Optimal Rate Based Image Transmission Scheme in Multi-rate Wireless Sensor Networks

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Optimal Rate Based Image Transmission

Scheme in Multi-rate Wireless Sensor


Mr. Jayachandran.A , * Dr.R.Dhanasekaran, Prof Rajan .P

Faculty of CSE , PSN College of Engineering and Technology *Principal , Syed Ammal Engineering college,Ramnad,India, jaya1jaya1@gmail, rdhanashekar@yahoo.com ,prajan1968@gmail.com Abstract

In image transmission application over WSN energy efficiency and image quality are both important factor for joint optimization. The large size image transmission cause bottleneck in WSN due to the limited energy resources and network capacity. Since some sensor are in similar viewing directions the images they are capture likely exhibit certain level of correlation among themselves. This optimization scheme allows each image sensor to transmit optimal functions of the overlapped images through appropriate multiple rate oriented routing paths. Moreover, we use unused segment loss protection with erasure codes of different strength to maximize the expected quality at the destination and propose a fast algorithm that find nearly optimal transmission strategies simulation results show that proposed the scheme achieves high energy efficiency in WSN enhancing the image transmission quality.


WSN –wireless sensor networks, Wavelet Domain, 1. INTRODUCTION

A growing number of sensor applications such as multimedia surveillance networks and monitoring needs the low cost small scale CMOS imaging sensor capturing multimedia content from the field. Because images need high bandwidth in transmission and to preserve their quality of service such as low latency and quality using traditional WSN layer protocol such

as WSN and application layer are proper[1] .The video stations are used partially overlapped geographical areas distributed video coding to explore the correlation between the multiple video

sequence at the decoder itself. In this paper a new image coding algorithm of separated sub tree based on no list set portioning in hierarchical trees is proposed to extend the longevity of the sensor networks. To decompose the I/P data ID 5/3 integer lifting scheme transformation is used. In the practical scenario parity bits are to be transmitted over the wireless channel which consists of additive white Gaussian noise and time varying fading. 2. RELATED WORKS

There are many research activities studying the problem of image transmission in wireless sensor networks. Occasional closes of sensor measurements can be tolerated or compensated through redundant sensor readings. How to energy efficiently transmit over image WSN by exploring unequal importance nature of position information and value information is not extensively discussed in this literature.


It shows the JPEG compression procedure, an image consists of one or more color components. They further presented a classifications machine learning based system in[7] to predicts the optimal MAC replay limits for various video packets. In[8] a cross layer problem was analyzed for distortion minimization given delay comprises the solution was desired high jointly adapting application layer packetization and priority based scheduling into MAC layer retransmission


The location of the mobile is sink .Its discuss in terms of hop count to the mobile sink for each neighbor b, the distance between the mobile sink & b the pseudo code of the iterative refinement algorithm IRA for K paths The algorithm computes a transmission strategy and starting for the solution of the successive optimization algorithm like SOA.


Here the spatial dependencies are not taken in to accounting i.e. the correlation noise is not varied for each pixel / blocks. Dynamic estimation of the noise variance is the part of the ongoing research work with the spatial relationship.

Scaling of block size and key size in AIDEA

Table 1 Scaling of IDEA

Block Size

Sub Block Size

Key Size

Sub Key Size

No. of Keys

No. of Rounds

Full scale

64,16 128 16 52 52 8 Half


32,8 64 8 40 40 6 Quarter


16,4 32 4 28 28 4

 Wireless sensor networks have stringent resource constraints

 Wireless sensor networks are expected to operate un maintained for long periods or their life time.

 Wireless sensor networks are unreliable and have time and space varying channel conditions. The extended watermark is able to be recognizable and the image can be asserted and authenticated offer its recovery at the receiver site

The approach considers the difference of the inter time and can reduce the computation complexity and processing delay. Thus the real time performance could be achieved.

With respect to selective watermark position neighbor information in wavelet domain and its children wavelet coefficients. It could achieve more robustness and responsibility.

The approach joins with resource allocation and coding redundancy optimization to be adaptive in the network environment therefore it is energy aware water marking system which achieves both energy saving and high security.

An efficient compression and robust transmission scheme

A light weight open architecture supporting application development and different hardware platforms. A different hardware platforms for Wireless sensor networks nodes

Initialization before deployment the node receives a market keys k, a node identifier ID and a random vector A Pair wise key establishment – the node sends broadcasting and receives broadcasting from its neighbors . After that it establishes the pairwise keys the combining the water marking key with its neighbor vector.

Cluster key establishment – each node establishes the cluster key by combining the master key and the cluster head identities

According to the clustering algorithm all the nodes compute to become a cluster head once they are deployed then generate a node type identifier L, L(0,1). 0 stands for number which one stands for cluster head. Node Ni,

sends the broadcasting and receives broadcasting from its neighboring. Then its calculating the key parameter b if T.The cluster head sends broadcasting to inform other nodes that Nj was captured all the nodes find whether

have shared keys with Nj delete them when they have. Cluster heads generate a new vector AjT using the

random number generator then combine AjT with K to establish a net cluster key. The cluster head sends

broadcasting to the un captured node in uni-cast node.


Key – the cluster key Kj and add all pair wise keys Kjx. The number of nodes to be generated is assigned first.

The source node and the destination node are assigned. The next step is to find the optimal path of data transfer by using the weight based AODV protocol.

Mobility – Accessing methods and functioning portable devices exhibit different properties like sometimes stationery and sometimes moving as they are carried by user. The device complexity varies from simple to stand alone systems. There will be large variation in resources , capabilities and communication patterns. Thus the mobile devices have variation in functioning , mobility and accessing methods. The heterogeneous protocol services discovery the heterogeneity in protocols to discovery and access service is handled by accommodating multiprotocol service discovery with different communication paradigms like RPC , event based request response publish , subscribe etc., Programming interface has to take care of heterogeneity of device capability to support application portability. Uniform portability. Uniform programming interface can be achieved by modeling the device having different capabilities and a device specific communication model can be used separating the communication model from application. In order to allow the devices to a minimum functionality is implemented on the devices and this can be enhanced depending on the availability of the resource in the device. Some of the above mentioned facilities are supported by classical middleware for distributed application for resource rich platforms.

Reduced foot print – The infrastructure should be small enough to fit into small devices without affecting the working environment of the devices. Dynamic adaptation must be dynamic, automatic without user integration. Required functionalities should be added and removed as per the requirement without stopping the application . The flexible architecture functionalities required for application can be provided by local repository released connected devices or a remote repository. The platform independent architecture using components can be implemented on resource rich as well as resource poor devices and provide flexible platform for implementation of vendor specific applications.

Availability – To measure the readiness of correct service. Attack against availability is mainly denial of service attacks.

Integrity – is the absence of improper system store alterations common threat against this is web defacement attack.

Confidentiality – is the prevention of un authorized disclosure of information.

Linguistic variable – A linguistic variable is a variable that apart from representing a fuzzy number also represents linguistic concept interrupted in a particular content.

Improving lifetime of large scale of WSN through heterogeneity – the base station sink node is located inside the sensing field. Nodes are deployed randomly in a squared area. Communication within the square area is not subjected to multipath fading. Nodes in the sensor field are heterogeneous in terms of in terms of energy. Two types of nodes and advancing nodes. The communication channel is symmetric. Data gathered can be aggregated into single packet by CH.


1. Run processor identification routine to identify the processor data handling capacity and the clock speed.

2. If PC=64 bits CS>=2MHZ stanfull scaled IDEA else if PC=32 bits CS>=500mhz && CS <2 GHZ run half scaled IDEA else display “resources un suitable for implementation of AIDEA.

3. Preparing the documents and retrieving the document sniffers from google and parsing and streaming the results.

4. Suffix free construction inserting the string associated with each documentation on the suffix free 5. Merging the cluster inserting the string associated with each document on the suffix free.


Table 2

Resonant frequency and Bandwidth (Existing)






0.2 3.85,9.33


0.5 3.73,6.03,9.30 7.3

0.8 3.46,4.95,6.45,9.76


Table 3

Resonant Frequency and Bandwidth (Proposed)






1.3 3.85,6.06,9.75


1.8 3.73,6.03,9.20


2.3 3.75,5.68,9.11



The Tables 4 , 5 and Chart are used to compare the results

Table 4 Quality Measure

Laplacia n of Guassia


Hessian Frangi SOBEL PREWI TT


Value 1.0000 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 Avg.

Differenc e

-0.9621 -0.0667 -0.0230 -0.0249 -0.2845


different 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 Mean

square error

8.5806 0.0667 0.1059 0.0285 0.2845

Normaliz ed absolute


16.0819 1.0000 2.3267 0.0006 0.0006

Normaliz ed cross error

0.3809 0.0000 0.0091 1.0006 1.0006

Peak signal to

noise ratio

38.7956 59.8830 578808

.0000 63.5888


Table 5


Since there are pilot bits involved the data rate is reduced. Adopting a better covering algorithm for adaptation reduces the number of pilot bits per coherence time which gives a considerable increase. Most channels are non systematic. By finding the correlation between the channel path and its inverse path will make the model generalized to be suited for any slow fading environment. This can be extended to OFDM which provides low complex and effective means of ISI elimination for transmission over frequency selective environment[5][8]. The simulation parameters are:

Number of node used : 22500

Quality Measure





LOCA L Alpha

Value 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 Avg.

Differen ce

-0.0193 -0.0729 -0.1546 -0.2616 -0.4482


different 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 Mean

square error

0.0193 0.0729 0.1546 0.2616 0.0942

Normaliz ed absolute


0.0004 0.0017 2.3184 3.9223 1.4127

Normaliz ed cross error

1.0005 1.0014 1.0000 1.0000 0.6296

Peak signal to

noise ratio


Data packet size beta is 800 bit Initial energy 0.5J

Energy consumed in the transmitter circuit 50 NJ/bit Energy consumed on the amplifier circuit 10/PJ ?bit

Some very big cluster and very small cluster may exist in the network at the same time. Unreasonable cluster head selection while the nodes have different energy. Cluster member nodes deplete energy after cluster head was dead. The base station is located inside the sensing field. Nodes are location unaware i.e. not equipped with GPSM capable antennas. Communication within the square area is not subjected to multipath fading. The communication channel is symmetric. Data gathered can be aggregated in to single packet by cluster head. Nodes are left un attended after deployment. Therefore battery recharge is not possible. The distance between source node and residual entry for all possible neighbor node are calculated. Neighbor are selected based on the fuzzy logic rules. Consecutive neighbor are selected based on the same technique. Link is established between all selected neighbors. Energy consumed for the intrusion detection process. Whether this technique can be used for both external and internal intrusion detection.

Speed – The mobile devices have slow cpu processing capacity. The toolkit has to handle cpu intensive cryptography task with an acceptable speed on mobile devices.

Memory – The cryptography packages consumes several MB’s of storage space. MIDP profile has only 10 kbps of toolkit will be in a manner to balance small foot prints.

Comprehensive algorithm support-The designed cryptographic packages have to provide effective security facilities.

Homogeneous API-Consistent interfaces for all the algorithm

Good reputation-The mobile devices become more pervasive and complex so the security provider must be reliable and experienced. It is an open source package for cryptography. Light weight cryptographic nodes. A large number of cryptographic algorithm can be implemented in their API. Pattern in the plain text should be concealed. Input to cipher should be randomized manipulation of the plain text by introducing error in the cipher text should be difficult and encryption of more than one message with the same key should be possible. It is necessary to check effectively. The mode is less important as that of underlying cipher. In some circum stances it is important that the cipher text should be the size as the plain text. Some applications need to parallelize encryption and decryption. While other need to be able to preprocess as much as possible.

Side channel – A communication which violates a security property. But where the sender unintentionally leaks information and only the receiver wishes the communication to succeed.

Stenographic channel – A means of communication on an open channel where sender and receiver collude to prevent on observer being able to reality defect whether communication is happening.

Sublimal channel – A convert channel in a cryptographic algorithm typically proposed undetectable.

Supraminal channel – A supra minal channel encodes information in the semantic content of cover data, generating innocent communication in a manner similar to mimic functions. These low bit rate channel are robust to active wardens and can be used with sub minal channel to achieve stenographic public key exchange. Padding 31 bit/packet, this is the most common form placing the convert data. Since this field has no significance. But stuff dummy 0 bits. This field requires the receiver to just extract the convert data in the padding field before the degitimate. TCP handler such field does not even demand the convert user to share common scheme for information encoding length of padding depends on presence of options field in the TCP header hence under an absence it is 31 bit or else 8 bit packet. Initial sequence number ISN 32 bit/connection TCP employes “3 way handshake” process for protocol negotiation ISN servers as a perfect medium to ensure reliable delivery in case of packet loss due to various circumstances. In this method the sender generate an ISN corresponding to actual convert data. Convert receiver extract this field and does not give and ACK for it convert sending and sending the some packet with different convert data embedded in ISN. This is the simplest form of using this field for placement of convert data.



also is related to the network routing hop by hop selection. On the other hand, if the object of internet is very near to the server the protocol may not bring significant benefits. The simulation results have shown that our algorithm and procedures achieve considerable gains with respect to the energy efficiency and network life time in image sensor based WSN.


[1] Optimal image component Transmissions in Multirate Wireless Sensor Networks by Wei Wang, IEEE Globecomm 2007 proceedings

[2] Collaborative image transmission based on Region and Path Diversity in Wireless Sensor Networks by Honggang Wang, IEEE Globecomm 2007 proceedings

[3] Efficient Selective Image Transmission in Visual Sensor Networks by Kit Yee Chow, IEEE 2007

[4] Optimal Rate Based Image Transmission via Multiple Path in Wireless sensor networks by IEEE Globecomm 2007 proceedings [5] Network adaptive image and Video Transmission in Camera Based Wireless Sensor Networks by IEEE Globecomm 2007


[6] Component based Multirate Image Transmission over Wireless sensor Networks by Wei Wang, IEEE mobile Radio Communications 2007

[7] Energy aware Adaptive Watermarking for Real Time Image Delivery in Wireless Sensor Networks by Honggang Wang by ICC 2008 proceedings

[8] An Energy Efficient and High Quality MAC Protocol for Image Transmission in Wireless Sensor Networks by Hadi s Aghdasi IEEE, 2008

[9] Distributed Video Coding and Transmission over Wireless Fading Channel by T Kuganeswaran by IEEE , 2008 [10] Image Component Transmission in Wireless Sensor Networks by Wei Wang by IEEE 2008 proceedings

[11] A Reliable Synchronous Transport Protocol for Wireless Image Sensor Networks by Jing Feng , IEEE 2008 proceedings [12] Image Transmission with security Enhancement Based on Region and Path Diversity in Wireless Sensor Networks by Hongang

Wang IEEE Communications Feb 2009