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www.elsevier.pt/tekhne

ARTICLE

Motivations

for

social

entrepreneurship

---

Evidences

from

Portugal

J.C.

Braga

a

,

T.

Proenc

¸a

b

,

M.R.

Ferreira

c,∗

aUniversityofPorto,FacultyofEconomics,Oporto,Portugal bUniversityofPorto,FacultyofEconomics,CEF.UP,Oporto,Portugal

cSchoolofManagementandTechnologyofFelgueiras,CIICESI,PortoPolytechnicInstitute,Felgueiras,Portugal

Received8December2014;accepted8January2015 Availableonline3February2015

KEYWORDS Social entrepreneurship; Motivations; Difficulties; Competences

Abstract Themainpurposeofthisarticleistoexplorethefactorsthatmotivatepeopleto

create,developandmaintainasocialentrepreneurshipprojectandalsotoexplorethe difficul-tiesandexpectationssocialentrepreneursface.Theresearchisbasedonanexploratorystudy thatincludesthecollectionandanalysisofqualitativedata,involving13interviewstosocial entrepreneursfromPortugal.

Thestudyprovidesinformationaboutthemotivationsthattakeindividualstoinitiate and maintainasocialproject,standingoutthealtruism,thepassion,theinfluenceofrolemodels, pastvolunteeringexperiencesandthewillingtocreateandinnovate.Themobilizationof finan-cialandhumanresources,aswellasthebusinessbureaucracy,arethemostfrequentdifficulties intheprocessofsocialventurecreationbutthewilltofight,thepersistenceandpassionthe interviewershave,thatis,theirmotivation,seemstobethemottoforcontinuingtobattlefor theirgoals.

©2014InstitutoPolitécnicodoCávadoedoAve(IPCA).PublishedbyElsevierEspaña,S.L.U.All rightsreserved.

1.

Introduction

Althoughsocialentrepreneurshipreceivesdecreasing atten-tion from academics, it is a phenomenon that needs to be further explored since it is undeniable the important contributionthatsocialentrepreneursarehavingatasocial,

Correspondingauthor.

E-mailaddress:marisaferreira@eu.ipp.pt(M.R.Ferreira).

culturalandenvironmentallevel,creatinginnovativeways to respond to certain economic and social needs (Shaw & Carter, 2007). We need to continue to explore the manymotivations thatunderliethiscomplexphenomenon since the studies in the area of motivation are lacking (Miller, Grimes, McMullen, & Vogus, 2012). Furthermore, entrepreneurshipisadynamicprocessandmotivationsmay change over time (Krueger, Reilly, & Carsrud, 2000), so researchseeking tounderstandthesepotential changesis lacking(Hessels,Gelderen,&Thurik,2008;Shane,Locke,& Collins,2003).Studyinghumanmotivationisofparamount 1645-9911/$–seefrontmatter©2014InstitutoPolitécnicodoCávadoedoAve(IPCA).PublishedbyElsevierEspaña,S.L.U.Allrightsreserved. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tekhne.2015.01.002

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importanceifwe aretounderstand,for example, howto motivatepeopletobemoreentrepreneurial(Shaneetal., 2003).Theobjectiveofthisresearchistoexplorethe moti-vationsthatleadindividualstocreate,developandmaintain a project of social entrepreneurship i.e., exploring what peoplewant toachieve withthe project andexplore the processes/motivationaldynamicstobuildit,i.e.,theinitial expectations,thesupportstheyseektoobtain,the obsta-clesfacedandwhathappeneddifferentlyfromexpected.

2.

Entrepreneurial

motivation

Sincethereislittleresearchintothemotivationsforsocial entrepreneurship,and social entrepreneurs area subtype of entrepreneurs who differ in their mission and in how starting their business, it was necessary to consider the existingliterature on motivations for commercial or con-ventionalentrepreneurship(Dacin,Dacin,&Matear,2010). Motivation, which is used to explain the effort and per-sistencethrough a given action (Latham& Pinder, 2005), playsan important role in the creation of new organiza-tions(Segal,Borgia,&Schoenfeld,2005),sinceitinfluences the decision’s taking, including the one referring a new business creation (Shane et al., 2003). Motivation influ-ences entrepreneurial behavior in three complementary ways: influences on the choice of the individual, i.e., the direction of the action; influences the intensity of the action, based on the importance or value that the action has for the entrepreneur and influences the per-sistence of action, based on the clearness of the path to achieve this value (Locke, 2000). The motivations in general, and also in the entrepreneurship domain have been investigated in thelight of differenttheories, com-monly referred to content and process theories. Content theoriesseektounderstand the ‘‘why’’ofcertain behav-ior, i.e., what moves individuals, and seek to identify the specific factors that motivate people to a particu-lar choice (Beardwell, Holden, & Claydon, 2004). Allow therefore to understand what leads individuals to create theirownbusiness.Processtheoriesfocusonunderstanding the ‘‘how’’, i.e., the intensity of dedication and persis-tence that the person is willing to put in the activities (Segaletal.,2005),and providea description and analy-sisofhowthebehaviorisinitiated,sustainedandstopped (Borkowski,2009).Theyalsoseek tounderstand the diffi-cultiesandexpectationsthatinfluencetheentrepreneurial process.

Allthesetheories,synthesizedinTable1,providean ana-lyticalframeworkthatallowsustounderstandtheprocess ofsettingupabusiness(Hechavarria,Renko,&Matthews, 2012).

Allthesetheoriesprovidean analyticalframeworkthat allowsustounderstandtheprocessofsettingupabusiness (Hechavarriaetal.,2012).These modelsareimplicitlyor explicitlybasedonthebasicdesignthattheintentionsofan individualtobecomeanentrepreneurareprovidedforthe answertotwoquestions:(1)entrepreneurshipisdesirable forme?(i.e.,leadsmetoachievetheresultsandgoalsthatI desire?)and(2)entrepreneurshipisfeasibleforme?(i.e.,do Ihavewhatittakestosucceedasanentrepreneur?)(Segal etal.,2005).

3.

Social

entrepreneurship

CertoandMiller(2008)definesocialentrepreneurship(SE) asaprocess thatinvolves therecognition,evaluation and exploitationofopportunitiesthatresultinsocialvaluewhich involvestheprovisionofbasicneedssuchasfooddelivery, health servicesandeducation.SEisan activitywith com-munity goals, which hopefully is profitable and the profit isusedtoreinvestintheorganizationitself(Steinerowski, Jack, & Farmer, 2008). It is more likely to occur in con-texts wheretherearesocio-economic,environmental and culturalissues(Dacinetal.,2010)andpromotesalasting, attractiveandsustainablesolutionforsocialproblems(Nga & Shamuganathan,2010).Socialentrepreneursarepeople who identify a failure in society and transform it into a business opportunity; theyrecruit andmotivate othersto theircauseandbuildnetworkswithessentialpeopleatthe sametime.Also,theyfacetheobstaclesandchallengesand introducetheirownsystemstomanagetheirsocialbusiness (Thompson,2002).

4.

Entrepreneurship

versus

social

entrepreneurship

The key difference is that in commercial entrepreneur-ship, the main focus is on the economic return, while in social entrepreneurship is in social return, which means that conventional entrepreneurs look essentially for eco-nomicprofit(Kirzner,1973),meaningthattheirperformance is attachedto financialreturn (Austin, Stevenson, & Wei-Skillern, 2006). On the other hand, social entrepreneurs search,generally, toaccomplish socialgoals basedonthe economicsustainability(Dorado,2006).Leadbeater (1997)

defends that many of the traits and behaviors of social entrepreneursarethemirrorofcommercialentrepreneurs, includingtheirdetermination,ambition,charisma, leader-ship,abilitytocommunicatetheirvisionandinspireothers and maximizing the use of resources; the key difference isthatinbusinessentrepreneurship,themainfocusisthe economic returnwhile inSEis thesocial return.However, thecreationofeconomicwealthisimportantforthesocial entrepreneur, so that hecan ensure the sustainability of theorganizationandforittobecomeself-sustaining.Profit and wealth creation can be part of the model, but they are only means and not end in themselves (Dees, 1998). Therefore,socialentrepreneurscreateorapplyviable eco-nomicmodelstoachievesocialor environmentalpurposes (Whitman,2011).

5.

Research

questions

Wecannotseeconventionalandsocialentrepreneurshipin such a dichotomist way, thinkingthat their distinction is thefinancialorsocialpoint.Reasonsforsocialentrepreneur mayalsoincludelessaltruistmotivessuchaspersonal real-ization (Hall, Miller, & Millar, 2012; Mair & Martí, 2006). Other authorscontradict thisidea and,eventhough their study is not focused on social entrepreneurship motiva-tions,theyaddthatsocialentrepreneursaremotivatedby astrongdesiretochangesociety,astatusquodiscomfort,

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Table1 Motivationtheories.

Contenttheories

McClelland’sTheory Ahighneedforself-realizationisacommontraitofentrepreneurs(Segal etal.,2005).

Push/pulltheory(or economic/autonomyneedor necessity/opportunity)

The‘‘pushtheory’’arguesthatindividualsare‘‘pushed’’to

entrepreneurshipbyexternalforces(forexampledivorce/beingovertaken byanothercolleagueinapromotion/jobdissatisfaction),thepullfactors arethosethat‘‘attract’’apersontostartabusiness(Kirkwood&Walton, 2010),i.e.,peoplearedrawntoentrepreneurshipbylookingfor

independence,self-realizationorrecognitionofanopportunity(Marques, Ferreira,Ferreira,&Lages,2012).

Inthispushandpulllogic,themotivationstoentrepreneurshipgoaround fourprincipalunits:desireforindependency;monetarymotivations;family relatedissues;workrelatedissues(Kirkwood&Walton,2010).

Desireforindependencyandautonomyis,generally,themostsignificant factorforapersontobecomeanentrepreneur,classifiedasapullfactor. Monetarymotivationsarealsoclassifiedasapullfactor;peoplearenot alwaysmotivatedbymoneytostartabusinessbutitisafactortoconsider (Kirkwood&Walton,2010).

Workrelatedmotivationsaregenerallyconsideredpushfactorsandmay manifestintwodifferentways:dissatisfactionorinstabilitywithwork, whichcanmotivateapersontoabandonherjobandbecomean

entrepreneur;orelse,thedesiretoobtainbiggerflexibilityorprogression inthecareer,dissatisfactionwiththecurrentcareerordifficultyinfinding ajob,allcanbeconsideredmotivationfactorstoentertheentrepreneur world(Kirkwood&Walton,2010).Familyrelatedfactors,usuallyclassified aspush,refertothedifficultcombinationbetweenemploymentand domesticwork,familyobligationsorthedesireforfamilybalance (Kirkwood&Walton,2010).

Extrinsic/intrinsicmotivations Extrinsicmotivations(associatedwithpushmotivations)---relatedtoan externalrewardthatfollowscertainbehavior;intrinsic(associatedtopull motivations)---refertothepersonalinterestinentrepreneurialtask (Carsrud&Brannback,2011).

Processtheories

Vroom’sExpectationsTheory Anindividualwilladopt,amongseveralbehaviors,onethatwilltakehim toreachthepreviousexpectations.

Locke’sGoalDefinitionTheory Whatpeopledoislargelyinfluencedbytheirgoalsandbytheperceived trustinbeingabletoperformthoseactions.

Bandura’sSelf-efficacyTheory Self-efficacyisaperson’sbeliefinitsabilities,andisakeyantecedentof intentionsforentrepreneurship(Carsrud&Brannback,2011).

Value-expectancymodel(Eccles& Wigifield,2002)

Theexpectationsthattheindividualhasaboutsuccess,his/herbelief aboutthecapacitytosucceedandhis/hermotivationstobean entrepreneurdefineshis/herbehavior.

altruistic feelingsand the need tobe sociallyresponsible (Mair&Noboa,2005). Steinerowskietal.(2008)also sug-gest the ‘‘passion’’ motivation, i.e., wanting to make a differenceinpeoples’lives,asamotivationfactorforsocial entrepreneurship. Miller et al. (2012) defend that some emotionssuchascompassionmayberelatedwiththe moti-vationforsocialentrepreneurship.

Inordertobeabletounderstandandexplorethe moti-vations of social entrepreneurs to create, develop and maintain a social enterprise, we seek to answer three researchquestions:

- Whatmotivatesindividualstoengageinasocialcontext enterprise?

- Dothemotivationsforsocialentrepreneurshipdifferfrom the motivations for traditional business entrepreneur-ship?

- Howdoestheprocessofprojectdevelopment,in particu-lar,theobstaclesandexpectations,modifythemotivated behavior?

6.

Methodology

Thisinvestigation is basedonastudy withan exploratory nature. Qualitative approaches are particularly useful in areas that are not theoretically evolved (Edmondson & McManus, 2007), which reveals as particularly important intheentrepreneurship motivations study(Amit & Muller,

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1995; Shaw & Carter, 2007). Qualitative data are useful togenerate,elaborateand eventest theories,since they inspire others investigators to seek for opportunities to expand their thought and investigation (Edmondson & McManus,2007).Onaddition,thequalitativeresearch meth-odsgiveadecisiveimportancetothecomprehensionofthe participantsactionsintheirlifeexpectationsbasis,‘‘allow toindicatewhytheindividualbehavesinacertainwayand responds tothe various stimulus (...) and offeran open, flexible and experimental approach’’ (Milliken, 2001, p. 75).

In this study, the direct contact with the social entrepreneurswasprivilegedthroughpersonalinterviews. Insecond place,‘‘qualitativeinvestigationindescriptive’’ (Bogdan & Biklen, 1994, p. 48), i.e., collected data are words,phrases,thoughtsandrepresentationsofthe inter-viewedpeopleinsteadofnumericdata,andeachinterview is treated individually.The third characteristic is related tothefactthat ‘‘qualitativeinvestigatorsaremore inter-ested for the process than by the results or products’’ (Bogdan&Biklen,1994,p.49).Inthisinvestigationremains theinterest tocomprehendthemotivational process sub-jacent to the entrepreneurship existence the conception thatthis extends since theremote momentof the inten-tion going through its own creation and evolution. The authors refer a fourth characteristic, ‘‘qualitative inves-tigator tend to analyze their data in an inductive way’’ (Bogdan & Biklen, 1994, p. 50). Considering the previ-ouslyreferredlack of empiricalstudies about motivations insocialentrepreneurship,itwasnotassumedinthe begin-ning of the investigation that the great questions of this study were known, making the whole process of investi-gation around the seek for discovery and comprehension related to the theme, based on what the interviewed socialentrepreneurscouldshow.Atlast,theauthorsrefer that ‘‘meaning is extremely important in the qualitative approach’’ (Bogdan & Biklen,1994, p. 50). It wasa con-cernin this study to listen, know and problematize what motivatessocial entrepreneurs tostart theirprojectsand explore the process of social entrepreneurship there are involved.

Asaresearchtechnique,personalsemistructured inter-viewswere used,prevailing interest in understanding the underlying motivationalprocess of entrepreneurship. This happens because, to understand motivation, the way as they see their own social entrepreneurship, the diffi-culties and obstacles felt, the influence of determined factors in the creation of their own project, it is neces-sarytoexaminehowsocialentrepreneursthink,remember and talk about their experience in the creation of their project. Qualitative interviews are the ones that allow a person to tell his/her own story, using his/her own language (Bogdan & Biklen, 1994). Based on the litera-ture revision, a series of analyze dimension to explore whereestablished,whichallowedtoelaborateaninterview script. In Table 2 are indicated the analyzed techni-cal dimensions and the questions from the interview guide.

Weintendtoanalyzethemotivatedbehaviorofthesocial entrepreneurfromtheremotemomentoftheintentionto createa socialproject itself, throughtheactual creation anddevelopmentofthesame.

7.

Participants

and

procedures

TheInstituteforSocialEntrepreneurshipinPortugal recog-nizesandvalidatesasetofsocialentrepreneurshipprojects inPortugal,totaling38projects.

Allparticipantswereidentifiedassocialentrepreneurs, and they are recognized by the Portuguese Social EntrepreneurshipInstituteashavinghighpotentialprojects fulfillingfourrequirements:

1. Neglected social/environmental projects’ resolution (social/environmentalmission).

2. Potential for a positive transformation in society at a social/environmental level (social/environmental impact).

3. Challenging the traditional vision and using innovator businessmodels(innovation).

4. Potential to grow up and/or replicate in other geo-graphic places (scalability/replicability) (Instituto de EmpreendedorismoSocial,2013).

Socialentrepreneursfromtheseprojectswerecontacted foraninterview.Initiallytheywerecontactedviaemailwith awrittensummary,thepresentationandtheobjectivesour research.Thesetofinterviewsconductedreflectsanatural selection ofsocialentrepreneurs derivedfromtheir avail-abilityandinterestinjoiningourresearch.Somerequested interviewsweredeniedorconstrained bythelackoftime ontheiragendas.Itwaspossibletoconduct13interviews, with a maximum duration of 1h 30min in the workplace or in the homeof the respondents andheld between the monthsofMayandJune2013.Therespondent’sdistribution by gender is relativelysimilar, sincethesample is consti-tutedby7womenand6men.Thesocialentrepreneurs’age is between 20 and 29 yearsold and40 and 54 yearsold, which a largeramount of people between theages of 40 and54.Theacademicdegreelevelishigh,sinceonlyoneof theelementshasnotbeenonhighereducation,twoofthem haveamaster’sdegreeandothertwohaveaPhD.InTable3

wecanseeabriefdescriptionofallsocialentrepreneurship projectsassociatedwiththeparticipantsinterviewed.

Inthemomentbeforecreatingtheproject,mostpeople workedfor otherpeople.Now,theirprofessionalsituation isdifferentbecausemostpeopleworkforthemselves,since five fromthese seven elements areexclusively dedicated tothe project.As tothefact thattheyearn income, the results are divided, since five people do and five people donot,andthreeofthesocialentrepreneursearnincome withtheirownprojectbecausethisisinsertedintheir func-tions.Afteranalyzingthedemographicdata,forthepurpose of the investigation, the collected data from the inter-viewswereanalyzedusingthecontentanalysistechnique. Toconstructknowledge,assuggestedbytheauthorsQuivy &Campenhoudt(2008),theusedtermsoftherespondents areanalyzed,alongwiththeusagefrequencyandtheir dis-positionmode,speech’sconstructionanditsdevelopment. Thiscontentanalysis techniquefollowed threephases: pre-analysis,theexplorationof materialandtreatment of the results obtained and their respective interpretation, havingemergednewtheoreticalcategories(Edmondson& McManus,2007).

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Table2 Analyzedtechnicaldimensionsandthescript’squestions. Dimensionanalysis Script’squestions

Entranceinthe

entrepreneurshipactivity andpath

Q1.Whendidyourentrepreneurshipactivitybeganandwhatinitiativeshaveyou been,ornot,involved.

Motivationsinthesocialentrepreneurshipcreation

Motivationalpush/pull factors

Q3.Whatprojecthaveyoucreated?(goals,mission,developedwork,paidpeople, involvedvoluntaries,howistheprojectfinanced,financialevolution,clients,...). Q4.Whichwereyourmainmotivationsinthecreationofthisproject?

Willingtobeyourownboss Q17.Whatdoyouthinkaboutbeingyourownboss?

Propensitytotakerisks Q18.Doyoufeelthatthereisastrongassociatedrisktothisproject?Whatother situationsinyourlifedoyoufeellikeyouhavetakenarisk?Doyouliketotakerisks?

Changeinmotivationthrough thetime

Q5.Themotivationsthatyouhadtocreatetheprojectarestillthesameorthey changed?

Differencesinmotivationsin thecreationofanbusiness entrepreneurship(ifthat’s thecase)

Q8.Doyouthinktherearedifferencesbetweenasocialorconventional entrepreneur?Whichones?

Q9.Haveyoueverbeeninvolvedinthecreationofaconventionalentrepreneurship project?Ifso,whichwereyourmotivationstocreateit?Aretheydifferentthanthe onesyouhadtocreatethisproject?

Q10.(ifyouranswerinquestion9wasno)Whydidyoucreateasocialinitiative insteadofaconventionalone?

Acknowledge Q12.Doyoufeelthatthefactthatyouhaveyourownprojectgivesyousomesortof acknowledgmentthatyoudidn’thavebefore?Wasthisalsoamotivationtocreate theproject?Istodayamotivationalfactor?

Personalaccomplishment Q16.Doyoufeelaccomplished?Wasyourpersonalorprofessionalaccomplishment dependentoftheproject’screation?

Expectationsandself-efficacy

Comprehendinginwhichway aperson’sexpectationshave influencedtheproject’s prosecution

Q6.Didyoualwaysexpecttohaveyourownbusiness?Wasitplanned?

Q7.Whichwereyourinitialexpectationswithintheproject’screation?Werethey accomplished?

Motivationchoices Q2.Howdidthewilltobecomeanentrepreneurappear? Choice(value:fulfillment,

utility)

Q14.Hadyouevervolunteeredinthisareabeforecreatingyourproject?Andnow? Diditinfluencetheprojectonanyway?

Rolemodelsinfluence Q13.Doyoupossessanyotherpeopleclosetoyouorinyourfamilythathave createdtheirownprojects?(orotherentrepreneurs).Doyoufeelthatinfluences yourwilltoproceedwithyourownprojectonanyway?

Perceivehowtheauto efficiencyperception influencesthecreationofa newbusiness

Explorethewaythat obstaclesinfluencethewill tocontinuewiththeproject (persistent)

Q19.Whichwerethemainobstaclesyoufacedinthebeginningoftheproject’s creation?Howabouttoday?Howdidyouovercomethoseobstacles?

Q20.Wereyoureadytoovercomethosedifficulties?Ifnot,andifyouknewthey wouldexist,wouldyoustillmoveforwardwiththeproject?

Q21.Doyouthinkthoseobstaclesarestrongenoughtoenablethemotivationsfora potentialsocialentrepreneur?

Successinthesocial

entrepreneur’sperspective

Q15.Doyouthinkyouaresuccessful?Why?

Q22.Whichdoyouthinktheskillsandcapacitiesforasocialentrepreneurshouldbe toobtainsuccess?Doyoufeellikeyoualwayshadthemorwasitsomethingthatyou acquiredthroughoutthetime?(Howdidyouacquirethem?)

Representationofyourselfasa socialentrepreneur

Q11.Doyoufeellikeyouareacreativeperson?Andinnovator?Why? Q23.Whatwouldyourecommendtoothersocialentrepreneurs?

Q24.Whatchangedinyou?Whatweretheeffectsandmeaningsofbeingasocial entrepreneur?

Q26.Whichdoyouconsidertobethepositiveandnegativeaspectsofbeingasocial entrepreneur?

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Table3 Descriptionoftheprojects.

Projectsname Firstyearoftheproject Descriptionoftheprojects

Encontrar+se 2006 Encontrar+se(Find+yourself)developsabroadspectrumofactivities aroundtheseriousmentalillness.Developsresearch,training, awarenessandassistanceinordertomakeecosystemthemost knowledgeableandfriendlytoindividualswithseriousmentalillness. ProgramaAconchego Schollyear2003/2004 Aconchego(Warmth)isaprogramthatpromotesthe

coexistence/livingbetweenseniorsanduniversitystudentsby sharingresidence.Elderly,fromPorto,sharetheirresidencewith universitystudents.Theprojectgeneratesanintergenerational sharing.

Associac¸ãodoPorto deParalisia Cerebral

Foundedin1974;project implementedin2000

APPCisapartnershipofpeoplewithcerebralpalsyorrelated neurologicaldiseasesthatintendstomakethemeffectiveagentsof change.Institutedinitsoperatingmodelthatthedirectionsofthe institutionmustconsistofthreeparts,includingparents,coaches andthepeoplewithcerebralpalsyasawaytochangetheparadigm ofthemselvesandsociety.

ColorAdd 2010 ColorAddisacolorcodethatallowscolorblindidentifiesanytypeof color.Thiscodeisbeingimplementedprogressivelyinmoreareas, alreadyincludingcolorpencils,undergroundlines,paintbooks, clothesandeveninhospitals.

Espac¸oT 1994 Espac¸oT(TSpace)involvestheindividualinformalandnon-formal artisticactivities,stimulatingtheirexpressiveabilitiesand developingtheinvestmentinyou.Developslongrunconnections withtheirstudentsusingartasavehicleofcommunicationand development.

Fisiotrimtrim 2011 Fisiotrimtrimteamsprovidespecializedbabysittingservicesrelated tothecareofchildrenandyouthwithspecialneeds.Theydirect theiractivitytostimulatethemaintenanceanddevelopmentof capacitiesofchildren,alsoconstitutingthemselvesasakeysupport toparentsandcaretakers.

NPISA 2005 NPISA(NúcleodoPortodeIntervenc¸ãocomosSem-abrigo ---InterventionwithhomelessinOporto)isanetworkoforganizations thatdevelopactivitiesforthehomeless.Theydevelopajointwork, providingcareandexpertiseamongorganizations,promoting discussionandconstructionofacommonperformancemanagement model

ProjetoRIOS 2005 ProjetoRios(Riverproject)mainaxisisfindsponsorsforasectionof ariver.Thegroups,intheirregularvisitstotheriverbanks,collecta setofdataandmakesomeimprovements.Later,thesedataissent totheRiversteaminordertobeintegratedinitsdatabases. TerradosSonhos 2007 TerradosSonhos(Dreamland)developeveryeffortinorderto

achievethedreamsofchildren,youngandseniorsinsituationof needorserioushealthcondition.Thus,developthebeliefof individualsandfamiliesintheirdreams,creatingamoreconducive environmentforthewell-beingandqualityofpersonalandfamily life.

V.O.U.Acompanhar 2006 VO.UAcompanharfocusesonpeoplethatrepeathospitaltreatments andwhosecausesarelinkedtonon-compliancewithdoctor’sorders. Inarticulationwithlocalnonprofitorganizations,hospitalsand medicinestudents,developavolunteerprogramthatincludeshome visitstothesepeople.

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Table3(Continued)

Projectsname Firstyearoftheproject Descriptionoftheprojects

StartUpPirates 2012 StartupPiratesisaone-weekprogramthatenablesaspiring entrepreneurstogetinsidethestartupworldandlearnhowto developabusinessidea.Withaveryhands-onapproachandthe supportofalargecommunityofexperiencedentrepreneurs,they combineworkshopsandmentoringwithaclearfocusonaccelerating thedevelopmentofentrepreneurs.

Vitamimos 2007 Vitamimosisaninnovativeprojectwhosemainobjectiveisrelated totheinterventioninpreventingchildandadolescentobesityby promotinghealthylifestyles.Vitamimoshasaphysicalspace installedatQuintadaAlagoainCarcaveloswheretheyrunacenter forfoodeducation

Percursodas Memórias

2012 PercursodasMemórias(RouteofMemories)isaprojectrelatedto communitytourisminthehistoriccenterofPorto.Itsaimsare relatedtothepreservationanddisseminationofsocio-cultural identityofthisterritory,makingknownthetraditions,memoriesand storiesofthisplace.Thematerializationofthisprojectisdone throughthedesignofpathswithasetofactivitiespresentedbythe community.

Thisapproachisdefinedasa‘‘seriesofcommunications’ analysis techniques seeking to obtain, for systematic and objectiveprocedures,adescriptionofthemessagescontain, indicators(whichmayornotbequantitative)thatallowto inferknowledgerelatedtotheproduction/reception condi-tions(inferredvariables)ofthosemessages’’(Bardin,1997, p.42)

8.

Results

8.1. Expectations,obstacles,difficulties

Regardingtheexpectationofhavingtheirownbusiness,the answersaredivided,withhalfofsocialentrepreneurs say-ingtheydidnothavethisexpectation.Theotherhalfsays thattheyhavealwayshadthedesireandexpectationof hav-ingtheirownbusiness.Nineoftherespondentsstate that theexpectations theyhadfor the creationof theproject have been overcome, especially regarding to the growth thatallprojectshadandhadnotbeenplanned.The difficul-tiesthatemergeddidnotallowconfirmingthatexpectations hadbeenfulfilledsoon,butthatisapositiveprocessunder construction.Obstaclesfacedat thebeginningofthe cre-ationoftheproject(in%)were:themobilizationofhuman and financial resources (35.7%), bureaucracy (21.4%), the fact that it is something innovative (14.2%), communica-tion management and time (7%), the process of decision making(7%) andlack of credibilityor inexperiencein the area (7%). In the interviews, we realized that all of the respondentsdevelopedstrategiestoovercomethe difficul-tiesmentioned:thesearchforalternativesourcesoffunding (40%),buildingagoodnetworkofcontacts(20%),facethe problems in a positive way (20%) and grab on models of existing projects (20%), adapting them togive credibility to their own projects. For the preparation to face those obstacles, half of the respondents reported having been

preparedwhilethe other halfdidnot. Evenfor thosenot prepared,theobstaclesarenotunderstoodasdeterminants forabreakthroughdesign.Furthermore,60%ofthe respon-dentsstatedthatobstaclesdonotinfluencethemotivation ofapotentialsocialentrepreneurtoday.Mostcurrent obsta-clesthatsocialentrepreneursfaceisrelatedtothegrowth of the project, i.e., associated withthe fact that having morepeople demands a better management of the same and more time available. Also, the question of financial resourcesisveryimportanttorefer,withaclearassociation withthefinancial and economic crisis facingthe country, whichaffectsthefinancingofprojects.

8.2. Learningandsuccess

Nineoftherespondentsconsideredthemselvescreativeand innovativeforthefactthattheytrytobedifferent,by seek-ing new solutions for their project and get funding. The positiveaspectsof beingasocialentrepreneurareclosely associatedtothesocial impacttheycreate.The negative onesarerelatedtothedifficultiesencounteredduringthe processandtimemanagement,astheyreferlack of time toworkonprojectsortighttimingstoachievethem.About 46%ofrespondentssaidtheyfeelsuccessful,mainlybecause theyweredoingsomethingtheylike.Thereisanassociation withthecareertheyhavehadandtheproject theybuilt. However,it is interesting tonote that when asked about thisissue,twoelementsrefertotheirperceptionofbeing successfulaswhatthey considerthe success ofyour own business. For other social entrepreneurs, about 38%, the notionofbeingsuccessfulhasnot beenreached yet since theyconsiderthattheystillneedtodomoretofeel success-ful,althoughmostconsiderthattheirrouteistobepositive andthatisameanstoachievethissuccess.

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8.3. Reasonstoquittheproject

Fivetypesofreasonswerefound.Theonesthatstandout themostare:personalreasons(illness orfamilyreasons), creatingnewprojects,financialreasons,migration,andthe endingoftheprojectitself.Exceptforthecreationofnew projects,whichdemonstratesapositivedesiretocontinue tocreateandinnovate,otherreasonsshowthatonlystrong motives, such as a health problem or family or financial reasons,makethesocialentrepreneurquit.

8.4. Motivations

8.4.1. Motivationsinthecreationofthesocialventure

Altruism was the most mentioned reason, by 92% of the respondents,asbeing thewill towork for the welfareof societyandtheconcerntomakeothershappy.Thepassion orpersonalinterestintheentrepreneurialtaskisakindof intrinsicmotivationanditwasmentionedby61%of respon-dents.Theinfluenceofrolemodelsseemstoinfluencetheir involvement, since more than half of respondents (58%) reported having been influenced by other entrepreneurs, fromfamily,friendsorpeergroup.Volunteering,associated withvaluesthatapersonhasandthefeelingofusefulness, wasalsooneofthe reasonsmostoftenmentioned by53% of respondents.Previous experienceeither in the project areaor in others helpedthe respondents thinking onthe area and the project that could be developed later. The willfortheindividualtocreatenewprojectsortoinnovate isnot suchareferred motivation(23% ofthosereferred), although 70% of respondents consider themselves innova-torsandcreators. Recognizingan opportunitywasanother motivationthatemergedduringtheinterviews,mentioned by23%ofrespondents.Opportunitieshaveariseninthelife oftheseelementsthatmadethemgrabthem,motivatedby aninternaldesiretodosomethingmeaningfulintheirlife.

8.4.2. Variationofthemotivationovertime

Respondents have three different types of perception regarding the changes in motivation throughout the entrepreneurship process:(i) the motivations remain, (ii) themotivations arehigherwiththegrowthandsuccessof the project, and (iii) the motivations are different. Over halfoftherespondentsconsiderthattheirmotivationhas increasedwiththesuccessoftheventureandexperience: ontheonehand,thefactthatthereisstillmuchworktobe doneontheprojectandontheotherhand,thefactof see-ingpositiveresults,mobilizesthepersonforward.Whenthe perceptionofthesocialentrepreneuristhesuccessofthe project,the willingnesstodo moreis alsoincreasedi.e., themotivationis higher.Threerespondentshave the per-ceptionthattheirmotivationsarethesameonestodaythan thoseatthestartofprojectcreation.Itwasnoticeablein theirspeechsomehesitationandsomeangsttowardcertain situationssuchaspoliticalissuesthatcreatesomeproblems intheirtimingstoaccomplishtheirgoals.Finallythereisthe perceptionthatthemotivationsaredifferentandsomehow minor,eventhough thereis aclearintentiontoremainin theproject.

Table4 Motivationsofsocialentrepreneursinthecreation

oftheproject.

Motivationsofsocialentrepreneursinthecreationof theproject

Pullfactors Pushfactors Altruism

Passion Factorsrelatedtowork Innovateandcreate

Opportunity

Rolemodelsinfluences Volunteering

8.4.3. Differencebetweenthemotivationtocreatea commercialenterpriseandasocialventure

Aboutthisissueonlyrespondedtheonesthatreported hav-ing been involved previouslyin commercial entrepreneur-ship initiatives (five elements). The perception of one of theelementsisthatthemotivationsarethesame,namely the willingness toinnovate andcreate, either in the cre-ationofthisventure,eitherinprojectsthathehasalready beeninvolved.Theremainingelementshavetheperception that the motivations are different, since the commercial entrepreneurshipprojectswerebehindaneedforcreating self-employment anda need to raisecapital, motivations thatwerenotinvolvedinthecreationofthesocialventure.

9.

Discussion

9.1. Motivationfortheindividualstocreatea socialventure

Themotivationsforcreatingasocialenterprisefoundinthis studyfallmostlyintopullfactors.Thesefactorsattract indi-vidualstostartabusiness(Kirkwood&Walton,2010)andare moreprevalentthanpushfactors(Segaletal.,2005)which isrelevantsincetheentrepreneursmotivatedbypullfactors aremorelikelytosucceed(Amit&Muller,1995).Wecansee thepullordermotivationsofrespondentsinthecreationof socialenterpriseinTable4.

Altruismisthemostquotedfactorforallentrepreneurs and even though the sustainability of the projects is a concern for all social entrepreneurs, obtaining profitsfor personal gain is nota goal for any of the elements. Pas-sion has also enormous relevance in the words of social entrepreneurs,andthereisawilltodothingsdifferently, believing that this innovation can bring benefits to the projects.Recognizinganopportunityisanotherpullfactor thatemerged,andsocial entrepreneurswhomentioned it are able tograb a challengeand develop an idea, which also demonstratesthat these individuals are ableto face challengesandcreatenewprojectswhentheyhadnosuch need.Themotivationsincludedinthepushfactorsarevery insignificant.Although,thisshowsthatthepushandpull fac-torsarenotmutuallyexclusive.Associatedwiththetheory ofvalue-expectancy,wefindtheinfluenceofrolemodels, i.e.,thefactthatthesesocialentrepreneurshavesomeone inthefamilyorpeergroupinvolvedinsomekindofsocial entrepreneurialinitiative,servedasamodelwhichisa

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fac-Table5 Comparisonbetweenthemotivationsfor commer-cialentrepreneurshipandsocialentrepreneurship.

Motivation Commercial Entrepreneur-ship Social Entrepreneurship Innovate/create x x Independency x ---Recognition x ---Rolemodels x x Financialsuccess x ---Achievement x ---Passion x x

Workrelatedfactors (dissatisfaction)

x x

Volunteering --- x

Opportunityrecognition x x

Altruism --- x

tor that influences their motivation for joining the social entrepreneurship.Thiscanalsobeaffirmedinthe volunteer-ingpractice,wherevaluetransmissionandtheexperience therespondentshadinthoseactionsinfluencedthe motiva-tiontocreatetheirproject.Eventhoughsomemotivations maylookliketheyhavemorerelevancethanothers,there is no orderof importance. However,this could be better explored in a quantitativeorder study.When it comes to other typeof motivationsthat have been thoughtas hav-ing somekind of influence in the motivations tocreate a social entrepreneurship project, it does not applyin this study.Thewilltobetheirownbossisnotrelevantformost entrepreneurs,eventhoughtitmightbringmanyadvantages in thepresent, but it wasnot amotivation tocreate the project.Althoughriskpropensityisacharacteristicpointed at conventional entrepreneurs,this does nothappen with socialentrepreneurs,sincethiswasnotamotivational fac-tortocreatetheirproject,andeventhoughtheyareaware oftherisksoftheproject.Asamatteroffact,mostofthem donotliketotakerisksandtrytocontrolthem;still, know-ingor notknowingtheriskstheywereabouttotake,they showresilienceandmotivationtofacethem.

9.2. Comparisonbetweenthemotivationforsocial andcommercialentrepreneurship

Theanswertothisquestioninvolvestwoperspectivesthat complement each other. On the one hand, the percep-tionofthe respondentspreviouslyinvolved incommercial entrepreneurship initiatives, claiming that there are dif-ferencesinthemotivations thatledthemtocreatethese projectsandsocialventures.Thefirsthadmainlypush moti-vations, associated withthe need for jobcreation or for personalrecognitionandthecreationofsocialenterprises associatedwithmotivationscited.Moreover,ontheirown opinionstherearedifferencesontheissueofobtainingprofit (commercial)byoppositetothecreationofsocialvalue.On theotherhand,thecomparisonofthisresultswiththe lit-eraturereview,canconfirmtheexistenceofdifferencesin entrepreneurialmotivationsandalsosomepointsincommon (seeTable5).

Similarlytowhathappensinbusinessentrepreneurship, social entrepreneurship’s motivations for starting a busi-ness are close to the pull type. However, while in the commercial entrepreneurship these pull motivations are morecloselyassociatedwithextrinsicandhedonic motiva-tion(Santos, 2012), i.e., there is a greater concern with gettingfinancialsuccess,independenceandrecognition,in socialentrepreneurshipthereisatypeofintrinsicand eude-monic motivation, since the person does not create the projectwiththeintentionofobtainingexternalrewardsbut bytheself-interestthathe/shehasintheentrepreneurial taskandforaneminentlyunselfishconcernwiththewelfare of others.‘‘Social entrepreneurship is not about exerting pressureorraisingawarenessbut ratherabout developing andvalidatingasustainablesolutiontoproblemsthatoften havealocalexpression butglobal impact’’(Santos,2012, p.348).Thus,theefforttoengageintheirtaskshasgoals lesscentered onthemselves, andmore ontheothersand thespecificobjectivesoftheproject.Theexperiencesthey havehadinthepast,imbuedthesesocialentrepreneursa setof valuesthatmadethem optfor this choiceandthis typeof work,ratherthanonefocusedendeavortoobtain profitfortheirownbenefitorthecreationof aworkthat wouldbringthemanyothertypeofexternalrewardsuchas recognitionorstatus,opposedtothesatisfactiongenerated bywhat theydofor society andthemselves. This conclu-sioncorroboratesliteraturesinceunfavorableorfavorable socioeconomiccontexts have very different influences on theoptionspursuedbytheirmanagers(Felício,Gonc¸alves, &daConceic¸ãoGonc¸alves,2013).

9.3. Obstaclesandexpectationsfoundalongthe processandimpactontheentrepreneur’s motivation

Numerousentrepreneurs are concerned about the poten-tialforreducedorlostfunding,especiallyduringeconomic hard times, at the same time sustaining a social objec-tiveandmanagingaviablebusinesscanbecomplementary andreciprocallyadvantageousactivities(Zhang&Swanson, 2013).So, issues of sustainability usuallyhead thelist of concerns,beingthatinourresearchthebarriersidentified aremorerestrictedtothefinancialissue,closelyrelatedto thecurrentsocio-economiccontext,theissueofthe mobi-lization of human resources and time management. It is importanttonotice that itis in howthe difficulties have been overcome in the search for alternative and innova-tivesolutions,that thefightingability andthemotivation tokeepovercomingtheseobstacles,whichisoftengrowing, aretransmitted.The motivationovertimeoftenseemsto increasewiththedifficultiesfacedandtheyseemtohave, somehow,anoppositeeffect.Theexplanationmaybethe factthatmostsocialentrepreneurshavetheperceptionthat theirprojectisbeingsuccessfulandthattheirexpectations wereexceeded.Elements thatdonotconsidertheytobe successful,believetheycanstillbeitiftheyremainfocused oncontinuedaction.Thepersonalandprofessional experi-encegainedaswellastheresilience,humilityandempathy towardothersandpassionforwork,areconsidered essen-tial skills of a potential social entrepreneur. Finally, one realizesthattheonlyreasonsforwithdrawal appeartobe

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compellingreasons,suchasillnessorsomefamilyproblem, seriousfinancialproblemsthatpreventedthemfrompaying thebillsortheintentiontomakenewprojectsinthisarea.

10.

Conclusion

Concluding,themotivationsforsocialentrepreneurshipare closelyrelated,ontheonehand,withtheprofileofthe per-son,sincetheycanhaveapersonalinterestinthisworkand aselflessmissionin seekingthe welfareofothers.Onthe otherhand,themotivationsarealsocloselyrelatedtotheir previousexperiences(forexample,volunteering),andtheir learningandexpectations.Theirbeliefsthatitispossibleto changetheotherstheyworkwith,i.e.,social impact cre-ation,theobjectforthecreationoftheirprojects,makes themevenmoremotivated.Generatingincomeisnota pri-maryobjectiveforthesocialentrepreneur,althoughthereis achallengeineveryproject:toensuretheirsustainability. Themotivation seemstohavea hugeimpactin achieving thegoalsoftheentrepreneursandthesuccessoftheir initia-tives.Thestudyhighlightsthemainobstaclesinthecreation anddevelopmentofasocialenterprise:themobilizationof humanandfinancialresources andtimemanagement,the coreskillsneededforthesocialentrepreneur---persistence, leadershipandempathy,aswellassomerecommendations towhommightwanttostartaprojectofthisscope, includ-ingstrengtheningtheresilienceneededtosucceed.

Intermsoflimitations,thisresearchisqualitativesince we collect data through interviews, and this method has some limitations as it can lead to ambiguous responses, at the same time the presence of the interviewer can inhibit the interviewee. The fact that was made to a limited number of interviews means that cannot be gen-eralized.Furthermore,given thegrowingimportancethat social entrepreneurship has had, other topics could have been part of this research, like social impact that social business practices have had on society or perceptions thatsocial entrepreneurs have about thesuccess of their projects. Finally, our research focuses only on social entrepreneurs operating in Portugal and, given the con-text, the entrepreneurship levels of countries and their resources, caninfluence the propensity for entrepreneur-shipprocesses,itwouldbeinterestingthatfutureresearch couldmake a comparison of different motivations in dif-ferentcountriesandthusgetabroaderperspectiveonthe subject.

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