦ ❆● ♣❛r❛ ❛s ❘◆❆s ▼▲P ❝♦♠ ✼ ❡♥tr❛❞❛s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✾

✹✳✶ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✶ ✹✳✷ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❣❡r❛✐s ❞❛s té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ✭♦✤✐♥❡✮ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✷ ✹✳✸ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞❛s té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ✭♦✤✐♥❡✮ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✸ ✹✳✹ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❣❡r❛✐s ❞❛s té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ✭t❡♠♣♦ r❡❛❧✮ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✺ ✹✳✺ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞❛s té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ✭t❡♠♣♦ r❡❛❧✮ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✺ ✹✳✻ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❣❡r❛✐s ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ✐♥t❡❧✐❣❡♥t❡ ❤í❜r✐❞♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✻ ✹✳✼ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ✐♥t❡❧✐❣❡♥t❡ ❤í❜r✐❞♦ ✭♦✤✐♥❡✮ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✻ ✹✳✽ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ✐♥t❡❧✐❣❡♥t❡ ❤í❜r✐❞♦ ✭t❡♠♣♦ r❡❛❧✮ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✼

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❘❡s✉♠♦

▲■▼❆✱ ❘❛❢❛❡❧ ❆♥t♦♥✐♦ ●♦♥ç❛❧✈❡s✱ ▼✳❙❝✳✱ ❯♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❋❡❞❡r❛❧ ❞❡ ❱✐ç♦s❛✱ ❋❡✈❡r❡✐r♦ ❞❡ ✷✵✶✹✳ ❯t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❙✐st❡♠❛s ■♥t❡❧✐❣❡♥t❡s ♣❛r❛ ❈❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❚rá❢❡❣♦ ▼❛❧✐❝✐♦s♦✳ ❖r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r✿ ❈❛r❧♦s ❞❡ ❈❛str♦ ●♦✉❧❛rt✳ ❈♦♦r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r❡s✿ ❆❧❝✐♦♥❡ ❞❡ P❛✐✈❛ ❖❧✐✈❡✐r❛ ❡ ❘✐❝❛r❞♦ ❞♦s ❙❛♥t♦s ❋❡rr❡✐r❛✳

◆♦s ú❧t✐♠♦s ❛♥♦s✱ ✈ár✐❛s ♣❡sq✉✐s❛s ❡♠ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ ❞❡ ✐♥tr✉sã♦ tê♠ s✐❞♦ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛s✱ ❜✉s❝❛♥❞♦ ♠❡❧❤♦r✐❛s ♥♦s í♥❞✐❝❡s ❞❡ ❞❡t❡❝çõ❡s ❡ ❞✐♠✐♥✉✐çã♦ ❞♦s ❛❧❛r♠❡s ❢❛❧s♦s✳ ◆♦ ❡♥t❛♥t♦✱ ✈ár✐❛s ❞❡❧❛s sã♦ ❝r✐t✐❝❛❞❛s ♣❡❧❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❜❛s❡s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s q✉❡ ♥ã♦ r❡♣r❡✲ s❡♥t❛♠ ❛ r❡❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❛t✉❛❧ ❞♦ trá❢❡❣♦ ❞❛s r❡❞❡s ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r❡s✱ ❞❡✈✐❞♦ ❛♦s s❡✉s ♥♦✈♦s ♣❛r❛❞✐❣♠❛s ❡ ♦♥❞❡ ❛s ❛♠❡❛ç❛s ❡ ❛ s♦✜st✐❝❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❛t❛q✉❡s tê♠ ❛✉♠❡♥t❛❞♦✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ ❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ tr❛③ ✉♠ ❡st✉❞♦ s♦❜r❡ ✉♠❛ ❜❛s❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♠❛✐s r❡❝❡♥t❡✱ ❛ ■❙❈❳ ✷✵✶✷✱ ❝♦♠ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❝❤❛✈❡s ♣❛r❛ ♥♦✈❛s ❜❛s❡s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛s✳ ❖ ♣r❡s❡♥t❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛ ❡t❛♣❛s ❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❉❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛ ❞❡ ❈♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❡♠ ❇❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ✭❑❉❉✮ ❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❝♦♠♦ ár✈♦r❡s ❞❡ ❞❡❝✐sã♦ ❡ r❡❞❡s ♥❡✉r❛✐s ❛rt✐✜❝✐❛✐s ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ s♦❢t✇❛r❡ ❲❡❦❛ ❡ ❞❡ ✉♠ s✐st❡♠❛ ✐♥t❡❧✐❣❡♥t❡ ❤í❜r✐❞♦✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❛♥á❧✐s❡s ❡ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛çõ❡s ❞♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛❞♦s✳

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❆❜str❛❝t

▲■▼❆✱ ❘❛❢❛❡❧ ❆♥t♦♥✐♦ ●♦♥ç❛❧✈❡s✱ ▼✳❙❝✳✱ ❯♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❋❡❞❡r❛❧ ❞❡ ❱✐ç♦s❛✱ ❋❡❜r✉❛r② ♦❢ ✷✵✶✹✳ ❯t✐❧✐③❛t✐♦♥ ❢♦r ■♥t❡❧❧✐❣❡♥t ❙②st❡♠s t♦ ❈❧❛ss✐✜❝❛t✐♦♥ ♦❢ ▼❛❧✐❝✐♦✉s ❚r❛✣❝✳ ❆❞✈✐s❡r✿ ❈❛r❧♦s ❞❡ ❈❛str♦ ●♦✉❧❛rt✳ ❈♦✲❛❞✈✐s❡rs✿ ❆❧❝✐♦♥❡ ❞❡ P❛✐✈❛ ❖❧✐✈❡✐r❛ ❛♥❞ ❘✐❝❛r❞♦ ❞♦s ❙❛♥t♦s ❋❡rr❡✐r❛✳

■♥ t❤❡ ❧❛st ②❡❛rs s❡✈❡r❛❧ r❡s❡❛r❝❤❡s ♦♥ ❞❡t❡❝t✐♦♥ ♦❢ ✐♥tr✉s✐♦♥ ❤❛✈❡ ❜❡❡♥ ❞♦♥❡✱ s❡❡❦✐♥❣ ❢♦r ✐♠♣r♦✈❡♠❡♥ts ✐♥ ❞❡t❡❝t✐♦♥ ❛♥❞ ❞❡❝r❡❛s✐♥❣ r❛t❡s ♦❢ ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❧❛r♠s✳ ❍♦✇❡✈❡r✱ s❡✈❡r❛❧ ♦❢ t❤❡♠ ❛r❡ ❝r✐t✐❝✐③❡❞ ❜② ✉s✐♥❣ ❞❛t❛❜❛s❡s ✇❤✐❝❤ ❞♦ ♥♦t r❡♣r❡s❡♥t t❤❡ ❝✉rr❡♥t r❡❛❧✐t② ❢r♦♠ ❝♦♠♣✉t❡rs ♥❡t✇♦r❦s tr❛✣❝ ❝♦♠✐♥❣ ♦✛ t❤❡✐r ♥❡✇ ♣❛r❛❞✐❣♠s ❛♥❞ ✇❤❡r❡ t❤❡ t❤r❡❛ts ❛♥❞ t❤❡ s♦♣❤✐st✐❝❛t✐♦♥ ♦❢ t❤❡ ❛tt❛❝❦s ❤❛✈❡ ✐♥❝r❡❛s❡❞✳ ❚❤✐s ✇❛②✱ t❤❛t ✇♦r❦ ❝♦♠❡s ✉♣ ❛ st✉❞② ❜❛s❡❞ ♦♥ ❛ ♠♦r❡ r❡❝❡♥t ❞❛t❛❜❛s❡✱ ■❙❈❳ ✷✵✶✷✱ ✇✐t❤ ❢❡❛t✉r❡s ❦❡② t♦ ♥❡✇ ❞❛t❛❜❛s❡s ❛♥❞ r❡s❡❛r❝❤❡s✳ ❚❤❡ ♣r❡s❡♥t ✇♦r❦ ✉s❡s ❑♥♦✇❧❡❞❣❡ ❉✐s❝♦✈❡r② ✐♥ ❉❛t❛❜❛s❡ ✭❑❉❉✮ ❛♥❞ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛t✐♦♥ t❡❝❤♥✐q✉❡s ❧✐❦❡ ❞❡❝✐s✐♦♥ tr❡❡s ❛♥❞ ❛rt✐✜❝✐❛❧ ♥❡✉r❛❧ ♥❡t✇♦r❦s t❤r♦✉❣❤ s♦❢t✇❛r❡ ❲❡❦❛ ❛♥❞ s♦❢t ❝♦♠♣✉t✐♥❣✱ ❜❡s✐❞❡s ❞♦ ❛♥❛❧②s✐s ❛♥❞ ❝♦♠♣❛r✐s♦♥s ❢r♦♠ t❤❡ r❡s✉❧ts ❢♦✉♥❞✳

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❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✶

■♥tr♦❞✉çã♦

◆❛s ú❧t✐♠❛s ❞é❝❛❞❛s✱ ❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❛ s❡❣✉r❛♥ç❛ ❞❛ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ♥❛s ♦r❣❛♥✐③❛çõ❡s s♦❢r❡✉ ♠✉❞❛♥ç❛s ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡s✳ ❆♥t❡s✱ ❛ s❡❣✉r❛♥ç❛ ❡r❛ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❜❛s✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ♠❡✐♦s ❢ís✐❝♦s ❡ ❛❞♠✐♥✐str❛t✐✈♦s ❝♦♠♦✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ tr❛♥❝❛s ❝♦♠ s❡❣r❡❞♦s ♥♦s ❛r♠ár✐♦s ♣❛r❛ ♣r♦t❡❣❡r ❞♦❝✉♠❡♥t♦s ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡s✳ ❈♦♠ ♦ s✉r❣✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r✱ ♥♦✈❛s ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❛✉t♦♠❛t✐③❛❞❛s s❡ t♦r♥❛r❛♠ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛s ♣❛r❛ ♣r♦t❡❣❡r ❛rq✉✐✈♦s ❡ ♦✉tr❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛❞❛s ♥♦ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r ❬❙t❛❧❧✐♥❣s✱ ✷✵✶✵❪✳

❯♠❛ ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡ ♠✉❞❛♥ç❛ ♦❝♦rr❡✉ ❛♦ s✉r❣✐r ♦s s✐st❡♠❛s ❞✐str✐❜✉í❞♦s✱ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❛s r❡❞❡s ❡ ❞♦s r❡❝✉rs♦s ❞❡ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çã♦✳ ◆❡st❡ ❝❡♥ár✐♦✱ ♦ ❝♦♠♣❛rt✐❧❤❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ r❡❝✉rs♦s t♦r♥♦✉✲s❡ ❝❛❞❛ ✈❡③ ♠❛✐s ✉s✉❛❧ ❡ ♥♦✈❛s ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s s✉r❣✐r❛♠ ♣❛r❛ ♠❛♥t❡r ❛ ✏s❡❣✉r❛♥ç❛ ❞❡ r❡❞❡✑✱ ♣r♦t❡❣❡♥❞♦ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❞✉r❛♥t❡ s✉❛ tr❛♥s♠✐ssã♦✳

❆t✉❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ❡♠ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ❞✐s❝✉ssã♦ sér✐❛ q✉❡ ❡♥✈♦❧✈❛ r❡❞❡s ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r❡s✱ é ♦❜r✐❣❛tór✐♦ t❡r ❛ ■♥t❡r♥❡t ❡♠ ♠❡♥t❡✳ ❖ ♠❛✐♦r ❝r❡s❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ♥❡ss❛ ár❡❛ ♦❝♦rr❡✉ ♥♦ â♠❜✐t♦ ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❡ ❞❛s ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ ❲❡❜✱ ♣❡❧❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦s s❡r✲ ✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡✐♦ ❡❧❡trô♥✐❝♦ ♣♦r ♠✐❧❤❛r❡s ❞❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦s s✐♠✉❧tâ♥❡♦s✱ ♣❡❧❛ r❡❝❡♣çã♦ ❞❡ á✉❞✐♦ ❡ ✈í❞❡♦✱ ♣❡❧❛ t❡❧❡❢♦♥✐❛ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ■♥t❡r♥❡t✱ ♣❡❧♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞❡ ♠❡♥s❛❣❡♥s ✐♥st❛♥tâ♥❡❛s✱ ♣❡❧❛s ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s P✷P ✭P❡❡r✲t♦✲P❡❡r✮ ❡ ♣❡❧♦ ❝♦♠ér❝✐♦ ❡❧❡trô♥✐❝♦ ❬❑✉r♦s❡ ✫ ❘♦ss✱ ✷✵✶✵❪✳ ❊♠❜♦r❛ ❛♥t✐❣❛♠❡♥t❡ ♦ ✉s♦ ❞❛s r❡❞❡s ❡ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r❡s ❢♦ss❡ ♣r✐✈✐❧é❣✐♦ ❞❡ ♣♦✉❝❛s ♦r❣❛♥✐③❛çõ❡s ❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦s✱ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❛❞✈❡♥t♦ ❞❛ ■♥t❡r♥❡t ❡ s❡✉ ❛✉♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦✱ ❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ s❡❣✉r❛♥ç❛ ✜❝♦✉ ♠❛✐s ❡✈✐❞❡♥t❡✳ ◆❡st❡ ❝❡♥ár✐♦✱ ❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s tr❛♥s♠✐t✐❞❛s ❡ ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛❞❛s ♥♦s s✐st❡♠❛s ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❛✉♠❡♥t♦✉ ❡ ❛ ■♥t❡r♥❡t s❡ t♦r♥♦✉ ✉♠❛ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛ ♣❛❞rã♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çã♦ ♥♦ ♠✉♥❞♦✱ ❞❡s❡♠♣❡♥❤❛♥❞♦ ✉♠ ♣❛♣❡❧ ❡ss❡♥❝✐❛❧ ♥❛ ❣❡stã♦ ❞❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ♠❛✐s ❜❡♠ s✉❝❡❞✐❞❛s ❬▼③✐❧❛ ✫ ❉✉❜❡✱ ✷✵✶✸❪✳ ❈♦♥t✉❞♦✱ ❥✉♥t❛♠❡♥t❡ ❝♦♠ ❛s ✈❛♥t❛♥❣❡♥s q✉❡ ❛ ■♥t❡r♥❡t tr❛③✱ ❤á t❛♠❜é♠ ✉♠❛ ❞❡s✈❛♥t❛❣❡♠ s✉❜st❛♥❝✐❛❧ q✉❡ é ❛ ❡①♣♦s✐çã♦ ❞❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ✈❛❧✐♦s❛s ❡ ❝♦♥✜❞❡♥❝✐❛✐s ❛♦s r✐s❝♦s ❞❡ ✐♥✈❛sõ❡s ❡ ❛♠❡❛ç❛s ❝✐❜❡r♥ét✐❝❛s ❬▼③✐❧❛ ✫ ❉✉❜❡✱ ✷✵✶✸❪✳

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✶✳ ■♥tr♦❞✉çã♦ ✷

✶✳✶ ❖ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❡ s✉❛ ✐♠♣♦rtâ♥❝✐❛

❱ár✐♦s ♠❡❝❛♥✐s♠♦s ❞❡ s❡❣✉r❛♥ç❛ tê♠ s✐❞♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♣❡❧❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♣r♦t❡çã♦ ❞❡ s❡✉s ❞❛❞♦s ❝♦♥tr❛ ❛❝❡ss♦s ✐♥❞❡✈✐❞♦s✱ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ♣r♦✈❡♥✐❡♥t❡s ❞❡ ✉♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡①t❡r♥♦ ❝♦♠♦ ❛ ■♥t❡r♥❡t✳ ❊ss❡s ♠❡❝❛♥✐s♠♦s ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞♦ t❡♠♣♦ tê♠ s❡ ❛❞❛♣t❛❞♦ ❡ ✐♥❝♦r♣♦r❛❞♦ ❞✐✈❡rs❛s ❢✉♥çõ❡s ❝♦♠ ♦ ✐♥t✉✐t♦ ❞❡ ❛❜r❛♥❣❡r ❛ r❡❛❧ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❛s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦s✳

❈♦♥t✉❞♦✱ ❛ s❡❣✉r❛♥ç❛✱ q✉❡ ♠❛✐s r❡❝❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ s❡ t♦r♥♦✉ ✉♠ ❞❡st❛q✉❡ ♥♦s ♠❡✐♦s ❞❡ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çã♦✱ ♣♦r ♠✉✐t♦ t❡♠♣♦ ❢♦r❛ ✉♠ q✉❡s✐t♦ ❞❡✐①❛❞♦ ❡♠ s❡❣✉♥❞♦ ♣❧❛♥♦✱ ♣♦✐s ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❛ ✐♥✈❡st✐♠❡♥t♦s ❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛✐s q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡r✐❛♠ ✐♥✈✐❛❜✐❧✐③❛r ❞✐✈❡rs♦s ♣r♦❥❡t♦s✳

❱ár✐❛s ❛♠❡❛ç❛s s❡♠♣r❡ ❡①✐st✐r❛♠✱ ♠❛s ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞♦ t❡♠♣♦ ♥ã♦ ❡r❛♠ ♣r❡♦❝✉♣❛✲ çõ❡s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠❛✐♦r✐❛ ❞❛ ♣♦♣✉❧❛çã♦✱ ♣♦✐s ♥ã♦ ❤❛✈✐❛ ❝❡♥ár✐♦ ♣r♦♣í❝✐♦ ❛♦s ❞❛♥♦s✳ ❍♦❥❡✱ ❡♥tr❡t❛♥t♦✱ ❡st❛ s✐t✉❛çã♦ ♠✉❞♦✉✳ ❆ ■♥t❡r♥❡t é ✉♠❛ r❡❞❡ ❞❡ ♥í✈❡❧ ♠✉♥❞✐❛❧ ❡♠ q✉❡ ❛s ♣❡ss♦❛s ❢❛③❡♠ ✐♥ú♠❡r❛s ♦♣❡r❛çõ❡s ✜♥❛♥❝❡✐r❛s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❝♦♠♣r❛s✱ ♣❛❣❛♠❡♥t♦s✱ ❡t❝✳

❆ss✐♠✱ ❛s r❡❞❡s ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r❡s ❛t✉❛✐s sã♦ ❝❛❞❛ ✈❡③ ♠❛✐s ❛❧✈♦s ❞❡ ❛♠❡❛ç❛s✳ ❖ ♣ró♣r✐♦ ❈❊❘❚✳❜r ✭❈❡♥tr♦ ❞❡ ❊st✉❞♦s✱ ❘❡s♣♦st❛ ❡ ❚r❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ■♥❝✐❞❡♥t❡s ❞❡ ❙❡❣✉✲ r❛♥ç❛ ♥♦ ❇r❛s✐❧✮ ❛♦ ❧♦♥❣♦ ❞♦s ú❧t✐♠♦s ❛♥♦s t❡♠ ❞✐✈✉❧❣❛❞♦ ♦ t♦t❛❧ ❞❡ ✐♥❝✐❞❡♥t❡s q✉❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦s ❡ ♦r❣❛♥✐③❛çõ❡s t❡♠ r❡♣♦rt❛❞♦✱ ♠♦str❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✳✶✳

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✳✶✳ ❚♦t❛❧ ❞❡ ✐♥❝✐❞❡♥t❡s r❡♣♦rt❛❞♦s ❛♦ ❈❊❘❚✳❜r ♣♦r ❛♥♦ ❬❈❊❘❚✳❜r✱ ✷✵✶✹❪

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✶✳ ■♥tr♦❞✉çã♦ ✸

❞♦s ✉s✉ár✐♦s ❡ ♦r❣❛♥✐③❛çõ❡s✳ ▼✉✐t♦s ❛t❛q✉❡s sã♦ ✈❛r✐❛çõ❡s ❞❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❥á ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞❛s ❡✱ ♣♦rt❛♥t♦✱ ♠✉✐t♦s ❞❡✈❡♠ s❡r ❝❛♣❛③❡s ❞❡ s❡r❡♠ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞♦s✳

❈♦♠♦ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ♥❛s ❋✐❣✉r❛s ✶✳✷ ❡ ✶✳✸ sã♦ ♠♦str❛❞♦s r❡s♣❡❝t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ♦s t✐♣♦s ❞❡ ❛t❛q✉❡s r❡♣♦rt❛❞♦s ❛♦ ❈❊❘❚✳❜r ❞❡ ❥✉♥❤♦ ❛ s❡t❡♠❜r♦ ❞❡ ✷✵✶✸✱ ❡ ❞❡ ❛❜r✐❧ ❛ ❥✉♥❤♦ ❞❡ ✷✵✶✸✳ ◆❡ss❡ ❝❛s♦ é ❝❧❛r♦ ♦s ✈ár✐♦s t✐♣♦s ❞❡ ❛t❛q✉❡s ❥á ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞♦s✱ q✉❡ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠ ❛❝✐♠❛ ❞❡ ✽✵✪ ❞♦s ✐♥❝✐❞❡♥t❡s✳

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✳✷✳ ■♥❝✐❞❡♥t❡s r❡♣♦rt❛❞♦s ❛♦ ❈❊❘❚✳❜r ✭❥✉♥❤♦ ❛ s❡t❡♠❜r♦ ❞❡ ✷✵✶✸✮ ❬❈❊❘❚✳❜r✱ ✷✵✶✹❪

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✳✸✳ ■♥❝✐❞❡♥t❡s r❡♣♦rt❛❞♦s ❛♦ ❈❊❘❚✳❜r ✭❛❜r✐❧ ❛ ❥✉♥❤♦ ❞❡ ✷✵✶✸✮ ❬❈❊❘❚✳❜r✱ ✷✵✶✹❪

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✶✳ ■♥tr♦❞✉çã♦ ✹

✉♠ ❣r❛♥❞❡ ✈♦❧✉♠❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✱ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♣r♦t❡çã♦ ❡♠ t❡♠♣♦ r❡❛❧✱ r❡❞❡s ♠ó✈❡✐s✱ ❣r❛♥❞❡ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❛❧❛r♠❡s ❢❛❧s♦s ❣❡r❛❞♦s ♣♦r ❡st❡s s✐st❡♠❛s ❡ ❛ ❢❛❧t❛ ❞❡ ❜❛s❡s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s q✉❡ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❡♠ ❛ r❡❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❛t✉❛❧ ❞❛s r❡❞❡s✳

❊ss❡s ❝♦♠♣❧✐❝❛❞♦r❡s tê♠ ❢♦♠❡♥t❛❞♦ ❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞✐✈❡rs❛s té❝♥✐❝❛s ♣❡❧♦s ♣❡s✲ q✉✐s❛❞♦r❡s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ▼✐♥❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ❡ ■♥t❡❧✐❣ê♥❝✐❛ ❆rt✐✜❝✐❛❧ ✭■❆✮✱ ❝♦♠ ♦ ✐♥t✉✐t♦ ❞❡ ♠❡❧❤♦r❛r ❛s t❛①❛s ❞❡ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦✱ ❞✐♠✐♥✉✐r ♦s ❛❧❛r♠❡s ❢❛❧s♦s ❡ ❛✉♠❡♥t❛r ♦ ❞❡s❡♠♣❡♥❤♦ ❞❡st❡s s✐st❡♠❛s✳ ❈❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❝♦♠♦ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ ❡♠ t❡♠♣♦ r❡❛❧ ❡ ❛çõ❡s ♣❛r❛ ♣r❡✈❡♥✐r ❛ ✐♥tr✉sã♦ é ❛❧❣♦ ❝❛❞❛ ✈❡③ ♠❛✐s ❜✉s❝❛❞♦ ♣❡❧❛s ♣❡sq✉✐s❛s✳ ❖ ✐❞❡❛❧ s❡r✐❛ ✉♠ ❙❉■ ❝♦♠ ❞❡✲ t❡❝çã♦ ❡♠ t❡♠♣♦ r❡❛❧✱ q✉❡ ♣✉❞❡ss❡ ♣r❡✈❡♥✐r ✉♠ ❛t❛q✉❡ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❛✉t♦♠át✐❝❛✱ r❡❣✐str❛r ✉♠ ❡✈❡♥t♦ ❛❧❡rt❛♥❞♦ ♦ ❛❞♠✐♥✐str❛❞♦r ❡ s❡♠ ❣❡r❛r ❛❧❛r♠❡s ❢❛❧s♦s✳

◆❡ss❛ ❜✉s❝❛ ♣❡❧❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ✐❞❡❛❧✱ ❛ ✐♠♣♦rtâ♥❝✐❛ s❡ ❥✉st✐✜❝❛ ❛✐♥❞❛ ♣❡❧❛ ❝❛♣❛❝✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ss❡s s✐st❡♠❛s ❞❡t❡❝t❛r❡♠ t❛♥t♦ ❛t❛q✉❡s ❡①t❡r♥♦s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❛q✉❡❧❡s ❣❡r❛❞♦s ✐♥t❡r♥❛♠❡♥t❡ ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ♦r❣❛♥✐③❛çã♦✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r ❛t❛q✉❡s ♥ã♦ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞♦s✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ s✉r❣❡ ✉♠ ♥♦✈♦ ❝♦♠♣❧✐❝❛❞♦r✱ ♣♦✐s ♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐t❛ ❝r✐❛r ✉♠ ♣❡r✜❧ ❞♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ q✉❡ s❡r✐❛ ♥♦r♠❛❧✱ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡✱ ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❡st❡ ♣❡r✜❧ ❝♦♥s✐❣❛ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r ♦ q✉❡ s❡r✐❛ ✉♠ ❛t❛q✉❡✳ ❖✉tr♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ é q✉❡✱ ❡①✐st❡♠ ♣♦✉❝❛s ❜❛s❡s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s r❡❝❡♥t❡s✳ ❆ ♠❛✐♦r✐❛ ❞♦s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ✉t✐❧✐③❛ ❜❛s❡s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❛♥t✐❣❛s✱ q✉❡ tê♠ r❡❝❡❜✐❞♦ ❝rít✐❝❛s ❞❡ ✈ár✐♦s ♣❡sq✉✐s❛❞♦r❡s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❡♠ ▼❝❍✉❣❤ ❬✷✵✵✵❪ ❡ ❙❤✐r❛✈✐ ❡t ❛❧✳ ❬✷✵✶✷❪✳ ❉❡ ♠❛♥❡✐r❛ ❣❡r❛❧✱ ♠✉✐t❛s ❜❛s❡s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♥ã♦ sã♦ ❞✐s✲ ♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ♣♦r q✉❡stõ❡s ❞❡ s❡❣✉r❛♥ç❛ ❞❛ ♦r❣❛♥✐③❛çã♦ ❡ ♦✉tr❛s ♥ã♦ ♣♦ss✉❡♠ t♦❞♦ ♦ trá❢❡❣♦ ❝❛♣t✉r❛❞♦ ❡ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛❞♦✳

✶✳✷ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦s

❖ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❣❡r❛❧ ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ é ❛✈❛❧✐❛r ✈ár✐♦s ♠ét♦❞♦s ❞❡ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦✱ ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❜❛s❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♠❛✐s r❡❝❡♥t❡✱ ❛♦ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r ♦ trá❢❡❣♦ ♠❛❧✐❝✐♦s♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ r❡❞❡ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r❡s✳

❊s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ♣r❡t❡♥❞❡✲s❡✿

• ❛✈❛❧✐❛r ♦s ♥í✈❡✐s ❞❛s t❛①❛s ❞❡ ❞❡t❡❝çõ❡s ❡ ❡s❢♦rç♦ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ ❞✐✈❡rs❛s té❝♥✐✲ ❝❛s ❞❡ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦✱ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ q✉❡ s❡ ❝♦♠♣❛r❡ ❛s té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ❡♥tr❡ s✐ ❡ ❝♦♠ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s❀

• ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r ❛s ♠❡❧❤♦r❡s té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ ❡✱ ❡♠ q✉❛✐s s✐t✉❛çõ❡s ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ s❡ ❛❞❛♣t❛ ♠❡❧❤♦r❀

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✶✳ ■♥tr♦❞✉çã♦ ✺

• ❞❡t❡❝t❛r ❛ ✐♥tr✉sã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ trá❢❡❣♦ ❞❡ r❡❞❡ ❛♥t❡s q✉❡ ❝❤❡❣✉❡ ❛♦ ❞❡st✐♥♦✱ ❡❧✐♠✐♥❛♥❞♦ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❞❡s♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛s ♥♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦✱ s❡♥❞♦ ✉♠ ❡♥❢♦q✉❡ ✐♠✲ ♣♦rt❛♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ ❡♠ t❡♠♣♦ r❡❛❧✳

✶✳✸ ❖r❣❛♥✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦

❖ r❡st❛♥t❡ ❞♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ é ♦r❣❛♥✐③❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ❛ s❡❣✉✐r✳ ◆♦ ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✷ é ❛♣r❡✲ s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♦ r❡❢❡r❡♥❝✐❛❧ t❡ór✐❝♦✱ ♦ q✉❛❧ ❞❡t❛❧❤❛ ♦s ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦s ♠❛✐s ♣❡rt✐♥❡♥t❡s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ❛ ❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ s♦❜r❡ r❡❞❡s ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r❡s✱ s❡❣✉r❛♥ç❛ ❡♠ r❡❞❡s ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r❡s✱ s✐st❡♠❛s ❞❡ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ ❞❡ ✐♥tr✉sã♦✱ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ ❞❡ ❛♥♦♠❛❧✐❛s✱ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s✳

◆♦ ❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✸ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ❛ ♠❡t♦❞♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❞♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✱ ❞❡s❝r❡✈❡♥❞♦ ❛❧❣✉♠❛s ❜❛s❡s ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ trá❢❡❣♦ ❞❡ r❡❞❡✱ ✐♥❝❧✉✐♥❞♦ ❛ ❜❛s❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞❛ ♥❡st❡ ❡st✉❞♦✳ ❙ã♦ ❞❡s❝r✐t♦s t❛♠❜é♠✱ ♦s ♣❛ss♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♣r❡♣❛r❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❉❡s❝♦❜❡rt❛ ❞❡ ❈♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❡♠ ❇❛♥❝♦ ❞❡ ❉❛❞♦s ✭❑❉❉✮ ❡ ❝♦♠♦ ❢♦r❛♠ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦s ♦s t❡st❡s ❞❡ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❡ ❛s té❝♥✐❝❛s ✉s❛❞❛s✳

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❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✷

❘❡❢❡r❡♥❝✐❛❧ ❚❡ór✐❝♦

◆❡st❡ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦✱ sã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ♣r✐♠❡✐r❛♠❡♥t❡ ♦s ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦s ♠❛✐s ♣❡rt✐♥❡♥t❡s q✉❡ ♣❡r✲ ♠✐t✐r❛♠ ♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❝♦♠♦✱ r❡❞❡s ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r❡s✱ s❡❣✉r❛♥ç❛ ❡♠ r❡❞❡s ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r❡s✱ s✐st❡♠❛s ❞❡ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ ❞❡ ✐♥tr✉sã♦✱ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ ❞❡ ❛♥♦♠❛❧✐❛s ❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦✳ ❆ s❡❣✉✐r sã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦s ❛❧❣✉♥s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❝♦rr❡❧❛t♦s✱ q✉❡ ❢♦r❛♠ ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡s ♣❛r❛ ❛♣r♦❢✉♥❞❛r s♦❜r❡ ♦ t❡♠❛ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦✳

✷✳✶ ❘❡❞❡s ❞❡ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r❡s

◆♦ ✐♥í❝✐♦ ❞❡ s✉❛ ❡①✐stê♥❝✐❛✱ ❛s r❡❞❡s ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r❡s ❢♦r❛♠ ✉s❛❞❛s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ♣♦r ♣❡sq✉✐s❛❞♦r❡s ✉♥✐✈❡rs✐tár✐♦s ♣❛r❛ ❡♥✈✐❛r ♠❡♥s❛❣❡♥s ❞❡ ❝♦rr❡✐♦ ❡❧❡trô♥✐❝♦ ❡✱ t❛♠❜é♠✱ ♣♦r ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥ár✐♦s ❞❡ ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ♣❛r❛ ❝♦♠♣❛rt✐❧❤❛r r❡❝✉rs♦s ❝♦♠♦ ✐♠♣r❡ss♦r❛s✳ ❆s r❡❞❡s ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r❡s ❛❝❛❜❛r❛♠ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❛♥t✐❣♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ q✉❡ ❛♣❡♥❛s ✉♠ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r ❛t❡♥❞✐❛ às ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡s ❞♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ♦✉ ❞❛ ♦r❣❛♥✐③❛çã♦✳ ❈♦♥t✉❞♦✱ ❡①✐st❡♠ ♠✉✐t❛s r❡❞❡s ♥♦ ♠✉♥❞♦ q✉❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡s t✐♣♦s ❞❡ ❤❛r❞✇❛r❡ ❡ s♦❢t✇❛r❡✱ ♠❛s q✉❡ ♣r❡❝✐s❛♠ s❡ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛r ❡♥tr❡ s✐✳ P❛r❛ q✉❡ ❡ss❡ ❞❡s❡❥♦ s❡ t♦r♥❡ r❡❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ é ♣r❡❝✐s♦ q✉❡ ❡st❛❜❡❧❡ç❛♠ ❝♦♥❡①õ❡s ❡♥tr❡ r❡❞❡s✱ ✐♥❝❧✉s✐✈❡ ✐♥❝♦♠♣❛tí✈❡✐s✳ ❊st❡ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ r❡❞❡s ✐♥t❡r❝♦♥❡❝t❛❞❛s ❢♦r♠❛♠ ✉♠❛ r❡❞❡ ♠❛✐s ❛♠♣❧❛✱ ✐♥t❡r❧✐❣❛❞❛ ❝♦♠♦✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ❛ ■♥t❡r♥❡t q✉❡ t❡♠ ❛❧❝❛♥❝❡ ❡♠ ♥í✈❡❧ ♠✉♥❞✐❛❧ ❬❚❛♥❡♥❜❛✉♠✱ ✷✵✶✶❪✳

❉✉❛s ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t❡s ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛s sã♦ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ r❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❖❙■ ❝♦♠♣♦st♦ ♣♦r ✼ ❝❛♠❛❞❛s✱ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦ ♣❡❧❛ ■❙❖ ✭■♥t❡r♥❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❙t❛♥❞❛r❞s ❖r❣❛♥✐③❛t✐♦♥✮ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❞❡ ♣❛❞r♦♥✐③❛çã♦ ✐♥t❡r♥❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞♦s ♣r♦t♦❝♦❧♦s ✉s❛❞♦s ♥❛s ✈ár✐❛s ❝❛♠❛❞❛s ❡ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❚❈P✴■P q✉❡ s✉r❣✐✉ ❞❡s❞❡ ❛ ❆❘P❆◆❊❚ q✉❡ ❡r❛ ✉♠❛ r❡❞❡ ❞❡ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛❞♦r❡s ♣❛tr♦❝✐♥❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ❉❡♣❛rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❉❡❢❡s❛ ❞♦s ❊st❛❞♦s ❯♥✐❞♦s ✭❉♦❉✮ ❡✱ q✉❡ ♣♦st❡r✐♦r♠❡♥t❡ ❢♦✐ ♠❡❧❤♦r❛❞♦ ❡ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠ ♣❛❞rã♦

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✷✳ ❘❡❢❡r❡♥❝✐❛❧ ❚❡ór✐❝♦ ✼

❉❡♥tr❡ ❛s ❝❛♠❛❞❛s ❡ ❢✉♥çõ❡s ❞♦s ❞♦✐s ♠♦❞❡❧♦s✱ ❛ ❝❛♠❛❞❛ ■♥t❡r♥❡t ✭❝❛♠❛❞❛ ❞❡ ❘❡❞❡✮ ❡ ❛ ❝❛♠❛❞❛ ❞❡ ❚r❛♥s♣♦rt❡ ♣♦ss✉❡♠ ❢✉♥çõ❡s s✐♠✐❧❛r❡s ♥♦s ❞♦✐s ♠♦❞❡❧♦s✳ ❆ ❝❛✲ ♠❛❞❛ ❞❡ ❘❡❞❡ t❡♠ ♣♦r ❢✉♥çã♦ ❡♥tr❡❣❛r ♣❛❝♦t❡s ✭❞❛t❛❣r❛♠❛s✮ ♦♥❞❡ ❡❧❡s sã♦ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦s✱ ♣♦❞❡♥❞♦ ❝❤❡❣❛r ❛té ♠❡s♠♦ ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ♦r❞❡♠ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡✱ ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥❞♦✲s❡ ❝♦♠ ♦ r♦t❡❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ♠❡s♠♦ ❡♠ ❝❛s♦ ❞❡ ❢❛❧❤❛s ❡♠ ❛❧❣✉♥s ♥ós ✭❡①✳✿ r♦t❡❛❞♦r❡s✮✳ ❆ ❝❛♠❛❞❛ ❞❡ ❚r❛♥s♣♦rt❡ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ ❛ ❝♦♥✈❡rs❛çã♦ ❞♦s ♣❛r❡s ❞♦s ❤♦sts ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠ ❡ ❞❡st✐♥♦✳

◆❛ ■♥t❡r♥❡t✱ ♦s ♣r♦t♦❝♦❧♦s ♠❛✐s ❝♦♠✉♥s sã♦ ♦ ■P ✭■♥t❡r♥❡t Pr♦t♦❝♦❧✮ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❝❛✲ ♠❛❞❛ ❞❡ ❘❡❞❡❀ ❡ ♦ ❚❈P ✭❚r❛♥s♠✐ss✐♦♥ ❈♦♥tr♦❧ Pr♦t♦❝♦❧✮ ❡ ♦ ❯❉P ✭❯s❡r ❉❛t❛❣r❛♠ Pr♦t♦❝♦❧✮ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❝❛♠❛❞❛ ❞❡ ❚r❛♥s♣♦rt❡✳ ❖ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❚❈P✴■P ♥ã♦ t❡♠ ❛s ❝❛♠❛❞❛s ❞❡ s❡ssã♦ ♦✉ ❞❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦✱ ❛♦ ✐♥✈és ❞✐ss♦✱ ❛s ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s s✐♠♣❧❡s♠❡♥t❡ ✐♥❝❧✉❡♠ q✉❛✐sq✉❡r ❢✉♥çõ❡s ❞❡ s❡ssã♦ ❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ q✉❡ ❢♦r❡♠ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛s ✭❬❚❛♥❡♥❜❛✉♠✱ ✷✵✶✶❪✮✳

✷✳✶✳✶ Pr♦t♦❝♦❧♦s ■P✱ ❯❉P ❡ ❚❈P

❖ ♣r♦t♦❝♦❧♦ ■P é ♦ ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦ q✉❡ ♠❛♥té♠ ❛ ■♥t❡r♥❡t ✉♥✐❞❛✱ ♣❡r♠✐t✐♥❞♦ ♦ r♦t❡❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ♣❛❝♦t❡s ❞❛ ♦r✐❣❡♠ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❞❡st✐♥♦ s❡♠ ❣❛r❛♥t✐❛s✱ ✐♥❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ ❞❡ ❡ss❛s ♠áq✉✐♥❛s ❡st❛r❡♠ ♥❛ ♠❡s♠❛ r❡❞❡ ♦✉ ❞❡ ❤❛✈❡r ♦✉tr❛s r❡❞❡s ❡♥tr❡ ❡❧❛s✳ ❖s r♦t❡❛❞♦r❡s ■P ❡♥❝❛✲ ♠✐♥❤❛♠ ❝❛❞❛ ♣❛❝♦t❡ ♣❡❧❛ ■♥t❡r♥❡t✱ ♣♦r ✉♠ ❝❛♠✐♥❤♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ r♦t❡❛❞♦r ♣❛r❛ ♦ s❡❣✉✐♥t❡✱ ❛té q✉❡ ♦ ❞❡st✐♥♦ s❡❥❛ ❛❧❝❛♥ç❛❞♦✳ ◆♦ ❞❡st✐♥♦✱ ❛ ❝❛♠❛❞❛ ❞❡ ❘❡❞❡ ❡♥tr❡❣❛ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s à ❝❛♠❛❞❛ ❞❡ ❚r❛♥s♣♦rt❡✱ q✉❡ ♦s ♦❢❡r❡❝❡ ❛♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ r❡❝❡♣t♦r✳ ❖ ♣r♦t♦❝♦❧♦ ■P ♠❛✐s ❝♦♠✉♠ ❛t✉❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ é ♦ ■P ✈❡rsã♦ ✹ ✭■P✈✹✮✱ ❡♠ q✉❡ ✉♠ ❞❛t❛❣r❛♠❛ ■P✈✹ ❝♦♥s✐st❡ ❡♠ ♣❛rt❡ ❞❡ ❝❛❜❡ç❛❧❤♦ ❡ ✉♠❛ ♣❛rt❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✱ ❝♦♥❢♦r♠❡ ❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✶✳ ❖ ❝❛❜❡ç❛❧❤♦ t❡♠ ✉♠❛ ♣❛rt❡ ✜①❛ ❞❡ ✷✵ ❜②t❡s ❡ ✉♠❛ ♣❛rt❡ ♦♣❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ t❛♠❛♥❤♦ ✈❛r✐á✈❡❧ ❞❡ ❛té ✹✵ ❜②t❡s✳ ❖ t❛♠❛♥❤♦ t♦t❛❧ ❞♦ ❞❛t❛❣r❛♠❛ é ❞❡ ✻✺✳✺✸✺ ❜②t❡s✱ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛♥❞♦ ♦ ❝❛❜❡ç❛❧❤♦ ❡ ♦ ❝❛♠♣♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✳

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✷✳ ❘❡❢❡r❡♥❝✐❛❧ ❚❡ór✐❝♦ ✽

❆ ■♥t❡r♥❡t ♣♦ss✉✐ ❞♦✐s ♣r♦t♦❝♦❧♦s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ♥❛ ❝❛♠❛❞❛ ❞❡ ❚r❛♥s♣♦rt❡✱ ♦ ❯❉P ❡ ♦ ❚❈P✳ ❖ ♣r♦t♦❝♦❧♦ ❯❉P é ♦ ♠❛✐s s✐♠♣❧❡s✱ ♥ã♦ ♦r✐❡♥t❛❞♦ à ❝♦♥❡①õ❡s✱ ❝❛♣❛③ ❞❡ ❡♥✈✐❛r ❞❛t❛❣r❛♠❛s ■P ❡♥❝❛♣s✉❧❛❞♦s s❡♠ q✉❡ s❡❥❛ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐♦ ❡st❛❜❡❧❡❝❡r ✉♠❛ ❝♦♥❡①ã♦✳ ❖ ❝❛❜❡ç❛❧❤♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♣❛❝♦t❡ ❯❉P é ❝♦♠♣♦st♦ ♣♦r ✽ ❜②t❡s✱ s❡❣✉✐❞♦ ♣❡❧❛ ❝❛r❣❛ út✐❧✱ ♠♦str❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✷✳ ❊♠ s❡✉s ❝❛♠♣♦s t❡♠♦s ❛ ✏P♦rt❛ ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠✑ ❡ ✏P♦rt❛ ❞❡ ❞❡st✐♥♦✑ q✉❡ s❡r✈❡♠ ♣❛r❛ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r ♦s ♣♦♥t♦s ❡①tr❡♠♦s ♥❛s ♠áq✉✐♥❛s ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠ ❡ ❞❡st✐♥♦✳ ❖ ✏❈♦♠♣r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ❯❉P✑ ✐♥❝❧✉✐ ♦ ❝❛❜❡ç❛❧❤♦ ❞❡ ✽ ❜②t❡s ❡ ♦s ❞❛❞♦s✳ ❖ ❝♦♠♣r✐♠❡♥t♦ ♠í♥✐♠♦ é ❞❡ ✽ ❜②t❡s ❡ ♦ ♠á①✐♠♦ é ❞❡ ✻✺✳✺✶✺ ❜②t❡s✱ ❞❡✈✐❞♦ ❛♦ ❧✐♠✐t❡ ❞❡ t❛♠❛♥❤♦ ♥♦s ♣❛❝♦t❡s ■P✳ ❯♠ ❝❛♠♣♦ ♦♣❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❡ ✏❈❤❡❝❦s✉♠ ❞♦ ❯❉P✑ é ❢♦r♥❡❝✐❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❣❡r❛r ❝♦♥✜❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❡①tr❛✳ ❊❧❡ ❢❛③ ♦ ❝❤❡❝❦s✉♠ ❞♦ ❝❛❜❡ç❛❧❤♦✱ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❡ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♣s❡✉❞♦❝❛❜❡ç❛❧❤♦ ❝♦♥❝❡✐t✉❛❧ ❞♦ ■P✳

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✷✳ ❖ ❝❛❜❡ç❛❧❤♦ ❯❉P ❬❚❛♥❡♥❜❛✉♠✱ ✷✵✶✶❪

❖ ♣r♦t♦❝♦❧♦ ❚❈P é ✉♠ ♣r♦t♦❝♦❧♦ ♦r✐❡♥t❛❞♦ à ❝♦♥❡①õ❡s✱ ❝♦♥✜á✈❡❧✱ q✉❡ ♣❡r♠✐t❡ ❛ ❡♥tr❡❣❛ s❡♠ ❡rr♦s ❞❡ ✉♠ ✢✉①♦ ❞❡ ❜②t❡s✱ ♥♦ q✉❛❧ é ❢r❛❣♠❡♥t❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ ❡♠ ♠❡♥s❛❣❡♥s ❞✐s❝r❡t❛s ❡ ♣❛ss❛ ❝❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ ❞❡❧❛s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❝❛♠❛❞❛ ❞❡ ❘❡❞❡ ❡✱ ♥♦ ❞❡st✐♥♦✱ ♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❚❈P r❡❝❡♣t♦r ✈♦❧t❛ ❛ ♠♦♥t❛r ❛s ♠❡♥s❛❣❡♥s r❡❝❡❜✐❞❛s ♥♦ ✢✉①♦ ❞❡ s❛í❞❛✳ ❖ ❚❈P t❛♠❜é♠ ❝✉✐❞❛ ❞♦ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡ ❞❡ ✢✉①♦✱ ✐♠♣❡❞✐♥❞♦ q✉❡ ✉♠ tr❛♥s♠✐ss♦r s♦❜r❡❝❛rr❡❣✉❡ ✉♠ r❡❝❡♣t♦r ❧❡♥t♦ ❝♦♠ ✉♠ ✈♦❧✉♠❡ ❞❡ s❡❣♠❡♥t♦s ♠❛✐♦r ❞♦ q✉❡ ❡❧❡ ♣♦❞❡ ♠❛♥✐♣✉❧❛r ❬❚❛♥❡♥❜❛✉♠✱ ✷✵✶✶❪✳

❆s ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s tr❛♥s♠✐ss♦r❛s ❡ r❡❝❡♣t♦r❛s ❞♦ ❚❈P tr♦❝❛♠ ❞❛❞♦s ♥❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡ s❡❣✲ ♠❡♥t♦s✳ ❯♠ s❡❣♠❡♥t♦ ❚❈P ❝♦♥s✐st❡ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❝❛❜❡ç❛❧❤♦ ✜①♦ ❞❡ ✷✵ ❜②t❡s ❡ ✉♠❛ ♣❛rt❡ ♦♣❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ s❡❣✉✐❞♦ ♣♦r ✉♠❛ ♣❛rt❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s✳ ❖ s♦❢t✇❛r❡ ❚❈P ❞❡❝✐❞❡ q✉❛❧ ❞❡✈❡ s❡r ♦ s❡✉ t❛♠❛♥❤♦✱ ♥♦ ❡♥t❛♥t♦✱ ❞♦✐s ❢❛t♦r❡s r❡str✐♥❣❡♠ ♦ t❛♠❛♥❤♦ ❞❡❧❡s✳ Pr✐♠❡✐r♦✱ ❝❛❞❛ s❡❣♠❡♥t♦ ❚❈P ❞❡✈❡ ❝❛❜❡r ♥❛ ❝❛r❣❛ út✐❧ ❞♦ ■P✱ q✉❡ é ❞❡ ✻✺✳✺✶✺ ❜②t❡s ❡✱ s❡❣✉♥❞♦✱ ❝❛❞❛ ❡♥❧❛❝❡ ❣❡r❛❧♠❡♥t❡ t❡♠ ✉♠❛ ✉♥✐❞❛❞❡ ♠á①✐♠❛ ❞❡ tr❛♥s❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ✭▼❚❯ ✲ ▼❛①✐♠✉♠ ❚r❛♥s✲ ❢❡r ❯♥✐t✮ ❡✱ ♦ s❡❣♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡✈❡ ❝❛❜❡r ♥❛ ▼❚❯ ❞♦ tr❛♥s♠✐ss♦r ❡ ❞♦ r❡❝❡♣t♦r✱ ❞❡ ♠♦❞♦ q✉❡ ♣♦ss❛ s❡r ❡♥✈✐❛❞♦ ❡ r❡❝❡❜✐❞♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ú♥✐❝♦ ♣❛❝♦t❡ ♥ã♦ ❢r❛❣♠❡♥t❛❞♦✳ ◆❛ ♣rát✐❝❛✱ ❛ ▼❚❯ ❣❡r❛❧♠❡♥t❡ t❡♠ ✶✳✺✵✵ ❜②t❡s✱ t❛♠❛♥❤♦ ❞❛ ❝❛r❣❛ út✐❧ ❞♦s q✉❛❞r♦s ❊t❤❡r♥❡t ❡✱ ♣♦rt❛♥t♦✱ ❞❡✜♥❡ ♦ ❧✐♠✐t❡ s✉♣❡r✐♦r ❞❡ t❛♠❛♥❤♦ ❞♦s s❡❣♠❡♥t♦s ❬❚❛♥❡♥❜❛✉♠✱ ✷✵✶✶❪✳

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✷✳ ❘❡❢❡r❡♥❝✐❛❧ ❚❡ór✐❝♦ ✾

❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞♦✳

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✷✳✸✳ ❖ ❝❛❜❡ç❛❧❤♦ ❚❈P ❬❚❛♥❡♥❜❛✉♠✱ ✷✵✶✶❪

❖s ❝❛♠♣♦s ✏P♦rt❛ ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠✑ ❡ ✏P♦rt❛ ❞❡ ❞❡st✐♥♦✑ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛♠ ♦s ♣♦♥t♦s t❡r♠✐✲ ♥❛✐s ❞❛ ❝♦♥❡①ã♦✱ ❞❛ ♠❡s♠❛ ❢♦r♠❛ q✉❡ ❞♦ ❯❉P✳ ❆ ♣♦rt❛ ❚❈P ♠❛✐s ♦ ❡♥❞❡r❡ç♦ ■P ❞❡ s❡✉ ❤♦st ❢♦r♠❛ ✉♠❛ ❡①tr❡♠✐❞❛❞❡ ❡①❝❧✉s✐✈❛ ❞❡ ✹✽ ❜✐ts✳ ❆s ❡①tr❡♠✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ♦r✐❣❡♠ ❡ ❞❡st✐♥♦ ❥✉♥t❛s ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛♠ ❛ ❝♦♥❡①ã♦✳ ❖s ❝❛♠♣♦s ✏◆ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ s❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛✑ ❡ ✏◆ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜r♠❛çã♦✑ ❞❡s❡♠♣❡♥❤❛♠ s✉❛s ❢✉♥çõ❡s ❤❛❜✐t✉❛✐s✱ s❡♥❞♦ ♦ s❡❣✉♥❞♦ ❛ ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♣ró①✐♠♦ ❜②t❡ ❡s♣❡r❛❞♦✳ ❖ ❝❛♠♣♦ ✏❈♦♠♣r✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ❝❛❜❡ç❛❧❤♦ ❚❈P✑ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛ q✉❛♥t❛s ♣❛❧❛✈r❛s ❞❡ ✸✷ ❜✐ts ❡①✐st❡♠ ♥♦ ❝❛❜❡ç❛❧❤♦ ❚❈P✳ ❊ss❛ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ é ♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛✱ ♣❡❧♦ ❢❛t♦ ❞♦ ❝❛❜❡ç❛❧❤♦ t❡r t❛♠❛♥❤♦ ✈❛r✐á✈❡❧✱ ❞❡✈✐❞♦ ❛♦ ❝❛♠♣♦ ✏❖♣çõ❡s✑✳ ❊♠ s❡❣✉✐❞❛✱ ❡①✐st❡ ✉♠ ❝❛♠♣♦ ❞❡ ✹ ❜✐ts q✉❡ ♥ã♦ é ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ❡ ✽ ✢❛❣s ❞❡ ✶ ❜✐t ❬❚❛♥❡♥❜❛✉♠✱ ✷✵✶✶❪✳

❆s ✢❛❣s ❈❲❘ ✭❈♦♥❣❡st✐♦♥ ❲✐♥❞♦✇ ❘❡❞✉❝❡❞✮ ❡ ❊❈❊ ✭❊❈◆✲❊❝❤♦✮ sã♦ ✉s❛❞❛s ♣❛r❛ s✐♥❛❧✐③❛r ❝♦♥❣❡st✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❛♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ❊❈◆ ✭❊①♣❧✐❝✐t ❈♦♥❣❡st✐♦♥ ◆♦t✐✜❝❛t✐♦♥✮✳ ❆ ❊❈❊ é ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛ ♣❛r❛ s✐♥❛❧✐③❛r ✉♠❛ ♠❡♥s❛❣❡♠ ❊❈◆✲❊❝❤♦ ❛ ✉♠ tr❛♥s♠✐ss♦r ❚❈P ♣❛r❛ s♦❧✐❝✐t❛r ❛ r❡❞✉çã♦ ❞❡ ✈❡❧♦❝✐❞❛❞❡ q✉❛♥❞♦ ♦ r❡❝❡♣t♦r ❚❈P r❡❝❡❜❡r ✉♠❛ ✐♥❞✐❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❣❡st✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ r❡❞❡✳ ❆ ✢❛❣ ❈❲❘ é ✉s❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ s✐♥❛❧✐③❛r ✏❏❛♥❡❧❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❣❡st✐♦♥❛✲ ♠❡♥t♦ r❡❞✉③✐❞❛✑ ❞♦ tr❛♥s♠✐ss♦r ❚❈P ♣❛r❛ ♦ r❡❝❡♣t♦r ❚❈P✱ ❞❡ ♠♦❞♦ q✉❡ ❡❧❡ s❛✐❜❛ q✉❡ ♦ tr❛♥s♠✐ss♦r ❞✐♠✐♥✉✐✉ ❛ ✈❡❧♦❝✐❞❛❞❡ ❡ ♣♦❞❡ ♣❛r❛r ❞❡ ❡♥✈✐❛r ✉♠❛ ♠❡♥s❛❣❡♠ ❊❈◆✲❊❝❤♦ ❬❚❛♥❡♥❜❛✉♠✱ ✷✵✶✶❪✳

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✷✳ ❘❡❢❡r❡♥❝✐❛❧ ❚❡ór✐❝♦ ✶✵

➚ ✢❛❣ ❆❈❑ é ❛tr✐❜✉í❞♦ ♦ ❜✐t ✶ ♣❛r❛ ✐♥❞✐❝❛r q✉❡ ♦ ✏◆ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜r♠❛çã♦✑ é ✈á❧✐❞♦✳ ■ss♦ ❛❝♦♥t❡❝❡ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠❛✐♦r✐❛ ❞♦s s❡❣♠❡♥t♦s✳ ❙❡ ❆❈❑ ❢♦r ✐❣✉❛❧ ❛ ③❡r♦✱ s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛ q✉❡ ♦ s❡❣♠❡♥t♦ ♥ã♦ ❝♦♥té♠ ✉♠❛ ❝♦♥✜r♠❛çã♦ ❡ ❛ss✐♠ ♦ ❝❛♠♣♦ ✏◆ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥✜r♠❛çã♦✑ é ✐❣♥♦r❛❞♦ ❬❚❛♥❡♥❜❛✉♠✱ ✷✵✶✶❪✳

❆ ✢❛❣ P❙❍ ✐♥❞✐❝❛ ❞❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ P❯❙❍✱ ♥♦ q✉❛❧ ♦ r❡❝❡♣t♦r é s♦❧✐❝✐t❛❞♦ ❛ ❡♥tr❡❣❛r ♦s ❞❛❞♦s à ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ♠❡❞✐❛♥t❡ s✉❛ ❝❤❡❣❛❞❛✱ ❡♠ ✈❡③ ❞❡ ❛r♠❛③❡♥á✲❧♦s ❛té q✉❡ ✉♠ ❜✉✛❡r ❝♦♠♣❧❡t♦ t❡♥❤❛ s✐❞♦ r❡❝❡❜✐❞♦✳ ❆ ✢❛❣ ❘❙❚ é ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ r❡✐♥✐❝✐❛r ✉♠❛ ❝♦♥❡①ã♦ q✉❡ t❡♥❤❛ ✜❝❛❞♦ ❝♦♥❢✉s❛ ❞❡✈✐❞♦ ❛ ✉♠❛ ❢❛❧❤❛ ♥♦ ❤♦st ♦✉ ♣♦r q✉❛❧q✉❡r ♦✉tr❛ r❛③ã♦✳ ❆ ❘❙❚ t❛♠❜é♠ é ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ r❡❥❡✐t❛r ✉♠ s❡❣♠❡♥t♦ ✐♥✈á❧✐❞♦ ♦✉ ♣❛r❛ r❡❝✉s❛r ✉♠❛ t❡♥t❛t✐✈❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❡①ã♦✳ ❊♠ ❣❡r❛❧✱ s❡ r❡❝❡❜❡r ✉♠ s❡❣♠❡♥t♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ❜✐t ❘❙❚ ❛t✐✈❛❞♦✱ ♣♦❞❡ ✐♥❞✐❝❛r ❛❧❣✉♠ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❬❚❛♥❡♥❜❛✉♠✱ ✷✵✶✶❪✳

❆s ❞❡♠❛✐s ✢❛❣s✱ ❙❨◆ ❡ ❋■◆✱ sã♦ ✉s❛❞❛s r❡s♣❡❝t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❡st❛❜❡❧❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ❡♥❝❡rr❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❡①õ❡s✳ ❆ s♦❧✐❝✐t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❡①ã♦ t❡♠ ❙❨◆❂✶ ❡ ❆❈❑❂✵ ✭❈❖◆✲ ◆❊❈❚■❖◆ ❘❊◗❯❊❙❚ ✮ ❡ ❛ r❡s♣♦st❛ ❝♦♥té♠ ✉♠❛ ❝♦♥✜r♠❛çã♦ ❡✱ ♣♦rt❛♥t♦✱ ❙❨◆❂✶ ❡ ❆❈❑❂✶ ✭❈❖◆◆❊❈❚■❖◆ ❆❈❈❊P❚❊❉✮✳ ❆ ✢❛❣ ❋■◆ ✐♥❞✐❝❛ q✉❡ ♦ tr❛♥s♠✐ss♦r ♥ã♦ t❡♠ ♠❛✐s ❞❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ tr❛♥s♠✐t✐r ❬❚❛♥❡♥❜❛✉♠✱ ✷✵✶✶❪✳

❖s ❞❡♠❛✐s ❝❛♠♣♦s✱ ✏❚❛♠❛♥❤♦ ❞❡ ❥❛♥❡❧❛✑ ✐♥❞✐❝❛ q✉❛♥t♦s ❜②t❡s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ❡♥✈✐❛❞♦s ❛ ♣❛rt✐r ❞♦ ❜②t❡ ❝♦♥✜r♠❛❞♦✱ ♦ ✏❈❤❡❝❦s✉♠✑ q✉❡ é ❢♦r♥❡❝✐❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛✉♠❡♥t❛r ❛ ❝♦♥✜❛❜✐❧✐✲ ❞❛❞❡✱ ❝♦♥❢❡r✐♥❞♦ ♦ ❝❤❡❝❦s✉♠ ❞♦ ❝❛❜❡ç❛❧❤♦✱ ❞♦s ❞❛❞♦s ❡ ❞♦ ♣s❡✉❞♦❝❛❜❡ç❛❧❤♦✱ ❡ ♦ ❝❛♠♣♦ ✏❖♣çõ❡s✑ q✉❡ ❢♦✐ ♣r♦❥❡t❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛ ❢♦r♥❡❝❡r r❡❝✉rs♦s ❡①tr❛s✱ q✉❡ ♥ã♦ ❢♦r❛♠ ♣r❡✈✐st♦s ♥♦ ❝❛❜❡ç❛❧❤♦ ❝♦♠✉♠✱ ♣♦❞❡♥❞♦ t❡r ❛té ✹✵ ❜②t❡s ❬❚❛♥❡♥❜❛✉♠✱ ✷✵✶✶❪✳

❊st❛ s❡çã♦ t❡✈❡ ♣♦r ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛r ❛❧❣✉♥s ❝♦♥❝❡✐t♦s q✉❡✱ ❛♣❡s❛r ❞❡ s❡r❡♠ ❜ás✐❝♦s ❞❛ ár❡❛ ❞❡ ❘❡❞❡s ❞❡ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r❡s✱ ❢♦r❛♠ ❡ss❡♥❝✐❛✐s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳ ■ss♦ ♣❡r♠✐t✐✉ ✉♠ ♠❛✐♦r ❡s❝❧❛r❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛s ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ♣r❡s❡♥t❡s ♥❛ ❜❛s❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ✉s❛❞❛ ❝♦♠♦✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ ❝❛♠♣♦s ❞♦s ♣r♦t♦❝♦❧♦s✱ ✢❛❣s ❡ st❛t✉s ❞❛s ❝♦♥❡①õ❡s✳

✷✳✷ ❙❡❣✉r❛♥ç❛ ❡♠ ❘❡❞❡s ❞❡ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r❡s

❆ s❡❣✉r❛♥ç❛ ❡♠ r❡❞❡s ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r❡s ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❞❡✜♥✐❞❛ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠❛ s✐t✉❛çã♦ s❡♠ r✐s❝♦ ♦✉ s❡♠ s❡♥s♦ ❞❡ ❛♠❡❛ç❛ ❡ é ❝❛r❛❝t❡r✐③❛❞❛ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ❛❧❣✉♠❛s ♣r♦♣r✐❡❞❛❞❡s ❜ás✐❝❛s✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❝♦♥✜❞❡♥❝✐❛❧✐❞❛❞❡✱ ✐♥t❡❣r✐❞❛❞❡✱ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡✱ ❛✉t❡♥t✐❝❛çã♦ ❡ ♦ ♥ã♦ r❡♣ú❞✐♦✳

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✷✳ ❘❡❢❡r❡♥❝✐❛❧ ❚❡ór✐❝♦ ✶✶

t✐♠♦ ❡ ❛ ❛✉t❡♥t✐❝❛çã♦ t❡♠ ♣♦r ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❛ss❡❣✉r❛r q✉❡ ❛ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ♣r♦✈é♠ ❞❛s ❢♦♥t❡s ❡♥✉♥❝✐❛❞❛s✳ P♦r ✜♠✱ ♦ ♥ã♦ r❡♣ú❞✐♦ ✈✐s❛ ❣❛r❛♥t✐r q✉❡ ♦ ❛✉t♦r ❞❛ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çã♦ ♥ã♦ ♥❡❣✉❡ t❡r r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞❛ ❛çã♦ ❬❉♦✉❧✐❣❡r✐s ✫ ❙❡r♣❛♥♦s✱ ✷✵✵✼❪✳

❆t✉❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ♠✐❧❤❛r❡s ❞❡ ♣❡ss♦❛s ✉s❛♠ ❛s r❡❞❡s ♣❛r❛ ❡①❡❝✉t❛r ♦♣❡r❛çõ❡s ❜❛♥❝ár✐❛s✱ r❡❛❧✐③❛r ❝♦♠♣r❛s ❡ ♦✉tr❛s ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡s✱ s✉r❣✐♥❞♦ ♣♦♥t♦s ❢❛❧❤♦s ❡ ❛ s❡❣✉r❛♥ç❛ t♦r♥♦✉✲s❡ ✉♠ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❞❡ ❣r❛♥❞❡s ♣r♦♣♦rçõ❡s✳

❆ ♠❛✐♦r ♣❛rt❡ ❞♦s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❞❡ s❡❣✉r❛♥ç❛ é ❝❛✉s❛❞❛ ♣r♦♣♦s✐t❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ♣♦r ♣❡s✲ s♦❛s ♠❛❧✲✐♥t❡♥❝✐♦♥❛❞❛s✱ q✉❡ t❡♥t❛♠ ♦❜t❡r ❛❧❣✉♠ ❜❡♥❡❢í❝✐♦✳ ❆❧❣✉♥s ❞♦s ✐♥✈❛s♦r❡s ♠❛✐s ❝♦♠✉♥s sã♦ ♣❡ss♦❛s r❡ss❡♥t✐❞❛s ❝♦♠ ❛ ♦r❣❛♥✐③❛çã♦ ❛ q✉❡ ♣❡rt❡♥❝❡♠✳ ❖s s✐st❡♠❛s ❞❡ s❡❣✉r❛♥ç❛ ❞❡✈❡♠ s❡r ♣r♦❥❡t❛❞♦s t❡♥❞♦ ❡♠ ✈✐st❛ ❡ss❡ ❢❛t♦ ❡ ♥ã♦ ❛♣❡♥❛s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s ❝♦♠♦ ❡rr♦s ❞❡ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛çã♦ ❬❚❛♥❡♥❜❛✉♠✱ ✷✵✶✶❪✳

❈♦♥t✉❞♦✱ ❛ ❛♠♣❧❛ ✈❛r✐❡❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ s✐st❡♠❛s ❡ t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s q✉❡ ♣r❡❝✐s❛♠ ❡st❛r ♣r♦t❡✲ ❣✐❞♦s t❡♥❞❡ ❛ s❡r ✉♠ ❞✐✜❝✉❧t❛❞♦r ♣❛r❛ ♦s ❛♥❛❧✐st❛s ❞❡ s❡❣✉r❛♥ç❛✳ ❆s ❡♠♣r❡s❛s ❣❛st❛♠ ♠✐❧❤õ❡s ❞❡ ❞♦❧ár❡s ❡♠ ❡q✉✐♣❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ♣❡ss♦❛❧ ♣❛r❛ ♣r♦t❡❣❡r ✏❝♦✐s❛s✑ q✉❡ ♥ã♦ ♣r❡❝✐s❛♠ ❞❡ ♣r♦t❡çã♦✳ P♦r ♦✉tr♦ ❧❛❞♦✱ ❝♦♥❝♦r❞❛♠ q✉❡ s❡✉s ✉s✉ár✐♦s✱ ❛❝✐❞❡♥t❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ♦✉ ♣♦r ✐♥✲ t❡♥çã♦✱ sã♦ s❡✉ ♠❛✐♦r ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❞❡ s❡❣✉r❛♥ç❛✱ ♣♦✐s ✉t✐❧✐③❛♠ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ✐♥❛♣r♦♣r✐❛❞❛ ♦s r❡❝✉rs♦s ❞❛ ❡♠♣r❡s❛✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♠á ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ s❡♥❤❛s ❞❡ ❛❝❡ss♦ ❡ r❡❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❞♦✇♥❧♦❛❞s ❞❡ ✈ír✉s ❡ s♦❢t✇❛r❡s ✐♥❞❡✈✐❞♦s ❬❙t❛❧❧✐♥❣s✱ ✷✵✶✵❪✳

❆✐♥❞❛ ❛ss✐♠✱ ♦s ❞✐s♣♦s✐t✐✈♦s ❞❡ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ✜♥❛❧✱ ❣❡r❛❧♠❡♥t❡ sã♦ ♦s ♠❛✐s ❝♦♠✉♥s ❞❡ s❡r❡♠ ❛t❛❝❛❞♦s✱ ❡ ❛ ♠❛✐♦r✐❛ ❞❛s ❛♠❡❛ç❛s ♣♦❞❡r✐❛♠ s❡r r❡s♦❧✈✐❞❛s ♦✉ ❜❧♦q✉❡❛❞❛s ❝♦♠ s✐♠♣❧❡s ❛t✉❛❧✐③❛çõ❡s ❞❡ s✐st❡♠❛s✱ ❛♥t✐✈ír✉s ❡ ✜r❡✇❛❧❧s ♣❡ss♦❛✐s✳ ❉❡ss❡ ♠♦❞♦✱ ❝♦♠ ❛ s❡❣✉r❛♥ç❛ ❞❡ r❡❞❡s ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r❡s✱ t❡♥t❛♠♦s ❡✈✐t❛r ♦ trá❢❡❣♦ s❡♠ ❛✉t♦r✐③❛çã♦ ❡ ❡♥t❡♥❞❡r ❛ ♥❛t✉r❡③❛ ❞❛ ❛♠❡❛ç❛✱ ❛ ✜♠ ❞❡ ❛ss❡❣✉r❛r ❛s s✉❛s ♣r♦♣r✐❡❞❛❞❡s ❜ás✐❝❛s✳

✷✳✷✳✶ ❈❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❆t❛q✉❡s

❯♠ ♠♦❞♦ ❞❡ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛r ♦s ❛t❛q✉❡s ❞❡ s❡❣✉r❛♥ç❛ é ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦ ♥❛ ❘❋❈ ✷✽✷✽✱ ♥❛ q✉❛❧ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛ ♦s ❛t❛q✉❡s ❝♦♠♦ ♣❛ss✐✈♦s ❡ ❛t✐✈♦s✳ ➚ ♠❡❞✐❞❛ q✉❡ ✉♠ ❛t❛q✉❡ ♣❛ss✐✈♦ t❡♥t❛ ❛♣r❡♥❞❡r ♦✉ ✉t✐❧✐③❛r ✐♥❢♦r♠❛çõ❡s ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ s❡♠ ❛❢❡t❛r ♦s r❡❝✉rs♦s ❞♦ ♠❡s♠♦✱ ✉♠ ❛t❛q✉❡ ❛t✐✈♦ t❡♥t❛ ❛❧t❡r❛r ♦s r❡❝✉rs♦s ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♦✉ ❛❢❡t❛r s✉❛ ♦♣❡r❛çã♦ ❬❙t❛❧❧✐♥❣s✱ ✷✵✶✵❪✳

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✷✳ ❘❡❢❡r❡♥❝✐❛❧ ❚❡ór✐❝♦ ✶✷

◆❡ss❡ t✐♣♦ ❞❡ ❛t❛q✉❡✱ ❛ ❞❡t❡❝çã♦ é ♠✉✐t♦ ❞✐❢í❝✐❧ ♣♦✐s ♥ã♦ ❡♥✈♦❧✈❡ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ❛❧✲ t❡r❛çã♦ ♥♦s ❞❛❞♦s✳ ❖ trá❢❡❣♦ ❞❡ ♠❡♥s❛❣❡♠ é ❡♥✈✐❛❞♦ ❡ r❡❝❡❜✐❞♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ♠❛♥❡✐r❛ ❛♣❛r❡♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ ♥♦r♠❛❧ ❡✱ ♦ r❡❝❡♣t♦r ❡ ♦ ❡♠✐ss♦r ♥ã♦ ♣❡r❝❡❜❡♠ q✉❡ t❡r❝❡✐r♦s ✐♥t❡r❝❡♣t❛✲ r❛♠ ❛ ♠❡♥s❛❣❡♠ ♦✉ q✉❡ ♦❜s❡r✈❛r❛♠ ♦ ♣❛❞rã♦ ❞♦ trá❢❡❣♦ tr❛♥s♠✐t✐❞♦ ❬❙t❛❧❧✐♥❣s✱ ✷✵✶✵❪✳ ❯♠ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ ♠✉✐t♦ ❝♦♠✉♠✱ ❡①❡♠♣❧✐✜❝❛❞♦ ♥♦s ✐♥❝✐❞❡♥t❡s ❞♦ ❈❊❘❚✳❜r ❬✷✵✶✹❪✱ sã♦ ♦s ❛t❛q✉❡s ❞❡ ✏s❝❛♥✑✱ q✉❡ r❡❛❧✐③❛ ✈❛rr❡❞✉r❛s ❡♠ r❡❞❡s ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r❡s✱ ❝♦♠ ♦ ✐♥t✉✐t♦ ❞❡ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r q✉❛✐s ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r❡s ❡stã♦ ❛t✐✈♦s ❡ q✉❛✐s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❡stã♦ s❡♥❞♦ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐✲ ❜✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♣♦r ❡❧❡s✳ ➱ ❛♠♣❧❛♠❡♥t❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♣♦r ❛t❛❝❛♥t❡s ♣❛r❛ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛r ♣♦t❡♥❝✐❛✐s ❛❧✈♦s✱ ♣♦✐s ♣❡r♠✐t❡ ❛ss♦❝✐❛r ♣♦ssí✈❡✐s ✈✉❧♥❡r❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❛♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❤❛❜✐❧✐t❛❞♦s ❡♠ ✉♠ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❞♦r✳

❯♠❛ té❝♥✐❝❛ ♣❛r❛ ♠❛s❝❛r❛r ♦ ❝♦♥t❡ú❞♦✱ ♣r♦t❡❣❡♥❞♦✲♦✱ é ❛ ❝r✐♣t♦❣r❛✜❛ ✭q✉❡ ✈❡♠ ❞❛s ♣❛❧❛✈r❛s ❣r❡❣❛s q✉❡ s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛♠ ✏❡s❝r✐t❛ s❡❝r❡t❛✑✮✱ ❡♠❜♦r❛ ❛✐♥❞❛ ♣❡r♠✐t❛ ❛ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡ ❛❧❣✉♠ ♣❛❞rã♦ ❞♦ trá❢❡❣♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♦r✐❣❡♠ ❡ ❞❡st✐♥♦ ❞❛ ♠❡♥s❛❣❡♠✱ t❛♠❛♥❤♦ ❞❛ ♠❡♥s❛❣❡♠✱ ❞✉r❛çã♦✱ ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛✱ ❡t❝✳

❖s ❛t❛q✉❡s ❛t✐✈♦s✱ ♥♦ ❡♥t❛♥t♦✱ sã♦ ❝❛r❛❝t❡r✐③❛❞♦s ♣♦r ❛❧❣✉♠❛ ♠♦❞✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ ✢✉①♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s tr❛♥s♠✐t✐❞♦✱ ♦✉ ❛té ♣❡❧❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ✢✉①♦ ❢❛❧s♦ ❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r s✉❜❞✐✈✐❞✐❞♦s ❡♠ q✉❛tr♦ ❝❛t❡❣♦r✐❛s✿ ❞❡ ❢❛❧s✐❞❛❞❡✱ ❞❡ r❡♣❡t✐çã♦✱ ❞❡ ♠♦❞✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♠❡♥s❛❣❡♥s ❡ ❞❡ ♥❡❣❛çã♦ ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦✳

❯♠ ❛t❛q✉❡ ❞❡ ❢❛❧s✐❞❛❞❡✱ ♣♦r ❡①❡♠♣❧♦✱ s❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛s ❞❡ ❛✉t❡♥t✐❝❛çã♦ sã♦ ❝❛♣t✉r❛❞❛s ❡ r❡♣❡t✐❞❛s ❛♣ós ✉♠❛ s❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ❛✉t❡♥t✐❝❛çã♦ ✈á❧✐❞❛✱ ♦❝♦rr❡ q✉❛♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ✜♥❣❡ s❡r ✉♠❛ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞✐❢❡r❡♥t❡ ❡✱ ♥♦r♠❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ✐♥❝❧✉✐ ✉♠❛ ❞❛s ♦✉tr❛s ❢♦r♠❛s ❞❡ ❛t❛q✉❡ ❛t✐✈♦✱ ❝♦♠♦ ♦ ❛t❛q✉❡ ❞❡ r❡♣❡t✐çã♦✳ ◆❡ss❡ ❝❛s♦✱ ❛ ❝❛♣t✉r❛ ♣❛ss✐✈❛ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ✉♥✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡ s✉❛ r❡tr❛♥s♠✐ssã♦ ♣♦❞❡♠ ♣r♦❞✉③✐r ✉♠ ❡❢❡✐t♦ ♥ã♦ ❛✉t♦r✐③❛❞♦ ❬❙t❛❧❧✐♥❣s✱ ✷✵✶✵❪✳ ❖✉tr♦ ❛t❛q✉❡✱ ❛ ♠♦❞✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♠❡♥s❛❣❡♥s✱ s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛ q✉❡ ❛❧❣✉♠❛ ♣❛rt❡ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ♠❡♥s❛❣❡♠ ❧❡❣ít✐♠❛ é ❛❧t❡r❛❞❛✱ ♦✉ q✉❡ ❡ss❛s ♠❡♥s❛❣❡♥s sã♦ ❛tr❛s❛❞❛s ♦✉ r❡♦r❞❡♥❛❞❛s✱ ❛ ✜♠ ❞❡ ♣r♦❞✉③✐r ✉♠ ❡❢❡✐t♦ ♥ã♦ ❛✉t♦r✐③❛❞♦✳ ❯♠ ❡①❡♠♣❧♦ s❡r✐❛ ❛ ❛❧t❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❡✲♠❛✐❧ ❡♠ q✉❡ ❝♦♥❝❡❞❡ ✉♠❛ ♣❡r♠✐ssã♦ ❞❡ ❛❝❡ss♦ ♣❛r❛ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛❞♦ ❝♦❧❛❜♦r❛❞♦r✳ ◆❡st❡ ❝❛s♦✱ ❛ ❛❧t❡r❛çã♦ ♣♦❞❡ s✐♠♣❧❡s♠❡♥t❡ ♥❡❣❛r ❡ss❛ ❛✉t♦r✐③❛çã♦ ♦✉ s✉❜st✐t✉✐r ♦ ♥♦♠❡ ❛✉t♦r✐③❛❞♦ ♣♦r ✉♠ t❡r❝❡✐r♦ ❬❙t❛❧❧✐♥❣s✱ ✷✵✶✵❪✳

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