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Primeiro registro de Scleroderma polyrhizum Pers. (Gasteromycetes) para o Brasil


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Acta boI. bras. 14(2): 181-184. 2000 181


Recebido em 18/1111999. Aceito em 03/03/2000

Iuri Goulart Baseia2

Adauto Ivo Milanez2

RESUMO - (Primeiro registro de Sc/eroderma pOlydllZlIIll Pers. (Gasteromycetes) para o Brasil). Scleroderma polyrhizlllll, um gasteromiceto ectomicorrízico, é registrado pela primeira vez para o Brasil, crescendo sob Caryocar

brasiliel1SeCamb. (Caryiocaraceae) espécie arbórea comum e nativa da vegetação de cerrado brasileiro. Os caracteres macro e microscópicos foram descritos a partir de basidiocarpos frescos e secos, segundo a metodologia tradicional utilizada em estudos taxonômicos de Gasteromycetes. As características do material analisado foram similares à

descrição original fornecida por Persoon. Todo material coletado estava associado a raízes de C brasiliellse.

Palavras-chave - Gasteromycetes, Sclerodenna pOlydllZIIIIl, taxonomia, ectomicornza

ABSTRACT - (First record of Scleroderllla polydllzlt/ll Pers. (Gasteromycetes) from Brazil). The ectomycorrhizal, gasteroid fungus, Scleroderllla polyrhizltl1l is recorded from Brazil for the first time, growing under Caryocar

brasiliense Camb. (Caryocaraceae) a widespread native tree of the Brazilian "cerrado" vegetation. Macro and microscopic features were described using basidiocarps from fresh and dried material treated according to the traditional methodology for Gasteromycetes. The characteristics of the material were close to those of the original description given by Persoon. Ali material collected was associated with roots of C brasiliense.

Key words - Gasteromycetes, Sc/eroderllla polydllZIIIll, taxonomy, ectomycorrhiza


The content of this paper constitutes a portion of extensive studies concerning the gasteroid mycota from Brazilian "cerrado" vegetation, including the "Reserva Ecológica de

Jataí" (State of São Paulo).

The genus Scleroderma was proposed by

Persoon (1801) and later revised by Guzmán (1970)~ who accepted 21 species. This genus is

caracterized by a thick and microscopically vaguely differentiated peridium and dusty gleba with age. According to Harley & Smith (1983) and Richter (1992) this taxon usually forms an ectomycorrhizal association.

At present there are but few studies on Gasteromycetes. From Brazil Scleroderma has

small representativity yet and only S a/bldum

Pers, S citrinum Pers., S verrucosum (BulI.) Pers., S viI/gare Hom. and S tenerum B. et C.

1 Parte da Tese de Doutorado do primeiro Autor. Bolsista da CAPES Instituto de Botânica, C. Postal 4005, CEP 01061-970, São Paulo, SP, Brasil


182 Baseia & Milanez: First recard af Sc!eroderll/a pO/yrlllZIIII/ Pers. (Gasteromycetes) from Brazil were recorded by Rick (1961) and Bononi etal.


Material and methods

Specimens of Scleroderma were collected

during the rainy season of 1999 (January to March), in the "Reserva Ecológica de Jataí" (State of São Paulo), located in an area of 4,532.18 ha, at 21°33'-21°37'S and 47°45'-46°51'W. Climatic conditions are of the AW type, according to the Kbppen System.

Hand-cut sections of dried material were mounted for microscopical examination in Melzer's reagent, 5% KOH, water or cotton blue (Toledo 1993). Basidiospore measurements included the ornamentation. Permanent microscopic si ides were made using PVL resin (alcohol polyvinilic and lactophenol), according to Trappe & Schenck (1982). In our fieldwork and mycorrhizal analysis, we used the methods ofZak (1973) and Schenck (1982), respectively. Colour terms in parenthesis are those of Komerup & Wanscher (1978), abreviated as KW. The material was included at the Herbarium of the Instituto de Botânica, Seção de Micologia e Liquenologia (SP), abbreviated by acronyms according to the Index Herbariorum (Holmgren

et aI. 1990).

Results and d.iscussion

Sc/eroáerma polyrllizum Pers., Syn. Meth. Fung., p. 156, 1801.Type: lost

Neotype: Bartlett 1600 (MICH)

Basionym: Lycoperdon polyhrizon Gmel., Syst.

Nat., 2, p. 1464, 1796.

Sclerangiumpolyhrizum (Pers.) Lév., Ann. Sci. Natur., 3-9: 130, 1848.

Lycoperdastrum rotundum majus Mich., Nov.

Plant. Gen., p. 219, 1729;

Scleroderma geaster Fr., Syst. Myc., 3, p. 46,


Sterrebec/da geaster (Fr.) Fr., Ac. Acad. Sc. Holm., 1848.

(Synonyms according to Gusmán (1970)

Fig. 1-5

Gasterocarp 2-4cm broad, subpiriform, sessile, dark brown (KW-6F6). Peridium triplex up to 7mm when fresh, becoming much thinner when dry, hard, tough, squamous, usually dehiscing by irregular splitting, from the apex downwards into unequal lobes. Exoperidium hymeniform, with thin walled hyphae, hyaline, 6-7.4-8.3 x 4.5-5.7-6.2mm. Mesoperidium with interwoven hyphae, which are thick-walled, brown, 4-6mm diam. Endoperidium slightly differentiated, thin-walled, hyaline, 2-3mm diam. Gleba pulverulent, dark grey (KW-3Fl). Basidiospore subglobose, 6-7mm diam., brown, finely echinulate. Capillitium absent.

Habitat: On sandy soil.

Distribution: Africa (Bottornley 1948), Chi-na (Liu 1984), England (Demoulin & Marriott 1981), France (Calonge & Demoulin 1975), Japan(Hara 1954), USA (Coker & Couch 1928; Guzmán 1970).

Material examined: BRAZIL. São Paulo:

Luís Antônio, Estação Ecológica de Jataí, 28/I/1999, Baseia 428, (SP 307298); 24/lIJI999,

Baseia 443, (SP 307299); 81IIIJ1999, Baseia

461, (SP 307300).

Material additional examined (donated to


AMERICA. Ohio: Fort Hill State Memorial,

Highland Co., 3NIIJI970, W. B. & V. G Cooke 41950(SP 141511).

S polyrhizum is characterized by the dark

brown colour, usually rugose, hard peridial wall, stellate manner of dehiscence, and often finally empty peridium due to the disappearance of the gleba. It differs from Sflavidum and S texense, which dehisces in a similar manner, in its usually bigger size, rugose peridium and the subglobose basidiospores with smaller spines.

The carpophores of this species grow solitary during the rainy seasons, from the end of January to the beginning ofMarch, associated with Caryocar brasiliense Camb.


Acta boto bras. 14(2): 181-184.2000 183



§. [



o ' ~




Figure l-S. Scleroderma polyrhizum Pers. I. gastrocarp (general aspect before dehiscence); 2. hyphae of exoperidium;

3. hyphae of mesoperidium; 4. hyphae of endoperidium; 5. basidiospores.

thus exhibiting ectomycorrhizal association. This simbiotic relationship was sustained by rhizomorphs of S. polyrhizum that were

aggregated with roots of this tree. Mande and Hartig net, characteristics of ectomycorrhiza, were detected by microscopic analysis. There is no published register of the mutualistic association between these taxa.


Bononi, V. L.; Trufem, S. F. & Grandi R. A. 1981. Fungos

macroscópicos do Parque Estadual das Fontes do

Ipiranga, São Paulo (SP), Brasil, depositados no

Herbário do Instituto de Botânica. Rickia 9: 37-53.

Bottomley, A. M. 1948. Gasteromycetes of South Africa.

Bothalia 4: 473-810.

Calonge, F. D. & Demoulin, V. 1975. Les Gastêromycetes

d'Éspagne. Bulletin Societé Mycologique du France 91(2): 247-292.

Coker, W. C. & Couch, J. N. 1928. The Gasteromycetes

of the Eastern United States and Canada. The

University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hil!.

Demoulin, V. & Marriott, J. V. R. 1981. Key to the

Gasteromycetes of Great Britain. Bulletin 15: 37-56.

Guzmán, G. 1970. Monografia deI gênero Sc/eroderma

Pers. emendo Fr. (Fungi-Basidiomycetes). Darwiniana

16(1-2): 233-407.

Hara, K. 1954. A Iist of Japanese fungi hitherto know.

The Mycological Society of Japan.

Harley, J. L. & Smith, S. E. 1983. Mycorrhizal Symbiosis.


184 Baseia & Milanez: First record of Scleroderlllo pO/yrltiZIIIII Pers. (Gasteromycetes) from Brazil

Holmgren, P. K.; Holmgren, N. H. & Bamett, L. C. 1990.

IndexHerbariorum, part I, The Herbariaofthe World,

8th edn. Reg. Veg., New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NewYork.

Komerup, A. & Wanscher, J. E. 1978. Methuen Handbook of Colour, Methuen, London.

Persoon, D. C. 1801. Synopsis Methodica Fungorum. Gotinga.

Richter, D. L. 1992. Six species of Sc/eroderma (Gasteromycetes, Sclerodermatales) described from pure cultures. Mycotaxon45: 461-471.

Rick, J. 1961. Basidiomycetes Eubasidii no Rio Grande do Sul. Iheringia 9: 45 I -480.

Schenck, N. C. 1982. Methods and principies of

micorrhizal research. The American

Phytopa-thological Society, St. Paul.

Toledo, L. D. 1993. Gasteromycetes (Eumycota) deI Cen-tro Oeste de la Argentina I. Analisis critico de los caracteres taxonomicos, clave de los generos y orden Podaxales. Darwiniana 32(1-4): 195-235.

Trappe, J. M. & Schenck, N. C. 1982. Taxonomy of the fungi forming endomycorrhizae. Pp. 1-9. In: N. C. Schenck (Ed.). Methods and principies of

mycorrhizal research. The American

Phytopa-thological Society, St. Paul.

Zak, B. 1973. Classification of ectomycorrhizae. Pp. 43-78. In: G. C. Marks, T. T. Kozlowski (Eds.),


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