Uma estratégia de gerenciamento de de datacenters baseada em técnicas de monitoramento distribuído e controle centralizado

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Texto

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❯♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❋❡❞❡r❛❧ ❞♦ ❈❡❛rá

❉❡♣❛rt❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❊♥❣❡♥❤❛r✐❛ ❞❡ ❚❡❧❡✐♥❢♦r♠át✐❝❛

Pr♦❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ Pós✲●r❛❞✉❛çã♦ ❡♠ ❊♥❣❡♥❤❛r✐❛ ❞❡ ❚❡❧❡✐♥❢♦r♠át✐❝❛

❚❤✐❛❣♦ ❚❡✐①❡✐r❛ ❙á

❯♠❛ ❡str❛té❣✐❛ ❞❡ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✐♥❢r❛❡str✉t✉r❛

❞❡ ❞❛t❛❝❡♥t❡rs ❜❛s❡❛❞❛ ❡♠ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡

♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞✐str✐❜✉í❞♦ ❡ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡ ❝❡♥tr❛❧✐③❛❞♦

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❆✉t♦r✿ ❚❤✐❛❣♦ ❚❡✐①❡✐r❛ ❙á

❖r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r✿

Pr♦❢✳ ❉❛♥✐❡❧♦ ●♦♥ç❛❧✈❡s ●♦♠❡s✱ ❉r✳

❯♠❛ ❡str❛té❣✐❛ ❞❡ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✐♥❢r❛❡str✉t✉r❛ ❞❡ ❞❛t❛❝❡♥t❡rs

❜❛s❡❛❞❛ ❡♠ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞✐str✐❜✉í❞♦ ❡ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡

❝❡♥tr❛❧✐③❛❞♦

❉✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ s✉❜♠❡t✐❞❛ à ❝♦♦r❞❡♥❛çã♦ ❞♦ Pr♦❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ Pós✲●r❛❞✉❛çã♦ ❡♠ ❊♥❣❡♥❤❛r✐❛ ❞❡ ❚❡❧❡✐♥❢♦r♠át✐❝❛ ❞❛ ❯♥✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❋❡❞❡r❛❧ ❞♦ ❈❡❛rá ❝♦♠♦ r❡q✉✐s✐t♦ ♣❛r❝✐❛❧ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♦❜t❡♥çã♦ ❞♦ ❣r❛✉ ❞❡ ▼❡str❡ ❡♠ ❊♥❣❡♥❤❛r✐❛ ❞❡ ❚❡❧❡✐♥❢♦r♠át✐❝❛✳ ➪r❡❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❝❡♥tr❛çã♦✿ ❙✐♥❛✐s ❡ ❙✐st❡♠❛s✳

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Dados Internacionais de Catalogação na Publicação Universidade Federal do Ceará

Biblioteca de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia - BPGE

S115e Sá, Thiago Teixeira

Uma estratégia de gerenciamento de infraestrutura de datacenters baseada em técnicas de monitoramento distribuído e controle centralizado / Thiago Teixeira Sá. – 2013

72 f. : il. color., enc. ; 30 cm.

Dissertação (mestrado) – Universidade Federal do Ceará, Departamento de Engenharia de Teleinformática, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Teleinformática, Fortaleza, 2013.

Concentração: Sinais e Sistemas.

Orientação: Prof. Dr. Danielo Gonçalves Gomes.

1. Teleinformática. 2. Sistemas operacionais Distribuídos (Computadores). I. Título.

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❘❡s✉♠♦

A

❈♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ❡♠ ◆✉✈❡♠ ❞❡s♣♦♥t❛ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠ ♣❛r❛❞✐❣♠❛ ❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ r❡❝✉rs♦s ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s s❡❣✉♥❞♦ ♦ q✉❛❧ ✐♥❢r❛❡str✉t✉r❛ ❞❡ ❤❛r❞✇❛r❡✱ s♦❢t✇❛r❡ ❡ ♣❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ♥♦✈❛s ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s sã♦ ♦❢❡r❡❝✐❞❛s ❝♦♠♦ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s ❡♠ ❡s❝❛❧❛ ❣❧♦❜❛❧✳ ❚❛✐s s❡r✈✐ç♦s sã♦ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♣♦r ♠❡✐♦ ❞❡ ❞❛t❛❝❡♥t❡rs ❞❡ ❧❛r❣❛ ❡s❝❛❧❛ ♦♥❞❡ é r❡❝♦rr❡♥t❡ ♦ ❡♠♣r❡❣♦ ❞❡ t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❞❡ ✈✐rt✉❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ♦ ✉s♦ ❝♦♠♣❛rt✐❧❤❛❞♦ ❞❡ r❡❝✉rs♦s✳ ◆❡st❡ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦✱ ❛ ❣❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❡✜❝✐❡♥t❡ ❞❛ ✐♥❢r❛❡str✉t✉r❛ ❞♦ ❞❛t❛❝❡♥t❡r ♣♦❞❡ ❧❡✈❛r ❛ r❡❞✉çõ❡s s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛t✐✈❛s ❞❡ s❡✉s ❝✉st♦s ❞❡ ♦♣❡r❛çã♦✳ ❊st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ✉♠❛ ❡str❛té❣✐❛ ❞❡ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✐♥❢r❛❡str✉t✉r❛ ❞❡ ❞❛t❛❝❡♥t❡rs ✈✐rt✉❛❧✐③❛❞♦s q✉❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞✐str✐❜✉í❞♦ ❝♦♠❜✐♥❛❞❛s ❛ ❛çõ❡s ❝❡♥tr❛❧✐③❛❞❛s ❞❡ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡✳ ❚❛❧ ❡str❛té❣✐❛ ❜✉s❝❛ ❞✐♠✐♥✉✐r ♦s ❡❢❡✐t♦s ❞❡ s♦❜r❡❝❛r❣❛ ♦❜s❡r✈❛❞♦s ❡♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦s tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❣❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❜❛s❡❛❞♦s ❡♠ ✉♠ ♥ó ❝♦♥tr♦❧❛❞♦r q✉❡ ❛❝✉♠✉❧❛ r❡s♣♦♥s❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡ ❡ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦✳ P♦r ❝♦♥s❡❣✉✐♥t❡✱ ❜✉s❝❛✲s❡ ❡❧❡✈❛r ♦ ♣♦❞❡r ❞❡ ❡s❝❛❧❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❛ ✐♥❢r❛❡str✉t✉r❛ ❡ ♠❡❧❤♦r❛r s✉❛ ❡✜❝✐ê♥❝✐❛ ❡♥❡r❣ét✐❝❛ s❡♠ ❝♦♠♣r♦♠❡t❡r ❛ ◗✉❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❙❡r✈✐ç♦ ✭◗♦❙✮ ♦❢❡r❡❝✐❞❛ ❛♦ ✉s✉ár✐♦ ✜♥❛❧✳ ❆ ❛♥á❧✐s❡ ❞❡ ❞❡s❡♠♣❡♥❤♦ ❞❛ ❡str❛té❣✐❛ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ é r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ ♠ú❧t✐♣❧♦s ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡ s✐♠✉❧❛çã♦ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞♦s ❝♦♠ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ✈♦❧t❛❞❛s ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛♠❡♥t❡ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ♠♦❞❡❧❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ♥✉✈❡♥s ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❡ ❝♦♠ s✉♣♦rt❡ à r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❝♦♥s✉♠♦ ❡♥❡r❣ét✐❝♦ ❞❛ ✐♥❢r❛❡str✉t✉r❛ s✐♠✉❧❛❞❛✳

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❆❜str❛❝t

C

❧♦✉❞ ❈♦♠♣✉t✐♥❣ ❡♠❡r❣❡s ❛s ❛ ♣❛r❛❞✐❣♠ ♦❢ ❝♦♠♣✉t✐♥❣ r❡s♦✉r❝❡s ✉t✐❧✐③❛t✐♦♥ ✇❤❡r❡ ❤❛r❞✇❛r❡ ✐♥❢r❛str✉❝t✉r❡✱ s♦❢t✇❛r❡ ❛♥❞ ❞❡✈❡❧♦♣♠❡♥t ♣❧❛t❢♦r♠s ❢♦r ♥❡✇ ❛♣♣❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥s ❛r❡ ♣r♦✈✐❞❡❞ ❛s s❡r✈✐❝❡s ❛✈❛✐❧❛❜❧❡ ✇♦r❧❞✇✐❞❡✳ ❙✉❝❤ s❡r✈✐❝❡s ❛r❡ ♦✛❡r❡❞ ✉s✐♥❣ ❧❛r❣❡ s❝❛❧❡ ❞❛t❛❝❡♥t❡rs ✇❤❡r❡ ✈✐rt✉❛❧✐③❛t✐♦♥ t❡❝❤♥♦❧♦❣✐❡s ❛r❡ ❢r❡q✉❡♥t❧② ✉s❡❞ s♦ t❤❛t ❛ ♠✉❧t✐t❡♥❛♥❝②✲❡♥❛❜❧❡❞ ❛r❝❤✐t❡❝t✉r❡ ❝❛♥ ❜❡ ❞❡♣❧♦②❡❞✳ ■♥ t❤✐s ❝♦♥t❡①t✱ t❤❡ ❡✣❝✐❡♥t ♠❛♥❛❣❡♠❡♥t ♦❢ t❤❡ ❞❛t❛❝❡♥t❡r ✐♥❢r❛str✉❝t✉r❡ ❝❛♥ ❧❡❛❞ t♦ s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛♥t r❡❞✉❝t✐♦♥ ♦❢ ✐ts ♦♣❡r❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❝♦sts✳ ❚❤✐s ✇♦r❦ ♣r❡s❡♥ts ❛ ♠❛♥❛❣❡♠❡♥t str❛t❡❣② ❢♦r ✈✐rt✉❛❧✐③❡❞ ❞❛t❛❝❡♥t❡rs ✐♥❢r❛str✉❝t✉r❡s t❤❛t ❛♣♣❧✐❡s ❜♦t❤ ❞✐str✐❜✉t❡❞ ♠♦♥✐t♦r✐♥❣ t❡❝❤♥✐q✉❡s ❛♥❞ ❝❡♥tr❛❧✐③❡❞ ❝♦♥tr♦❧ ❛❝t✐♦♥s✳ ❙✉❝❤ str❛t❡❣② ❛✐♠s t♦ ❛tt❡♥✉❛t❡ ♦✈❡r❧♦❛❞✐♥❣ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠s ♦❜s❡r✈❡❞ ✐♥ tr❛❞✐t✐♦♥❛❧ ♠❛♥❛❣❡♠❡♥t ♠♦❞❡❧s ❜❛s❡❞ ♦♥ ❛ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❧❡r t❤❛t ✐s r❡s♣♦♥s✐❜❧❡ ❢♦r ♠♦♥✐t♦r✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❧✐♥❣ t❤❡ ✐♥❢r❛str✉❝t✉r❡✳ ❚❤✉s✱ ✐t ✐♥t❡♥❞s t♦ ✐♥❝r❡❛s❡ t❤❡ ❞❛t❛❝❡♥t❡r✬s s❝❛❧❛❜✐❧✐t② ❛♥❞ ✐♠♣r♦✈❡ ✐ts ♣♦✇❡r ❡✣❝✐❡♥❝② ✇✐t❤♦✉t ❝♦♠♣r♦♠✐s✐♥❣ t❤❡ ◗✉❛❧✐t② ♦❢ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡ ♦✛❡r❡❞ t♦ t❤❡ ❡♥❞ ✉s❡r✳ ❚❤❡ str❛t❡❣②✬s ♣❡r❢♦r♠❛♥❝❡ ❡✈❛❧✉❛t✐♦♥ ✐s ♠❛❞❡ t❤r♦✉❣❤ ♠✉❧t✐♣❧❡ s✐♠✉❧❛t✐♦♥ ❡①♣❡r✐♠❡♥ts ✇❤✐❝❤ ✉s❡ t♦♦❧s ❛✐♠❡❞ s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛❧❧② ❛t ♠♦❞❡❧✐♥❣ ❝❧♦✉❞ ✐♥❢r❛str✉❝t✉r❡s ✇✐t❤ s✉♣♣♦rt t♦ ♣♦✇❡r ❝♦♥s✉♠♣t✐♦♥ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛t✐♦♥✳

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❆❣r❛❞❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦s

❊st❛ ❞✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♠❡str❛❞♦ é ✉♠ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦ ❞✐r❡t♦ ❞❡ ♠✉✐t♦s ♠❡s❡s ❞❡ ❡s❢♦rç♦ ❝♦♥tí♥✉♦✱ ✐♥ú♠❡r❛s ♥♦✐t❡s ❡♠ ❝❧❛r♦ ❡ ✐♥❝♦♥tá✈❡✐s ①í❝❛r❛s ❞❡ ❝❛❢é✳ ❚ê✲❧❛ ✜♥❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❡✈♦❝❛ ✉♠ s❡♥t✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ r❡❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ú♥✐❝♦ ❡ tr❛③ ❞❡ ✐♠❡❞✐❛t♦ à ♠❡♠ór✐❛ t♦❞❛s ❛s ♣❡ss♦❛s r❡s♣♦♥sá✈❡✐s ♣❡❧♦ s✉❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ss❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳ ❊♠ ♣r✐♠❡✐r♦ ❧✉❣❛r✱ q✉❡r♦ ❛❣r❛❞❡❝❡r ❛ ❝♦♥✜❛♥ç❛ ❡♠ ♠✐♠ ❞❡♣♦s✐t❛❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ ♠❡✉ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r ❡ ♦r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r ❉❛♥✐❡❧♦ ●♦♥ç❛❧✈❡s ●♦♠❡s✳ ●r❛ç❛s ❛♦ s❡✉ ❛♣♦✐♦ ❡ s✉❛ s❡♥s✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❛♦ ♣❡r❝❡❜❡r ♠✐♥❤❛s ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡s ❡♠ ♣❡rí♦❞♦s ❞✐❢í❝❡✐s ❞❡ss❛ ❝❛♠✐♥❤❛❞❛✱ ❝♦♥s❡❣✉✐ ❝♦♥❝✐❧✐❛r tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❡ ✈✐❞❛ ❛❝❛❞ê♠✐❝❛ ❛té ❛ ❝♦♥❝❧✉sã♦ ❞♦ ❝✉rs♦✳ ❆❣r❛❞❡ç♦ ❛✐♥❞❛ ❛♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r ❏♦sé ▼❛rq✉❡s ❙♦❛r❡s✱ q✉❡ ❛❥✉❞♦✉ ❛ ✈✐❛❜✐❧✐③❛r ♠✐♥❤❛ ❡♥tr❛❞❛ ♥♦ ♠❡str❛❞♦ ❛♦ s❡r ♠❡✉ ♦r✐❡♥t❛❞♦r ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ❛❧❣✉♥s ♠❡s❡s ❡✱ ❛♦ ✜♠✱ ❛❝❡✐t❛r ♦ ❝♦♥✈✐t❡ ♣❛r❛ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛r ❞❛ ❜❛♥❝❛ ❞❡ ♠✐♥❤❛ ❞❡❢❡s❛✳ ❆❣r❛❞❡ç♦ t❛♠❜é♠ ❛♦ ❝❛r♦ ❛♠✐❣♦ ❘♦❞r✐❣♦ ❈❛❧❤❡✐r♦s✱ q✉❡ ❞❡s❡♠♣❡♥❤♦✉ ✉♠ ♣❛♣❡❧ ✐♠♣r❡s❝✐♥❞í✈❡❧ ❞✉r❛♥t❡ t♦❞❛ ❛ ♣r♦❞✉çã♦ ❞♦ t❡①t♦ ✜♥❛❧✱ ❡ ❝✉❥❛s s✉❣❡stõ❡s ♣r♦✈❡♥✐❡♥t❡s ❞❡ s✉❛s r❡✈✐sõ❡s ❛❥✉❞❛r❛♠ ❛ ❡♥r✐q✉❡❝❡r s♦❜r❡♠❛♥❡✐r❛ ❡st❛ ❞✐ss❡rt❛çã♦✳ ❆❞❡♠❛✐s✱ ❛❣r❛❞❡ç♦ ❛♦ ♣r♦❢❡ss♦r ❈és❛r ❆✉❣✉st♦ ❉❡ ❘♦s❡ ♣❡❧❛ ♣❛rt✐❝✐♣❛çã♦ ♥❛ ❜❛♥❝❛ ❡①❛♠✐♥❛❞♦r❛ ❡ ♣❡❧❛s ❝rít✐❝❛s ❝♦♥str✉t✐✈❛s ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞❛s ❛♦ ♠❡✉ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳

(9)
(10)

❙✉♠ár✐♦

▲✐st❛ ❞❡ ❋✐❣✉r❛s ①

▲✐st❛ ❞❡ ❚❛❜❡❧❛s ①✐

▲✐st❛ ❞❡ ❙✐❣❧❛s ①✐✐

▲✐st❛ ❞❡ ❙í♠❜♦❧♦s ①✐✐✐

✶ ■♥tr♦❞✉çã♦ ✶

✶✳✶ ❈♦♥t❡①t✉❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶ ✶✳✷ ❏✉st✐✜❝❛t✐✈❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸ ✶✳✸ ❍✐♣ót❡s❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹ ✶✳✹ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺ ✶✳✹✳✶ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❣❡r❛❧ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺ ✶✳✹✳✷ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺ ✶✳✺ ▼❡t♦❞♦❧♦❣✐❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻ ✶✳✻ ❊str✉t✉r❛ ❞♦ ❞♦❝✉♠❡♥t♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻ ✷ ❈❛r❛❝t❡r✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❡ r❡✈✐sã♦ ❜✐❜❧✐♦❣rá✜❝❛ ✽ ✷✳✶ ❉❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✽ ✷✳✷ ❚r❛❜❛❧❤♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✶ ✷✳✷✳✶ ●❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ r❡❝✉rs♦s ❡♠ ❞❛t❛❝❡♥t❡rs ✈✐rt✉❛❧✐③❛❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✷ ✷✳✷✳✷ ❋r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s ❡ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❞❡ s✐♠✉❧❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✺

(11)

✷✳✸ ❘❡s✉♠♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✻

✸ ❉❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞❛ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ✶✼

✸✳✶ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❝❡♥tr❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ❞❡ ❉❈■▼ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✼ ✸✳✷ ❈❛r❛❝t❡r✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ♣r♦♣♦st♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✵ ✸✳✷✳✶ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✹ ✸✳✷✳✷ ▼ó❞✉❧♦ ❞❡ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✻ ✸✳✸ ❘❡s✉♠♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✽

✹ ❘❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ✷✾

✹✳✶ ▼❡t♦❞♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❞❡ s✐♠✉❧❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✾ ✹✳✶✳✶ ❈❧♦✉❞❙✐♠ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✵ ✹✳✶✳✷ ❈❧♦✉❞❘❡♣♦rts ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✶ ✹✳✶✳✸ ❲♦r❦❧♦❛❞s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✷ ✹✳✶✳✹ ▼♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥s✉♠♦ ❡♥❡r❣ét✐❝♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✷ ✹✳✶✳✺ ❈❡♥ár✐♦s s✐♠✉❧❛❞♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✸ ✹✳✶✳✻ ▼étr✐❝❛s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✺ ✹✳✶✳✼ ❋❛t♦r❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✻ ✹✳✷ ❊✜❝✐ê♥❝✐❛ ❡♥❡r❣ét✐❝❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✽ ✹✳✸ ◗✉❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✵ ✹✳✹ ❘❡s✉♠♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✹

✺ ❈♦♥s✐❞❡r❛çõ❡s ✜♥❛✐s ✺✺

✺✳✶ ❈♦♥❝❧✉sõ❡s ❡ ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❝♦♥tr✐❜✉✐çõ❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✺ ✺✳✷ ▲✐♠✐t❛çõ❡s ❡ ♣❡rs♣❡❝t✐✈❛s ♣❛r❛ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❢✉t✉r♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✻

❆♣ê♥❞✐❝❡ ❆ ❈❧♦✉❞❘❡♣♦rts ✺✽

❆✳✶ ❈❧♦✉❞❙✐♠ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✽ ❆✳✷ ❆♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❞❡ s✐♠✉❧❛çã♦ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✶ ❆✳✸ ❆rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❞♦ s♦❢t✇❛r❡ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✷ ❆✳✸✳✶ ◆ú❝❧❡♦ ❞❡ ❡♥t✐❞❛❞❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✷ ❆✳✸✳✷ ❊①t❡♥sõ❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✹

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❆✳✸✳✸ ●❡r❡♥❝✐❛❞♦r ❞❡ s✐♠✉❧❛çõ❡s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✺ ❆✳✸✳✹ ❈❛♠❛❞❛ ❞❡ ♣❡rs✐stê♥❝✐❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✺ ❆✳✸✳✺ ●❡r❡♥❝✐❛❞♦r ❞❡ r❡❧❛tór✐♦s ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✻ ❆✳✸✳✻ ■♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ❣rá✜❝❛ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✻

❘❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛s ❇✐❜❧✐♦❣rá✜❝❛s ✼✷

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▲✐st❛ ❞❡ ❋✐❣✉r❛s

✶✳✶ ❘❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ♦✜❝✐❛❧ ❞♦ ◆■❙❚ ♣❛r❛ ♠♦❞❡❧♦s ❞❛ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ❡♠ ◆✉✈❡♠ ✭❛❞❛♣t❛❞❛ ❞❡ ✭❙❖❙■◆❙❑❨✱ ✷✵✶✶✮✮✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷ ✸✳✶ ❆rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❞❡ ❉❈■▼ ❝❡♥tr❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ♥✉✈❡♠ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✾ ✸✳✷ ❆rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❞❡ ❉❈■▼ ❝♦♠ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞✐str✐❜✉í❞♦ ❡ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡

❝❡♥tr❛❧✐③❛❞♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✵ ✸✳✸ ❋❧✉①♦❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ♦♣❡r❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠❡❝❛♥✐s♠♦ ❞❡ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞✐str✐❜✉í❞♦

♣❛r❛ ❝❛❞❛ ♥ó ❤♦s♣❡❞❡✐r♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✶ ✸✳✹ ❋❧✉①♦❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ ♦♣❡r❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♠❡❝❛♥✐s♠♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡ ❝❡♥tr❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ♣❛r❛

♦ ♥ó ❝♦♥tr♦❧❛❞♦r✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✷ ✸✳✺ ❱✐sã♦ ❣❡r❛❧ ❞♦ ✢✉①♦ ❞❡ r❡q✉✐s✐çõ❡s ❞❡ ❛❧♦❝❛çã♦ ❡ ❞❡s❛❧♦❝❛çã♦ ❞❡

♠áq✉✐♥❛s ✈✐rt✉❛✐s ♥♦ ❞❛t❛❝❡♥t❡r✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✹ ✸✳✻ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ s❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛t✐✈♦ ❞❛ ✐♥❢r❛❡str✉t✉r❛ ❞♦ ❞❛t❛❝❡♥t❡r

❡ ❞♦s ♣r♦❝❡ss♦s ❞❡ ❛❧♦❝❛çã♦ ❡ ❞❡s❛❧♦❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♠áq✉✐♥❛s ✈✐rt✉❛✐s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✺ ✸✳✼ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ s❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛t✐✈♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❛❧♦❝❛çã♦ ❡

❞❡s❛❧♦❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♠áq✉✐♥❛s ✈✐rt✉❛✐s ❡♠ ✉♠ ♥ó ❤♦s♣❡❞❡✐r♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✻ ✸✳✽ ❱✐sã♦ ❣❡r❛❧ ❞♦ ✢✉①♦ ❞❡ ❝♦♠✉♥✐❝❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❞♦✐s ♥ós ❤♦s♣❡❞❡✐r♦s ✈✐③✐♥❤♦s✳ ✷✼ ✸✳✾ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ s❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛t✐✈♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❞❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❣❡r❛çã♦ ❞❡

r❡❧❛tór✐♦s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✼ ✸✳✶✵ ❉✐❛❣r❛♠❛ ❞❡ s❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛t✐✈♦ ❞♦ ♠❡❝❛♥✐s♠♦ ❞❡ ❡♥✈✐♦ ❞❡

♥♦t✐✜❝❛çõ❡s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✷✽ ✹✳✶ ❈♦♥s✉♠♦ ❡♥❡r❣ét✐❝♦ ❞❛ ♣♦❧ít✐❝❛ ❞❡ ❛❧♦❝❛çã♦ ❙❙❚ ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛

q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♥ós ❤♦s♣❡❞❡✐r♦s ❞♦ ❞❛t❛❝❡♥t❡r ♣❛r❛ ❡str❛té❣✐❛ ❞❡ ❉❈■▼ ✭❛✮ ❝❡♥tr❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❡ ✭❜✮ ❞✐str✐❜✉í❞❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✾

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✹✳✷ ❈♦♥s✉♠♦ ❡♥❡r❣ét✐❝♦ ❞❛ ♣♦❧ít✐❝❛ ❞❡ ❛❧♦❝❛çã♦ ❉❙❚ ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♥ós ❤♦s♣❡❞❡✐r♦s ❞♦ ❞❛t❛❝❡♥t❡r ♣❛r❛ ❡str❛té❣✐❛ ❞❡ ❉❈■▼ ✭❛✮ ❝❡♥tr❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❡ ✭❜✮ ❞✐str✐❜✉í❞❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✵ ✹✳✸ ❈♦♥s✉♠♦ ❡♥❡r❣ét✐❝♦ ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♥ós ❤♦s♣❡❞❡✐r♦s

❞♦ ❞❛t❛❝❡♥t❡r ♣❛r❛ ❛s ♣♦❧ít✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❛❧♦❝❛çã♦ ✭❛✮ ▼❆❉✲▼▼❚ ❝❡♥tr❛❧✐③❛❞❛✱ ✭❜✮ ▼❆❉✲▼▼❚ ❞✐str✐❜✉í❞❛✱ ✭❝✮ ▲❘✲▼▼❚ ❝❡♥tr❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❡ ✭❞✮ ▲❘✲▼▼❚ ❞✐str✐❜✉í❞❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✷ ✹✳✹ ❈♦♥s✉♠♦ ❡♥❡r❣ét✐❝♦ ❞❛ ♣♦❧ít✐❝❛ ❞❡ ❛❧♦❝❛çã♦ ❙❙❚ ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛

q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♠áq✉✐♥❛s ✈✐rt✉❛✐s ❛❧♦❝❛❞❛s ♣♦r ♥ó ❤♦s♣❡❞❡✐r♦ ♣❛r❛ ❡str❛té❣✐❛ ❞❡ ❉❈■▼ ✭❛✮ ❝❡♥tr❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❡ ✭❜✮ ❞✐str✐❜✉í❞❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✹ ✹✳✺ ❈♦♥s✉♠♦ ❡♥❡r❣ét✐❝♦ ❞❛ ♣♦❧ít✐❝❛ ❞❡ ❛❧♦❝❛çã♦ ❉❙❚ ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛

q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♠áq✉✐♥❛s ✈✐rt✉❛✐s ❛❧♦❝❛❞❛s ♣♦r ♥ó ❤♦s♣❡❞❡✐r♦ ♣❛r❛ ❡str❛té❣✐❛ ❞❡ ❉❈■▼ ✭❛✮ ❝❡♥tr❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❡ ✭❜✮ ❞✐str✐❜✉í❞❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✺ ✹✳✻ ❈♦♥s✉♠♦ ❡♥❡r❣ét✐❝♦ ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♠áq✉✐♥❛s

✈✐rt✉❛✐s ❛❧♦❝❛❞❛s ♣♦r ♥ó ❤♦s♣❡❞❡✐r♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛s ♣♦❧ít✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❛❧♦❝❛çã♦ ✭❛✮ ▼❆❉✲▼▼❚ ❝❡♥tr❛❧✐③❛❞❛✱ ✭❜✮ ▼❆❉✲▼▼❚ ❞✐str✐❜✉í❞❛✱ ✭❝✮ ▲❘✲▼▼❚ ❝❡♥tr❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❡ ✭❞✮ ▲❘✲▼▼❚ ❞✐str✐❜✉í❞❛✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✹✼ ✹✳✼ ❈♦♥s✉♠♦ ❡♥❡r❣ét✐❝♦ ❞❛ ❡str❛té❣✐❛ ❞❡ ❉❈■▼ ❞✐str✐❜✉í❞❛ ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦

❝♦♠ ❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ✈✐③✐♥❤♦s ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛❞♦s ♣♦r ❝❛❞❛ ♥ó ❤♦s♣❡❞❡✐r♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛s ♣♦❧ít✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❛❧♦❝❛çã♦ ✭❛✮ ❉❙❚ ❡ ✭❜✮ ▼❆❉✲▼▼❚ ❡ ✭❝✮ ▲❘✲▼▼❚✳ ✳ ✹✽ ✹✳✽ ◗✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♠✐❣r❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ♠áq✉✐♥❛s ✈✐rt✉❛✐s r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛s ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦

❝♦♠ ✭❛✮ ❛ ❡str❛té❣✐❛ ❞❡ ❉❈■▼ ❛❞♦t❛❞❛ ❡ ✭❜✮ ❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✈✐③✐♥❤♦s ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛❞♦s ♣♦r ❝❛❞❛ ♥ó ❤♦s♣❡❞❡✐r♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✶ ✹✳✾ P❡r❝❡♥t✉❛❧ ❞❡ ♦♣❡r❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❞❛t❛❝❡♥t❡r ❛❜❛✐①♦ ❞♦s ❧✐♠✐❛r❡s s✉♣❡r✐♦r❡s

❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ r❡❝✉rs♦s ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ✭❛✮ ❛ ❡str❛té❣✐❛ ❞❡ ❉❈■▼ ❛❞♦t❛❞❛ ❡ ✭❜✮ ❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✈✐③✐♥❤♦s ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛❞♦s ♣♦r ❝❛❞❛ ♥ó ❤♦s♣❡❞❡✐r♦✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✺✸ ❆✳✶ ❆♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❞❡ s✐♠✉❧❛çã♦ ❞♦ ❈❧♦✉❞❘❡♣♦rts✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✷ ❆✳✷ ❆rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❞❡ s♦❢t✇❛r❡ ♠♦❞✉❧❛r ❞♦ ❈❧♦✉❞❘❡♣♦rts✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✸ ❆✳✸ ■♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ❣rá✜❝❛ ❞♦ ❈❧♦✉❞❘❡♣♦rts✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✻

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▲✐st❛ ❞❡ ❚❛❜❡❧❛s

✷✳✶ ❚❛❜❡❧❛ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛t✐✈❛ ❞♦s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s à ❣❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ r❡❝✉rs♦s ❡♠ ❞❛t❛❝❡♥t❡rs ✈✐rt✉❛❧✐③❛❞♦s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✶✹ ✹✳✶ ❚✐♣♦s ❞❡ ✐♥stâ♥❝✐❛ ❞❛s ♠áq✉✐♥❛s ✈✐rt✉❛✐s s✐♠✉❧❛❞❛s✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✸✺ ❆✳✶ ▲✐st❛ ❞❡ ❡♥✉♠❡r❛çõ❡s✱ ❝❧❛ss❡s ❡ ✐♥t❡r❢❛❝❡s ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞❛s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞❡

❡①t❡♥sõ❡s ❞♦ ❈❧♦✉❞❘❡♣♦rts✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✳ ✻✹

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▲✐st❛ ❞❡ ❙✐❣❧❛s

❙▲❆ ❙❡r✈✐✈❡ ▲❡✈❡❧ ❆❣r❡❡♠❡♥t ✭❆❝♦r❞♦ ❞❡ ◆í✈❡❧ ❞❡ ❙❡r✈✐ç♦✮ ◗♦❙ ◗✉❛❧✐t② ♦❢ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡ ✭◗✉❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❙❡r✈✐ç♦✮

■❛❛❙ ■♥❢r❛str✉❝t✉r❡ ❛s ❛ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡ ✭■♥❢r❛❡str✉t✉r❛ ❝♦♠♦ ❙❡r✈✐ç♦✮ P❛❛❙ P❧❛t❢♦r♠ ❛s ❛ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡ ✭P❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛ ❝♦♠♦ ❙❡r✈✐ç♦✮

❙❛❛❙ ❙♦❢t✇❛r❡ ❛s ❛ ❙❡r✈✐❝❡ ✭❙♦❢t✇❛r❡ ❝♦♠♦ ❙❡r✈✐ç♦✮

❊❘P ❊♥t❡r♣r✐s❡ ❘❡s♦✉r❝❡ P❧❛♥♥✐♥❣ ✭P❧❛♥❡❥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❘❡❝✉rs♦s ❊♠♣r❡s❛r✐❛✐s✮ ❉❈■▼ ❉❛t❛❝❡♥t❡r ■♥❢r❛str✉❝t✉r❡ ▼❛♥❛❣❡♠❡♥t ✭●❡r❡♥❝✐❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ■♥❢r❛❡str✉t✉r❛

❞❡ ❉❛t❛❝❡♥t❡r✮

❖❘▼ ❖❜❥❡❝t✲r❡❧❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ▼❛♣♣✐♥❣ ✭▼❛♣❡❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❖❜❥❡t♦s ❘❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✮ ❙❙❚ ❙✐♥❣❧❡ ❙t❛t✐❝ ❚❤r❡s❤♦❧❞ ✭▲✐♠✐❛r ❊stát✐❝♦ Ú♥✐❝♦✮

❉❙❚ ❉♦✉❜❧❡ ❙t❛t✐❝ ❚❤r❡s❤♦❧❞ ✭▲✐♠✐❛r ❊stát✐❝♦ ❉✉♣❧♦✮

▼❆❉ ▼❡❞✐❛♥ ❆❜s♦❧✉t❡ ❉❡✈✐❛t✐♦♥ ✭❉❡s✈✐♦ ❆❜s♦❧✉t♦ ❞❡ ▼❡❞✐❛♥❛✮ ▼▼❚ ▼✐♥✐♠✉♠ ▼✐❣r❛t✐♦♥ ❚✐♠❡ ✭❚❡♠♣♦ ▼í♥✐♠♦ ❞❡ ▼✐❣r❛çã♦✮ ▲❘ ▲♦❝❛❧ ❘❡❣r❡ss✐♦♥ ✭❘❡❣r❡ssã♦ ▲♦❝❛❧✮

P❯❊ P♦✇❡r ❯s❛❣❡ ❊✛❡❝t✐✈❡♥❡ss ✭❊✜❝á❝✐❛ ❞♦ ❯s♦ ❞❡ P♦tê♥❝✐❛✮ ❱▼ ❱✐rt✉❛❧ ▼❛❝❤✐♥❡ ✭▼áq✉✐♥❛ ❱✐rt✉❛❧✮

❚❊❈ ❚❡♠♣♦ ❞❡ ❊st❛❜✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❈♦♥s✉♠♦

❆P■ ❆♣♣❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥ Pr♦❣r❛♠♠✐♥❣ ■♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ✭■♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ❞❡ Pr♦❣r❛♠❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❆♣❧✐❝❛t✐✈♦s✮ P❖❙■❳ P♦rt❛❜❧❡ ❖♣❡r❛t✐♥❣ ❙②st❡♠ ■♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ ✭■♥t❡r❢❛❝❡ P♦rtá✈❡❧ ❡♥tr❡ ❙✐st❡♠❛s

❖♣❡r❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✮

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▲✐st❛ ❞❡ ❙í♠❜♦❧♦s

¯

γj ▲✐♠✐t❡ ♠á①✐♠♦ ❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♠❡♠ór✐❛ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠❛ ♠áq✉✐♥❛ ✈✐rt✉❛❧vj ¯

ωj ▲✐♠✐t❡ ♠á①✐♠♦ ❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠❛ ♠áq✉✐♥❛ ✈✐rt✉❛❧vj ¯

ci ❈❛♣❛❝✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ♥ó ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ni ¯

mi ◗✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♠❡♠ór✐❛ ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ ♥♦ ♥ó ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ni

µ ▲✐♠✐t❡ ♠í♥✐♠♦ ❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ r❡❝✉rs♦s ❡♠ ✉♠ ♥ó ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ωj(t) ❉❡♠❛♥❞❛ ♣♦r ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ♠áq✉✐♥❛ ✈✐rt✉❛❧ vj ♥♦ ✐♥st❛♠t❡ t

τ ▲✐♠✐t❡ ♠á①✐♠♦ ❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ r❡❝✉rs♦s ❡♠ ✉♠ ♥ó ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ θ(t) ◗✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♠áq✉✐♥❛s ✈✐rt✉❛✐s ♣❡rt❡♥❝❡♥t❡s ❛ V ♥♦ ✐♥st❛♥t❡ t

A ◆ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ♥ós ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s q✉❡ ♥ã♦ ❛❧♦❝❛♠ ♥❡♥❤✉♠❛ ♠áq✉✐♥❛ ✈✐rt✉❛❧ C ❈❛♣❛❝✐❞❛❞❡ t♦t❛❧ ❞❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ❞❛t❛❝❡♥t❡r

ci(t) ❈♦♥s✉♠♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ♥ó ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ni ♥♦ ✐♥st❛♥t❡ t

M ◗✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ t♦t❛❧ ❞❡ ♠❡♠ór✐❛ ❞♦ ❞❛t❛❝❡♥t❡r

mi(t) ❈♦♥s✉♠♦ ❞❡ ♠❡♠ór✐❛ ❞♦ ♥ó ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ni ♥♦ ✐♥st❛♥t❡ t

N ❈♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ♥ós ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❞♦ ❞❛t❛❝❡♥t❡r n ◆ó ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ♣❡r❝❡♥t❡♥❝❡ ❛ N

p ◗✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♥ós ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ♣❡rt❡♥❝❡♥t❡s ❛ N V ❈♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ♠áq✉✐♥❛s ✈✐rt✉❛✐s ❛❧♦❝❛❞❛s ♣❡❧♦ ❞❛t❛❝❡♥t❡r v ▼áq✉✐♥❛ ✈✐rt✉❛❧ ♣❡rt❡♥❝❡♥t❡ ❛V

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❈❛♣ít✉❧♦

1

■♥tr♦❞✉çã♦

◆❡st❡ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦✱ ❛ ❙❡çã♦ ✶✳✶ s✐t✉❛ ♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ♥♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❞❛ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ❡♠ ◆✉✈❡♠✱ ✐♥tr♦❞✉③✐♥❞♦ ✉♠❛ t❡r♠✐♥♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❜ás✐❝❛ ❡ ❞✐s❝✉t✐♥❞♦ s✉❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛✐s✳ ❆ ❙❡çã♦ ✶✳✷ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜❝❛ ♦s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s q✉❡ ♠♦t✐✈❛r❛♠ ♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ s♦❧✉çã♦ ♣r♦♣♦st❛✳ ◆❛ ❙❡çã♦ ✶✳✸✱ sã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s ❤✐♣ót❡s❡s s♦❜r❡ ♦s ❡❢❡✐t♦s ❞❛ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❞❡ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❞❛t❛❝❡♥t❡r ✈✐rt✉❛❧✐③❛❞♦✳ ❆ ❙❡çã♦ ✶✳✹ ❧✐st❛ ♦s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❣❡r❛✐s ❡ ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦s ❞♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✱ s❡❣✉✐❞♦s ❞❛ ❞❡s❝r✐çã♦ ❞❡ t♦❞❛s ❛s ❡t❛♣❛s ❞❛ ♠❡t♦❞♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❡♠♣r❡❣❛❞❛ ❡♠ s✉❛ ❡①❡❝✉çã♦✱ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛ ♥❛ ❙❡çã♦ ✶✳✺✳ ❖ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦ é ❝♦♥❝❧✉í❞♦ ❝♦♠ ✉♠❛ ✈✐sã♦ ❣❡r❛❧ ❞❛ ❡str✉t✉r❛ ❞❛ ❞✐ss❡rt❛çã♦ ♥❛ ❙❡çã♦ ✶✳✻✳

✶✳✶ ❈♦♥t❡①t✉❛❧✐③❛çã♦

❆ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ❡♠ ◆✉✈❡♠ ♣r♦♣õ❡ ❛ ✐♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♠♦❞❡❧♦s t❡❝♥♦❧ó❣✐❝♦s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♣r♦✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✐♥❢r❛❡str✉t✉r❛ ❞❡ ❤❛r❞✇❛r❡✱ ♣❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛s ❞❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ♥❛ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s r❡♠♦t❛♠❡♥t❡ ❡ ❡♠ ❡s❝❛❧❛ ❣❧♦❜❛❧✳ ◆❡st❡ ♥♦✈♦ ♣❛r❛❞✐❣♠❛ ❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ r❡❝✉rs♦s ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✱ ❝❧✐❡♥t❡s ❛❜r❡♠ ♠ã♦ ❞❛ ❛❞♠✐♥✐str❛çã♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ✐♥❢r❛❡str✉t✉r❛ ♣ró♣r✐❛ ❡ ❞✐s♣õ❡♠ ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ♦❢❡r❡❝✐❞♦s ♣♦r t❡r❝❡✐r♦s✱ ❞❡❧❡❣❛♥❞♦ r❡s♣♦♥s❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❡ ❛ss✉♠✐♥❞♦ ❝✉st♦s ♣r♦♣♦r❝✐♦♥❛✐s à q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ r❡❝✉rs♦s q✉❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♠✳ ❖s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❡♠ ♥✉✈❡♠ sã♦ ❝❛r❛❝t❡r✐st✐❝❛♠❡♥t❡ ❝♦♠♣♦st♦s ♣♦r ✐♥❢r❛❡str✉t✉r❛s ❞✐str✐❜✉í❞❛s ❡ ❝♦♠ r❡❝✉rs♦s ❤❡t❡r♦❣ê♥❡♦s ❡ ✈✐rt✉❛❧✐③❛❞♦s✱ ❛❧é♠ ❞❡ s❡r✈✐r❡♠ ❝♦♥❝♦♠✐t❛♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ ❛ ✉♠❛ ❣r❛♥❞❡ ❞✐✈❡rs✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❝❧✐❡♥t❡s ❝✉❥♦ ❆❝♦r❞♦ ❞❡ ◆í✈❡❧ ❞❡ ❙❡r✈✐ç♦ ✭❙▲❆✮ ♣♦❞❡ ❡①✐❣✐r ♥í✈❡✐s ❞❡ ◗✉❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❙❡r✈✐ç♦ ✭◗♦❙✮ ❞✐st✐♥t♦s✳ ❆❞❡♠❛✐s✱ ♦s ❞❛t❛❝❡♥t❡rs q✉❡ ❝♦♠♣õ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ♥✉✈❡♠ ❞❡ r❡❝✉rs♦s ❞❡✈❡♠ s✉♣♦rt❛r ✉♠ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ✈✐rt✉❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ✐❧✐♠✐t❛❞♦ ❞❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s✱

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✶✳✶✳ ❈♦♥t❡①t✉❛❧✐③❛çã♦ ✷

❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✳✶✿ ❘❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞❛ ❞❡✜♥✐çã♦ ♦✜❝✐❛❧ ❞♦ ◆■❙❚ ♣❛r❛ ♠♦❞❡❧♦s ❞❛ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ❡♠ ◆✉✈❡♠ ✭❛❞❛♣t❛❞❛ ❞❡ ✭❙❖❙■◆❙❑❨✱ ✷✵✶✶✮✮✳

♦ q✉❡ ♦s ♦❜r✐❣❛ ❛ ❧✐❞❛r ❝♦♠ ❞❡♠❛♥❞❛s ✈❛r✐❛♥t❡s ♣♦r ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦✱ ❛r♠❛③❡♥❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❞❛❞♦s ❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❜❛♥❞❛✳

❖ ◆■❙❚ ✭❯✳❙✳ ◆❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ■♥st✐t✉t❡ ♦❢ ❙t❛♥❞❛rts ❛♥❞ ❚❡❝❤♥♦❧♦❣②✮ ❞✐s♣õ❡ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❞❡ ❞❡✜♥✐çõ❡s q✉❡ q✉❛❧✐✜❝❛ ❛ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ ❡♠ ◆✉✈❡♠ ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ♠♦❞❡❧♦s ❞✐st✐♥t♦s ❞❡ ✐♠♣❧❛♥t❛çã♦ ❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦✳ ❚❛❧ ❞✐✈✐sã♦✱ ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ❛❧❣✉♠❛s ❞❛s ♣r✐♥❝✐♣❛✐s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❞♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ❡♠ ♥✉✈❡♠✱ é ♠♦str❛❞❛ ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✳✶✳

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✶✳✷✳ ❏✉st✐✜❝❛t✐✈❛ ✸

■❛❛❙ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♠ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ♠❡❞✐çã♦ ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛r r❡❣r❛s ❞❡ t❛①❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ♦ ♥í✈❡❧ ❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ s✉❛ ✐♥❢r❛❡str✉t✉r❛✱ ❡♠ ✉♠❛ ♠♦❞❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❝♦❜r❛♥ç❛ ❝♦♠✉♠❡♥t❡ ❞❡♥♦♠✐♥❛❞❛ ❞❡ ♣❛②✲❛s✲②♦✉✲❣♦✳ ❖ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ P❧❛t❛❢♦r♠❛ ❝♦♠♦ ❙❡r✈✐ç♦ ✭P❛❛❙✮ t❡♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♣ú❜❧✐❝♦ ❛❧✈♦ ♣r♦❣r❛♠❛❞♦r❡s ❡ ❡♥❣❡♥❤❡✐r♦s ❞❡ s♦❢t✇❛r❡✱ ♦❢❡r❡❝❡♥❞♦✲♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❞❡ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❛✉t♦❝♦♥✜❣✉rá✈❡✐s ❡ ❧✐✈r❛♥❞♦✲♦s ❞❡ ♣r❡♦❝✉♣❛çõ❡s ❝♦♠ ♦ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ t♦❞❛ ❛ ♣✐❧❤❛ ❞❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ❡ ❤❛r❞✇❛r❡ ❡①✐❣✐❞❛ ♣♦r ❡ss❡s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s✳ P♦r ✜♠✱ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❞❡ ❙♦❢t✇❛r❡ ❝♦♠♦ ❙❡r✈✐ç♦ ✭❙❛❛❙✮ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛ ✈✐❛ r❡❞❡ ✉♠❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ✈✐rt✉❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ✐❧✐♠✐t❛❞❛ ❞❡ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çõ❡s✱ q✉❡ ✈ã♦ ❞❡s❞❡ ❥♦❣♦s ✐♥❢❛♥t✐s ❛ ❝♦♠♣❧❡①♦s s✐st❡♠❛s ❞❡ ❊♥t❡r♣r✐s❡ ❘❡s♦✉r❝❡ P❧❛♥♥✐♥❣ ✭❊❘P✮✳ ❖ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ tr❛t❛❞♦ ♥❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✱ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦ ❡♠ ❞❡t❛❧❤❡s ♥❛ ❙❡çã♦ ✷✳✶✱ ❧✐♠✐t❛✲s❡ ❛♦ ❝♦♥t❡①t♦ ❧♦❝❛❧ ❞❡ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ú♥✐❝♦ ❞❛t❛❝❡♥t❡r ❝✉❥♦s r❡❝✉rs♦s ❞❡ ❤❛r❞✇❛r❡ sã♦ ✈✐rt✉❛❧✐③❛❞♦s ❡ q✉❡ ♣♦ss✉✐ ❛s ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛✐s ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ♥✉✈❡♠ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ✭✈✐❞❡ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ❞❡ s❡r✈✐ç♦s ♥❛ ❋✐❣✉r❛ ✶✳✶✮✳ P♦rt❛♥t♦✱ ❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞♦s ♠ét♦❞♦s ❞❡ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛♠❡♥t♦ ❛ ♠ú❧t✐♣❧♦s ❞❛t❛❝❡♥t❡rs ♥ã♦ é ❛❜♦r❞❛❞❛ ❞✐r❡t❛♠❡♥t❡✱ s❡♥❞♦ ❛♣♦♥t❛❞❛ ❝♦♠♦ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❢✉t✉r♦✳ ❆ ✐♥❢r❛❡str✉t✉r❛ ❡ ♦s s❡r✈✐ç♦s ♦❢❡r❡❝✐❞♦s ♣♦r ✉♠❛ ♥✉✈❡♠ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❡stã♦ ✐♥s❡r✐❞♦s ❡♠ ✉♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❞♦t❛❞♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ r❡❞❡ ❧♦❝❛❧ ❞❡ ❛❧t❛ ✈❡❧♦❝✐❞❛❞❡ ❡ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❢♦r♠❛❞♦ ♣♦r ❝❡♥t❡♥❛s ❞❡ ♠✐❧❤❛r❡s ❞❡ ♥ós ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ✭■❉❈✱ ✷✵✶✷✮✳ ❆♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ss❛ ♥❛t✉r❡③❛ ♥ã♦ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛❞♦s ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s tr❛❞✐❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛♠❡♥t♦ ❝❡♥tr❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ❞❡✈✐❞♦ ❛♦ ❣r❛♥❞❡ ✈♦❧✉♠❡ ❞❡ ❡st❛❞♦s q✉❡ ♣r❡❝✐s❛♠ s❡r ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛❞♦s ❝♦♥❝♦♠✐t❛♥t❡♠❡♥t❡ ✭❲❯❍■❇❀ ❙❚❆❉▲❊❘❀ ❙P❘❊■❚❩❊❘✱ ✷✵✶✵✮✳ ❉❡ss❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ ❝r✐❛✲s❡ ❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s q✉❡ s♦❧✉❝✐♦♥❡♠ ♥ã♦ só q✉❡stõ❡s ❝♦♠♦ ❛❧♦❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ r❡❝✉rs♦s ❡ tr❛t❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❢❛❧❤❛s✱ ♠❛s q✉❡ t❛♠❜é♠ ♦❢❡r❡ç❛♠ ❛ ❡s❝❛❧❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ♥❡❝❡ssár✐❛ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ❡ss❡s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ♦♣❡r❡♠ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❡✜❝✐❡♥t❡✳ ❊st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ♣r♦♣õ❡ ✉♠❛ ❡str❛té❣✐❛ ❞❡ ●❡r❡♥❝✐❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ■♥❢r❛❡str✉t✉r❛ ❞❡ ❉❛t❛❝❡♥t❡r ✭❉❈■▼✮ ✈♦❧t❛❞❛ ❛ ♥✉✈❡♥s ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❧❛r❣❛ ❡s❝❛❧❛ q✉❡ ❜✉s❝❛ ❞✐ss♦❝✐❛r ❛s r❡s♣♦♥s❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❞❡ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ ✐♥t❡❣r❛çã♦ ❞❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞✐str✐❜✉í❞♦ ❡ ❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡ ❝❡♥tr❛❧✐③❛❞♦✳

✶✳✷ ❏✉st✐✜❝❛t✐✈❛

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✶✳✸✳ ❍✐♣ót❡s❡s ✹

q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡♠ ❝r❡s❝❡r ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❝♦♥st❛♥t❡✳

◆❛ ❙❡çã♦ ✷✳✷✱ sã♦ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s ❞✐✈❡rs❛s s♦❧✉çõ❡s ❞❡ ❉❈■▼✱ ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛s q✉❛✐s ♣♦❞❡✲s❡ ♣❡r❝❡❜❡r q✉❡ ❛s ❡str❛té❣✐❛s ❞❡ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛♠❡♥t♦ ❝❡♥tr❛❧✐③❛❞♦ sã♦ ♣r❡♣♦♥❞❡r❛♥t❡s✱ ♦ q✉❡ s❡ ❞❡✈❡✱ ❡♠ ❣r❛♥❞❡ ♣❛rt❡✱ ❛♦ ❢❛t♦ ❞❡ss❡ s❡r ♦ ♠♦❞✉s ♦♣❡r❛♥❞✐ ❞❛s ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❛t✉❛❧♠❡♥t❡ ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s ♣❛r❛ ❛ ✐♠♣❧❛♥t❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♥✉✈❡♥s ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛s ❡♠ ✐♥❢r❛❡str✉t✉r❛s r❡❛✐s✳ ❚❛✐s ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♥s tê♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❝♦♠✉♠ ♦ ❜❛✐①♦ ♣♦❞❡r ❞❡ ❡s❝❛❧❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡✱ ✈✐st♦ q✉❡ ❛ ❡①✐stê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♥ó ❝♦♥tr♦❧❛❞♦r q✉❡ ❛❝✉♠✉❧❛ ✉♠❛ ❣r❛♥❞❡ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ r❡s♣♦♥s❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞❛s à ❣❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❞❛ ✐♥❢r❛❡str✉t✉r❛ ✐♥❞✐❝❛ ✉♠❛ ❢♦rt❡ t❡♥❞ê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ s♦❜r❡❝❛r❣❛ ❞♦ ♠❡s♠♦ à ♠❡❞✐❞❛ q✉❡ ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ♥ós ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s q✉❡ ❝♦♠♣õ❡♠ ♦ ❞❛t❛❝❡♥t❡r ❝r❡s❝❡✳

❊st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❜✉s❝❛ ❛♠❡♥✐③❛r ❡ss❡ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❞✐str✐❜✉✐♥❞♦ ❛ ❛t✐✈✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡♥tr❡ t♦❞♦s ♦s ♥ós q✉❡ ❝♦♠♣õ❡♠ ❛ ♥✉✈❡♠ ❡ r❡str✐♥❣✐♥❞♦ ❛s r❡s♣♦♥s❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡s ❞♦ ♥ó ❝♦♥tr♦❧❛❞♦r às ❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡ ❞♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡✳ ❊ss❛ ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♠ é ❢✉♥❞❛♠❡♥t❛❞❛ ❡♠ ❜♦♥s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ♦❜t✐❞♦s ❡♠ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s q✉❡ ❧❛♥ç❛r❛♠ ♠ã♦ ❞❡ ❡str❛té❣✐❛s ❞✐str✐❜✉í❞❛s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s s✐♠✐❧❛r❡s ✭❲❯❍■❇❀ ❙❚❆❉▲❊❘❀ ❙P❘❊■❚❩❊❘✱ ✷✵✶✵✮✳ ❈♦♥t✉❞♦✱ ❛s s♦❧✉çõ❡s q✉❡ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛♠ r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s s❛t✐s❢❛tór✐♦s q✉❛♥t♦ à ❡s❝❛❧❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ♥ã♦ ❛❜♦r❞❛♠ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ✐♥t❡❣r❛❞❛ ♦✉tr♦s ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛s r❡❧❡✈❛♥t❡s ♥❛ ❣❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ♥✉✈❡♥s ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s✱ ❛ s❛❜❡r✿ ❡✜❝✐ê♥❝✐❛ ♥❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ r❡❝✉rs♦s ✭❡✳❣✳ ❝♦♥s✉♠♦ ❡♥❡r❣ét✐❝♦ ❞❛ ✐♥❢r❛❡str✉t✉r❛✮ ❡ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♥í✈❡❧ ❞❡ ◗✉❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❙❡r✈✐ç♦ ✭◗♦❙✮ ♦❢❡r❡❝✐❞♦✳

✶✳✸ ❍✐♣ót❡s❡s

❖ ♣❛♥♦r❛♠❛ ❞❡s❝r✐t♦ ♥❛ ❙❡çã♦ ✶✳✷ ✐♥❞✐❝❛ q✉❡ ❣❛♥❤♦s s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛t✐✈♦s ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ♦❜t✐❞♦s ❝♦♠ ❛ ❡①✐stê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❞❡ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛♠❡♥t♦ q✉❡ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐t❡ ♦ ❡♠♣r❡❣♦ ✐♥t❡❣r❛❞♦ ❞❡ ♣♦❧ít✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡ ❝❡♥tr❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ❡①✐st❡♥t❡s ♥❛ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛ ❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞✐str✐❜✉í❞♦ q✉❡ ♣❡r♠✐t❛♠ ♦ ❝r❡s❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ s❡♠ ✐♠♣❛❝t♦s r❡❧❡✈❛♥t❡s ❡♠ s❡✉ ❢✉♥❝✐♦♥❛♠❡♥t♦✳ ❇❛s❡❛♥❞♦✲s❡ ♥❡ss❡ ✐♥❞í❝✐♦✱ ❛s s❡❣✉✐♥t❡s ❤✐♣ót❡s❡s sã♦ ❡❧❛❜♦r❛❞❛s✿

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✶✳✹✳ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ✺

✐✐✳ ❈♦♠ s✉❛ r❡s♣♦♥s❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ♣❡❧♦ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❡❧✐♠✐♥❛❞❛✱ ♦ ♥ó ❝♦♥tr♦❧❛❞♦r ♣❛ss❛rá ❛ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛r ✉♠ t❡♠♣♦ ❞❡ r❡s♣♦st❛ ♠❡♥♦r ♥❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛çã♦ ❞❛s ♣♦❧ít✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡✳ ❚❡♥❞♦ ❡♠ ✈✐st❛ ♦ ❝❛rát❡r ❞✐♥â♠✐❝♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ♥✉✈❡♠ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✱ ❡ss❛ ♠❡❧❤♦r❛ ♣♦❞❡rá t❡r ✉♠ ✐♠♣❛❝t♦ ♣♦s✐t✐✈♦ ❞✐r❡t♦ ♥❛ ❡✜❝✐ê♥❝✐❛ ❞♦ ❞❛t❛❝❡♥t❡r ❡ ♥♦ ♥í✈❡❧ ❞❡ ◗✉❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❙❡r✈✐ç♦ ✭◗♦❙✮❀

✐✐✐✳ ❆ ❝❛❞❛ ♥ó ❤♦s♣❡❞❡✐r♦ ❞♦ ❞❛t❛❝❡♥t❡r✱ s❡rá ❛tr✐❜✉í❞❛ ❛ r❡s♣♦♥s❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ❧✐♠✐t❛❞♦ ❞❡ n ♥ós ✈✐③✐♥❤♦s✳ ❯♠ ✈❛❧♦r ❞❡ n

♣❡q✉❡♥♦ t♦r♥❛rá ♦ ❞❛t❛❝❡♥t❡r ❞❡♠❛s✐❛❞❛♠❡♥t❡ ❡str❛t✐✜❝❛❞♦✱ ♦ q✉❡ ♣♦❞❡rá t❡r ✉♠ ✐♠♣❛❝t♦ ♥❡❣❛t✐✈♦ ❡♠ s✉❛ ❡✜❝✐ê♥❝✐❛✳ P♦r ♦✉tr♦ ❧❛❞♦✱ ✉♠ ✈❛❧♦r ❡❧❡✈❛❞♦ ❞❡

n ❛♣r♦①✐♠❛rá ❛ ❡str❛té❣✐❛ ❞❡ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛♠❡♥t♦ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ❛♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ ❝❡♥tr❛❧✐③❛❞♦✱

♣♦st♦ q✉❡ ❝❛❞❛ ♥ó ❤♦s♣❡❞❡✐r♦ ♣❛ss❛rá ❛ t❡r ✉♠❛ ✈✐sã♦ ♠❛✐s ❣❧♦❜❛❧ ❞♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡✱ ♦ q✉❡ ♦❝❛s✐♦♥❛rá ✐♠♣❛❝t♦s ♥❡❣❛t✐✈♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s à ❡s❝❛❧❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡✳ P♦rt❛♥t♦✱ ♣♦❞❡rã♦ ❡①✐st✐r ✈❛❧♦r❡s ❞❡ n ❛♣r♦♣r✐❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ❡✜❝✐ê♥❝✐❛ ❡ ❡s❝❛❧❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡

s❡❥❛♠ ❡q✉✐❧✐❜r❛❞❛s✳

✶✳✹ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦s

✶✳✹✳✶ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❣❡r❛❧

❖ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ❣❡r❛❧ ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❝♦♥s✐st❡ ❡♠ ✈❛❧✐❞❛r ❛s ❤✐♣ót❡s❡s ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞❛s ♥❛ ❙❡çã♦ ✶✳✸ ❛tr❛✈és ❞♦ ❡♠♣r❡❣♦ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❞❡ ❉❈■▼ q✉❡ ❝♦♠❜✐♥❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞✐str✐❜✉í❞♦ ❡ ❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡ ❝❡♥tr❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ❝♦♠ ✈✐st❛s à ❡✜❝✐ê♥❝✐❛ ♥❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ s❡✉s r❡❝✉rs♦s ❛❧✐❛❞❛ ❛♦ ♣r♦✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ♥í✈❡✐s ❛❝❡✐tá✈❡✐s ❞❡ ◗♦❙✳ ✶✳✹✳✷ ❖❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❡s♣❡❝í✜❝♦s

❊s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❜✉s❝❛ ❛❧❝❛♥ç❛r ♦s ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦s ❛❜❛✐①♦✿

✐✳ ❉✐str✐❜✉✐r ❛ r❡s♣♦♥s❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ✉♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ❡♠ ♥✉✈❡♠ ❡♥tr❡ t♦❞♦s ♦s ♥ós q✉❡ ♦ ❝♦♠♣õ❡♠ ❡ r❡str✐♥❣✐r ❛ ❛t✉❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♥ó ❝♦♥tr♦❧❛❞♦r ❛ ❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ❝♦♥tr♦❧❡❀

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✶✳✺✳ ▼❡t♦❞♦❧♦❣✐❛ ✻

✐✐✐✳ ❉❡t❡r♠✐♥❛r ❛ r❡❧❛çã♦ ❡♥tr❡ ❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ✈✐③✐♥❤♦s q✉❡ ❝❛❞❛ ♥ó ❞♦ ❞❛t❛❝❡♥t❡r ❞❡✈❡ ♠♦♥✐t♦r❛r ❡ ❝❛r❛❝t❡ríst✐❝❛s ♦♣❡r❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❞♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡✱ ❝♦♠♦ ❡✜❝✐ê♥❝✐❛ ❡♥❡r❣ét✐❝❛ ❡ ◗♦❙✳

✶✳✺ ▼❡t♦❞♦❧♦❣✐❛

❆ ♠❡t♦❞♦❧♦❣✐❛ ❡♠♣r❡❣❛❞❛ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❝♦♥❝❡♣çã♦ ❞❛ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ❞❡ ❉❈■▼ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ❡ s✉❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ❞❡s❝r✐t❛ ❞❡ ❛❝♦r❞♦ ❝♦♠ ❛s ❡t❛♣❛s ❛❜❛✐①♦✿

✐✳ ❘❡✈✐sã♦ ❇✐❜❧✐♦❣rá✜❝❛ ✭❙❡çã♦ ✷✳✷✮✿ P♦❧ít✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❉❈■▼ sã♦ ❡①tr❛í❞❛s ❞❛ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛ r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞❛ ❡ ❡♠♣r❡❣❛❞❛s ❝♦♠♦ ❜❛s❡ ❞❡ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐♠❡♥t♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❝♦♥❝❡♣çã♦ ❞❛ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ❡ ❝♦♠♦ r❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ ❛ ❛✈❛❧✐❛çã♦ ❞♦s r❡s✉❧t❛❞♦s ❞♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦✳ ❆ r❡✈✐sã♦ ❜✐❜❧✐♦❣rá✜❝❛ t❛♠❜é♠ ❡①♣❧♦r❛ ❛rt✐❣♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ❛ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s ❡ ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❞❡ s✐♠✉❧❛çã♦ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ s❡ ✐❞❡♥t✐✜q✉❡ ❛ ❛❧t❡r♥❛t✐✈❛ ♠❛✐s ❛♣r♦♣r✐❛❞❛ ✭❙❡çã♦ ✷✳✷✳✷✮❀

✐✐✳ ❉❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ✭❙❡çã♦ ✷✳✶✮✿ ❙ã♦ r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛s ❛ ❝❛r❛t❡r✐③❛çã♦ ❛♥❛❧ít✐❝❛ ❞♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ tr❛t❛❞♦ ❡ ❛ ❡s♣❡❝✐✜❝❛çã♦ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❛❧✈♦ ❞♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ♣♦r ♠❡✐♦ ❞❛s ✈❛r✐á✈❡✐s ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞❛s ❞✉r❛♥t❡ ♦ ❞❡s❡♥✈♦❧✈✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❛ ❛rq✉✐t❡t✉r❛ ♣r♦♣♦st❛❀ ✐✐✐✳ ❉❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞❛ ♣r♦♣♦st❛ ✭❈❛♣ít✉❧♦ ✸✮✿ ❆♣ós ❛ r❡✈✐sã♦ ❞♦s ♠♦❞❡❧♦s ❞❡ ❉❈■▼

❝♦♠✉♠❡♥t❡ ❛❞♦t❛❞♦s ♥❛ ✐♥❞ústr✐❛ ❡ ❡st✉❞❛❞♦s ♥❛s r❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❜✐❜❧✐♦❣rá✜❝❛s✱ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♦ ♠♦❞❡❧♦ q✉❡ ❝♦♥s✐st❡ ♥♦ ♥ú❝❧❡♦ ❞❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦❀

✐✈✳ ❆❞❛♣t❛çã♦ ❞❛s ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❡ ❝r✐❛çã♦ ❞♦s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❞❡ s✐♠✉❧❛çã♦ ✭❙❡çã♦ ✹✳✶✳✺✮✿ P❛r❛ t♦r♥❛r ✈✐á✈❡❧ ❛ r❡♣r♦❞✉çã♦ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❛❧✈♦ ❞♦ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❞❡ s✐♠✉❧❛çã♦✱ é ❛❜♦r❞❛❞❛ ✉♠❛ sér✐❡ ❞❡ ♠♦❞✐✜❝❛çõ❡s ♥❛s ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❡♠♣r❡❣❛❞❛s✳ ❆❞❡♠❛✐s✱ ❞❛❞♦s ❞❡ ✉♠ tr❛❝❡ ❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ r❡❝✉rs♦s ❡♠ ✉♠ ❝❧✉st❡r r❡❛❧ ❞✐s♣♦♥✐❜✐❧✐③❛❞♦ ♣❡❧❛ ♠✉❧t✐♥❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ●♦♦❣❧❡ sã♦ ✉t✐❧✐③❛❞♦s ♣❛r❛ ❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❞♦s ✇♦r❦❧♦❛❞s ❡♠♣r❡❣❛❞♦s ♥❛s s✐♠✉❧❛çõ❡s✳

✶✳✻ ❊str✉t✉r❛ ❞♦ ❞♦❝✉♠❡♥t♦

(24)

✶✳✻✳ ❊str✉t✉r❛ ❞♦ ❞♦❝✉♠❡♥t♦ ✼

(25)

❈❛♣ít✉❧♦

2

❈❛r❛❝t❡r✐③❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❡ r❡✈✐sã♦

❜✐❜❧✐♦❣rá✜❝❛

◆❡st❡ ❝❛♣ít✉❧♦✱ ♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ tr❛t❛❞♦ ♥❡st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ é ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ❛tr❛✈és ❞❛ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛çã♦ ❛♥❛❧ít✐❝❛ ❞♦ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛❞♦ ❡ ❞❛s ❝♦♥❞✐çõ❡s ❛tr❡❧❛❞❛s à ❢✉♥çã♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦ ✭❙❡çã♦ ✷✳✶✮✳ ❊♠ s❡❣✉✐❞❛✱ ❛ ❙❡çã♦ ✷✳✷ ❡①♣❧♦r❛ ✉♠❛ sér✐❡ ❞❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ❛♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❞❡✜♥✐❞♦ ❡ ❛♦s ❝❛♠♣♦s ❞❡ ❣❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ r❡❝✉rs♦s ❡♠ ❞❛t❛❝❡♥t❡rs ✈✐rt✉❛❧✐③❛❞♦s ✭❙❡çã♦ ✷✳✷✳✶✮ ❡ s✐♠✉❧❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❡♠ ♥✉✈❡♠ ✭❙❡çã♦ ✷✳✷✳✷✮✳

✷✳✶ ❉❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛

❊st❡ tr❛❜❛❧❤♦ ❛❜♦r❞❛ ♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❞♦ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ♠áq✉✐♥❛s ✈✐rt✉❛✐s ❡♠ ♥✉✈❡♥s ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❧❛r❣❛ ❡s❝❛❧❛ ❝♦♠ ❢♦❝♦ ❡♠ ❞✉❛s ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡s ❜ás✐❝❛s ❞❡ t❛✐s ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡s✿ ❡✜❝✐ê♥❝✐❛ ♥❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ r❡❝✉rs♦s ❡ ♠❛♥✉t❡♥çã♦ ❞❛ ◗✉❛❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ❙❡r✈✐ç♦ ✭◗♦❙✮ ♦❢❡r❡❝✐❞❛✳

❖ ❛♠❜✐❡♥t❡ tr❛t❛❞♦ ❝♦♥s✐st❡ ❡♠ ✉♠ ❞❛t❛❝❡♥t❡r ✈✐rt✉❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ❝♦♠♣♦st♦ ♣♦r ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦N ❞❡p♥ós ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s n ✐♥t❡r❝♦♥❡❝t❛❞♦s t❛❧ q✉❡N = [n1, n2, . . . , np]✳ ❈❛❞❛ ♥óni ♣♦ss✉✐ ❝❛♣❛❝✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦c¯i ❡ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ♠❡♠ór✐❛ ❞❡ s✐st❡♠❛

¯

mi✳ ❆ss✐♠✱ ❛ ❝❛♣❛❝✐❞❛❞❡ t♦t❛❧ ❞❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ C ❞♦ ❞❛t❛❝❡♥t❡r é ❞❛❞❛ ♣♦r

P

1≤i≤p¯ci ❡ ❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ t♦t❛❧ ❞❡ ♠❡♠ór✐❛ M é ❞❛❞❛ ♣♦r

P

1≤i≤pm¯i✳ ❆❞❡♠❛✐s✱ ❝❛❞❛ ♥ó ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛❧ ♣♦ss✉✐ ❧✐♠✐t❡s ♠á①✐♠♦ ❡ ♠í♥✐♠♦ ❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ r❡❝✉rs♦s ❡①♣r❡ss♦s✱ r❡s♣❡❝t✐✈❛♠❡♥t❡✱ ♣♦r τ ❡ µ✱ ♦♥❞❡ ❛s três ❝♦♥❞✐çõ❡s ❛❜❛✐①♦ ❞❡✈❡♠ s❡r

♦❜❡❞❡❝✐❞❛s✿

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✷✳✶✳ ❉❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ✾

0< τ ≤1; ✭✷✳✶✮ 0≤µ <1; ✭✷✳✷✮

τ > µ. ✭✷✳✸✮

❊♠ ✉♠ ❞❛❞♦ ✐♥st❛♥t❡ t✱ ♦ ❞❛t❛❝❡♥t❡r ❛❧♦❝❛ ✉♠ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ V ❝♦♠♣♦st♦ ♣♦r ✉♠❛

q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡θ(t)❞❡ ♠áq✉✐♥❛s ✈✐rt✉❛✐sv✳ ❯♠❛ ❞❛❞❛ ♠áq✉✐♥❛ ✈✐rt✉❛❧vj ♣♦ss✉✐ ❧✐♠✐t❡s ♠á①✐♠♦s ❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ✭¯ωj✮ ❡ ♠❡♠ór✐❛ ✭¯γj✮✳ ❆ ❞❡♠❛♥❞❛ ♣♦r ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ é ✈❛r✐❛♥t❡ ♥♦ t❡♠♣♦ ❡ ❡①♣r❡ss❛ ♣♦rωj(t)✱ ❡♥q✉❛♥t♦ ❛ ❞❡♠❛♥❞❛ ♣♦r ♠❡♠ór✐❛ é ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞❛ ❝♦♥st❛♥t❡ ❡ ❡q✉✐✈❛❧❡♥t❡ ❛ s❡✉ ❧✐♠✐t❡ ♠á①✐♠♦ ❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦¯γj ✭❈❆❘❘❊❘❆ ❡t ❛❧✳✱ ✷✵✵✽✮✳

P❛r❛ q✉❡ ✉♠❛ ♠áq✉✐♥❛ ✈✐rt✉❛❧ vj ♣♦ss❛ s❡r ❛❧♦❝❛❞❛ ❡♠ ✉♠ ♥ó n ∈ N✱ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛♥❞♦ q✉❡ ci(t) ❡ mi(t) ❞❡♥♦t❛♠ ♦ ❝♦♥s✉♠♦ ❞❡ ❈P❯ ❡ ♠❡♠ór✐❛ ❞♦ ♥ó ni ♥♦ ✐♥st❛♥t❡ t✱ t♦❞❛s ❛s ❝♦♥❞✐çõ❡s s❡❣✉✐♥t❡s ❞❡✈❡♠ s❡r ♦❜❡❞❡❝✐❞❛s ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ ú♥✐❝♦

✈❛❧♦r ❞❡i✿

∃ ni |ω¯j <c¯i−ci(t); ✭✷✳✹✮

∃ni | ¯

ωj+ci(t) ¯

ci

< τ; ✭✷✳✺✮

∃ ni |γ¯j <m¯i−mi(t); ✭✷✳✻✮

∃ ni | ¯

γj +mi(t) ¯

mi

< τ. ✭✷✳✼✮

❆s ❡q✉❛çõ❡s ✷✳✹ ❡ ✷✳✻ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛♠ q✉❡ ♦s ❧✐♠✐t❡s ♠á①✐♠♦s ❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ♠❡♠ór✐❛ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ♠áq✉✐♥❛ ✈✐rt✉❛❧ ❞❡✈❡♠ s❡♠♣r❡ s❡r ✐♥❢❡r✐♦r❡s à q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❛t✉❛❧ ❞❡ r❡❝✉rs♦s ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s ♥♦ ♥ó ❤♦s♣❡❞❡✐r♦ ❡♠ q✉❡ ❛ ♠❡s♠❛ s❡rá ❛❧♦❝❛❞❛✳ ❚❛❧ ❝♦♥❞✐çã♦ é ❝♦♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛❞❛ ♣❡❧❛s ❡q✉❛çõ❡s ✷✳✺ ❡ ✷✳✼✱ q✉❡ ❡st❛❜❡❧❡❝❡♠ q✉❡ ✉♠❛ ❛❧♦❝❛çã♦ ❡stá s❡♠♣r❡ ❝♦♥❞✐❝✐♦♥❛❞❛ ❛♦ ❧✐♠✐❛rτ ❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ r❡❝✉rs♦s ♥♦

♥ó ❤♦s♣❡❞❡✐r♦✳

❖ ❡st❛❞♦ ❞❡ s♦❜r❡❝❛r❣❛ ❞❡ ✉♠ ♥ó ni é ❝❛r❛t❡r✐③❛❞♦ ♣♦r ✉♠ ❝♦♥s✉♠♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ♦✉ ♠❡♠ór✐❛ ❛❝✐♠❛ ❞♦ ❧✐♠✐❛r ♠á①✐♠♦ τ ❡♠ ✉♠ ✐♥st❛♥t❡ t✱ ❝♦♠♦

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✷✳✶✳ ❉❡✜♥✐çã♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ✶✵

ci(t) ¯

ci

> τ; ✭✷✳✽✮

mi(t) ¯

mi

> τ; ✭✷✳✾✮

ci(t) ¯

ci

< µ; ✭✷✳✶✵✮

mi(t) ¯

mi

< µ. ✭✷✳✶✶✮

❖ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❞❛ ❛❧♦❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ r❡❝✉rs♦s ❡♠ ✉♠ ❞❛t❛❝❡♥t❡r ✈✐rt✉❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ❝♦♥s✐st❡ ❡♠ ❛t❡♥❞❡r à ❞❡♠❛♥❞❛ ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞❛ ❛♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛♥❞♦ ❛ ♠❡♥♦r ♣❛r❝❡❧❛ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❞❛ ✐♥❢r❛❡str✉t✉r❛ ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ s❡♠ ✈✐♦❧❛r ♦s ❧✐♠✐t❡s ♠á①✐♠♦s ❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❡st❛❜❡❧❡❝✐❞♦s✱ ♦✉ s❡❥❛✱ t♦❞❛s ❛s ♠áq✉✐♥❛s ✈✐rt✉❛✐s ❞❡✈❡♠ s❡r ❛❧♦❝❛❞❛s ♥❛ ♠❡♥♦r q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ♣♦ssí✈❡❧ ❞❡ ♥ós ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s s❡♠ q✉❡ ♦s ❧✐♠✐t❡s ✐♥❞✐✈✐❞✉❛✐s ❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❝❛❞❛ ♥ó s❡❥❛♠ ✉❧tr❛♣❛ss❛❞♦s✳ ❊ss❡ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r ♠♦❞❡❧❛❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ✉♠❛ ✈❛r✐❛çã♦ ❞♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ◆P✲❈♦♠♣❧❡t♦ ❝♦♥❤❡❝✐❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ❦♥❛♣s❛❝❦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠ ✭❙❍❆❈❍◆❆■❀ ❚❆▼■❘✱ ✷✵✵✶✮✳ ❉❡ss❛ ❢♦r♠❛✱ s❡♥❞♦ A ♦ ♥ú♠❡r♦ ❞❡ ♥ós ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s q✉❡ ♥ã♦ ❛❧♦❝❛♠ ♥❡♥❤✉♠❛

♠áq✉✐♥❛ ✈✐rt✉❛❧ ❡✱ ♣♦r ❝♦♥s❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛✱ ♣♦❞❡♠ s❡r ❞❡s❛t✐✈❛❞♦s s❡♠ ❝♦♠♣r♦♠❡t❡r ♦ ❛t❡♥❞✐♠❡♥t♦ à ❞❡♠❛♥❞❛ r❡❝❡❜✐❞❛ ♣❡❧♦ s✐st❡♠❛✱ ♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❞❡ ❛❧♦❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ r❡❝✉rs♦s s✉♣r❛❝✐t❛❞♦ ♣❛ss❛ ❛ s❡r r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛❞♦ ♣❡❧❛ ❜✉s❝❛ ❞❡ ❤❡✉ríst✐❝❛s q✉❡ ❝♦♥s✐❣❛♠ ♠❛①✐♠✐③❛r A ❞❡ ♠❛♥❡✐r❛ s✉❜✲ót✐♠❛ s❡♠ ✈✐♦❧❛r ♥❡♥❤✉♠ ❧✐♠✐t❡ ❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦✱ ❝♦♠♦

❞❡s❝r✐t♦ ♥❛ ❊q✉❛çã♦ ✷✳✶✷ ❡ ♦❜❡❞❡❝❡♥❞♦ às ❝♦♥❞✐çõ❡s ✷✳✶✸ ❛ ✷✳✶✻✳

max A= X

1≤i≤p

σ(i)

!

, σ(i) =

1 : ci(t) = 0, mi(t) = 0

0 : ❝❛s♦ ❝♦♥trár✐♦

; ✭✷✳✶✷✮

∀ni ∈N :

ci(t) ¯

ci

< τ, mi(t)

¯

mi

< τ; ✭✷✳✶✸✮

∀vj,i ∈V, ∀t :

X

j

ωj(t)≤c¯i, ωj(t)≤ω¯j; ✭✷✳✶✹✮

∀vj,i∈V :

X

j ¯

γj ≤m¯i; ✭✷✳✶✺✮

∀vj ∈V, ∀t :

X

1≤j≤θ(t)

ωj(t)≤C, X

1≤j≤θ(t)

¯

(28)

✷✳✷✳ ❚r❛❜❛❧❤♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ✶✶

❆ ❊q✉❛çã♦ ✷✳✶✷ r❡♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ❛ ❢✉♥çã♦ ♦❜❥❡t✐✈♦✿ ♠❛①✐♠✐③❛r ❛ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♥ós ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡s❛t✐✈❛❞♦s✱ ♦♥❞❡ ❛♠❜♦s ♦s ❝♦♥s✉♠♦s ❞❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ♠❡♠ór✐❛ sã♦ ♥✉❧♦s✱ ♣❛r❛ q✉❡ ♦ ❝♦♥s✉♠♦ ❡♥❡r❣ét✐❝♦ t♦t❛❧ ❞♦ ❞❛t❛❝❡♥t❡r s❡❥❛ ♠✐♥✐♠✐③❛❞♦ ❛✐♥❞❛ q✉❡ t♦❞❛ ❛ ❞❡♠❛♥❞❛ ♣♦r r❡❝✉rs♦s ❛♣❧✐❝❛❞❛ à ✐♥❢r❛❡str✉t✉r❛ ❝♦♥t✐♥✉❡ s❡♥❞♦ ❛t❡♥❞✐❞❛✳ ❈♦♥t✉❞♦✱ ❛ ❞❡s❛t✐✈❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♥ós ❛tr❛✈és ❞❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s ❞❡ ❝♦♥s♦❧✐❞❛çã♦ ❞❡ ❛❧♦❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♠áq✉✐♥❛s ✈✐rt✉❛✐s ♥ã♦ ♣♦❞❡ s❡r r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ❞❡♠❛s✐❛❞❛♠❡♥t❡ ❛❣r❡ss✐✈❛✱ ♣♦✐s t❛❧ ♠❡❞✐❞❛ ❧❡✈❛ ❛ ❛❧t❛s t❛①❛s ❞❡ s♦❜r❡❝❛r❣❛ ♥♦s ♥ós ❤♦s♣❡❞❡✐r♦s✱ ♦ q✉❡ t❡♠ ✉♠ ✐♠♣❛❝t♦ ♥❡❣❛t✐✈♦ ❞✐r❡t♦ ❡♠ ♠étr✐❝❛s ❞❡ ◗♦❙✳ P♦rt❛♥t♦✱ ❛ ♠❛①✐♠✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ A ❞❡✈❡

s❡r r❡❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❡♠ ❝♦♥s♦♥â♥❝✐❛ ❝♦♠ ❛s ❝♦♥❞✐çõ❡s ❡st❛❜❡❧❡❝✐❞❛s ♥❛s ❡q✉❛çõ❡s ❞❡ ✷✳✶✸ ❛ ✷✳✶✻✳ ❆ ❊q✉❛çã♦ ✷✳✶✸ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛ q✉❡✱ ♣❛r❛ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ♥ó ♣❡rt❡♥❝❡♥t❡ ❛♦ ❞❛t❛❝❡♥t❡r✱ ❛s t❛①❛s ❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡ ♠❡♠ór✐❛ ❞❡✈❡♠ s❡r ✐♥❢❡r✐♦r❡s ❛♦ ❧✐♠✐❛r ♠á①✐♠♦ ❞❡ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ τ✳ ❆ ❊q✉❛çã♦ ✷✳✶✹ ❡st❛❜❡❧❡❝❡ q✉❡✱ ♣❛r❛ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ♠áq✉✐♥❛

✈✐rt✉❛❧ ❛❧♦❝❛❞❛ ♥♦ ❞❛t❛❝❡♥t❡r ❡♠ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ✐♥st❛♥t❡✱ s❡✉ ❝♦♥s✉♠♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡✈❡ s❡r s✐♠✉❧t❛♥❡❛♠❡♥t❡ ✐♥❢❡r✐♦r à q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ r❡❝✉rs♦s ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡✐s ❡♠ s❡✉ ♥ó ❤♦s♣❡❞❡✐r♦ ❡ à s✉❛ ❞❡♠❛♥❞❛ t♦t❛❧ ❞❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦✳ ◆❛ ❊q✉❛çã♦ ✷✳✶✺✱ é ❡st❛❜❡❧❡❝✐❞♦ q✉❡ ❝❛❞❛ ♠áq✉✐♥❛ ✈✐rt✉❛❧ ❛❧♦❝❛❞❛ ❞❡✈❡ ♣♦ss✉✐r ✉♠❛ ❞❡♠❛♥❞❛ ♣♦r ♠❡♠ór✐❛ ♠❡♥♦r q✉❡ q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♠❡♠ór✐❛ ❞✐s♣♦♥í✈❡❧ ❡♠ s❡✉ ♥ó ❤♦s♣❡❞❡✐r♦✳ P♦r ✜♠✱ ❛ ❊q✉❛çã♦ ✷✳✶✻ ❞❡✜♥❡ ❛ ♣r❡♠✐ss❛ ❞❡ q✉❡ ✉♠ ❞❛t❛❝❡♥t❡r ❡stá ❧✐♠✐t❛❞♦ ❛ ❛t❡♥❞❡r ❛ ✉♠❛ ❞❡♠❛♥❞❛ ✐❣✉❛❧ ♦✉ ✐♥❢❡r✐♦r à q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ t♦t❛❧ ❞❡ r❡❝✉rs♦s ♣r❡s❡♥t❡s ❡♠ s✉❛ ✐♥❢r❛❡str✉t✉r❛✳ P♦rt❛♥t♦✱ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛♥❞♦ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ♠áq✉✐♥❛ ✈✐rt✉❛❧ ❛❧♦❝❛❞❛ ♥♦ ❞❛t❛❝❡♥t❡r ❡♠ q✉❛❧q✉❡r ✐♥st❛♥t❡✱ ♦ s♦♠❛tór✐♦ ❞♦ ❝♦♥s✉♠♦ ❞❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ t♦❞♦s ♦s ❡❧❡♠❡♥t♦s ❞❡V ❞❡✈❡

s❡r s❡♠♣r❡ ✐❣✉❛❧ ♦✉ ✐♥❢❡r✐♦r à ❝❛♣❛❝✐❞❛❞❡ t♦t❛❧ ❞❡ ♣r♦❝❡ss❛♠❡♥t♦ C✱ ❛ss✐♠ ❝♦♠♦ ♦

s♦♠❛tór✐♦ ❞❛s ❞❡♠❛♥❞❛s ♣♦r ♠❡♠ór✐❛ ❞❡✈❡ s❡r s❡♠♣r❡ ✐❣✉❛❧ ♦✉ ✐♥❢❡r✐♦r à q✉❛♥t✐❞❛❞❡ t♦t❛❧ ❞❡ ♠❡♠ór✐❛M✳

✷✳✷ ❚r❛❜❛❧❤♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s

(29)

✷✳✷✳ ❚r❛❜❛❧❤♦s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞♦s ✶✷

✏♣❡r❢♦r♠❛♥❝❡ ❡✈❛❧✉❛t✐♦♥✑✱ ✏❝❧♦✉❞ ♠❛♥❛❣❡♠❡♥t✑✱ ✏✈✐rt✉❛❧ ♠❛❝❤✐♥❡s ♠❛♥❛❣❡♠❡♥t✑✱ ✏s②st❡♠ ✈✐rt✉❛❧✐③❛t✐♦♥✑✱ ✏r❡s♦✉r❝❡ ✈✐rt✉❛❧✐③❛t✐♦♥✑✱ ✏r❡s♦✉r❝❡ ♠❛♥❛❣❡♠❡♥t✑ ❡ ✏r❡s♦✉r❝❡ ❛❧❧♦❝❛t✐♦♥✑✳ ■♥✐❝✐❛❧♠❡♥t❡✱ ❢♦r❛♠ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❛❞♦s ❛♣❡♥❛s ❛rt✐❣♦s ♣✉❜❧✐❝❛❞♦s ❡♠ ❥♦✉r♥❛❧s ❝♦♠ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ✐❣✉❛✐s ♦✉ s✉♣❡r✐♦r❡s ❛ ❇✷ ✭◗✉❛❧✐s ❈❛♣❡s✮ ♥❛s ár❡❛s ❞❡ ❊♥❣❡♥❤❛r✐❛s ■❱ ♦✉ ❈✐ê♥❝✐❛s ❞❛ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦✳ ❊♠ s❡❣✉✐❞❛✱ ♦ ❢❛t♦r ❞❡ ✐♠♣❛❝t♦ ❞❛s ♣✉❜❧✐❝❛çõ❡s ❢♦✐ ❡♠♣r❡❣❛❞♦ ❝♦♠♦ ✜❧tr♦ ❞❡ ♣r✐♦r✐❞❛❞❡ ♥❛ s❡❧❡çã♦ ❞♦s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s✳ ❆ ú❧t✐♠❛ ❡t❛♣❛ ❞❡ r❡✈✐sã♦ ❝♦♥s✐st✐✉ ❡♠ s❡❧❡❝✐♦♥❛r ❛rt✐❣♦s ❞❡ ❝♦♥❢❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❝♦♠ ❝❧❛ss✐✜❝❛çã♦ ✐❣✉❛✐s ♦✉ s✉♣❡r✐♦r❡s ❛ ❇✷ ✭◗✉❛❧✐s ❈❛♣❡s✮ ♥❛ ár❡❛ ❞❡ ❈✐ê♥❝✐❛s ❞❛ ❈♦♠♣✉t❛çã♦ q✉❡ s❡ ❡♥q✉❛❞r❛ss❡♠ ❞✐r❡t❛♠❡♥t❡ ♥♦ ❛ss✉♥t♦ tr❛t❛❞♦✱ ❡♠❜♦r❛ ♣♦✉❝♦s ✜❣✉r❡♠ ♥♦ ❝♦♥❥✉♥t♦ ✜♥❛❧ ❞❛s r❡❢❡rê♥❝✐❛s ❡①♣❧♦r❛❞❛s ♥❡st❛ s❡çã♦✳

✷✳✷✳✶ ●❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ r❡❝✉rs♦s ❡♠ ❞❛t❛❝❡♥t❡rs ✈✐rt✉❛❧✐③❛❞♦s

❖ s✉r❣✐♠❡♥t♦ ❞❡ ♥✉✈❡♥s ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s ❞❡ ❧❛r❣❛ ❡s❝❛❧❛ ❡ ❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ té❝♥✐❝❛s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛♠❡♥t♦ ❡✜❝✐❡♥t❡ ❞❡ s❡✉s r❡❝✉rs♦s tr❛③❡♠ ❝♦♥s✐❣♦ ✉♠ ❡①t❡♥s♦ ❣r✉♣♦ ❞❡ ♥♦✈♦s ❞❡s❛✜♦s ❡ ♦♣♦rt✉♥✐❞❛❞❡s ♣❛r❛ ♣❡sq✉✐s❛✱ ❧❡✈❛♥t❛♥❞♦ t❛♠❜é♠ ❞✐s❝✉ssõ❡s s♦❜r❡ ❛ ♥❡❝❡ss✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ ♣❛❞r♦♥✐③❛çã♦ ❞❛s t❡❝♥♦❧♦❣✐❛s ❡♥✈♦❧✈✐❞❛s ♥♦ ♣r♦❝❡ss♦ ❞❡ ❣❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ✉♠❛ ♥✉✈❡♠ ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛❧✳ ❈❛r❧s♦♥ ✭✷✵✶✶✮ ❛♣r❡s❡♥t❛ ♣❡rs♣❡❝t✐✈❛s ♣❛r❛ ♥♦✈❛s ❢❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❞❡ ❣❡rê♥❝✐❛ ❞❡ ✐♥❢r❛❡str✉t✉r❛s ✈✐rt✉❛❧✐③❛❞❛s✱ ❛♥❛❧✐s❛♥❞♦ ❛ ♣♦ss✐❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞❡ q✉❡ t❛✐s tr❛❜❛❧❤♦s ❝♦♥✈✐r❥❛♠ ♣❛r❛ ✉♠ ♣❛❞rã♦✳ ❋❡rr❛♠❡♥t❛s ❡ ❢r❛♠❡✇♦r❦s ❞❡ ❣❡rê♥❝✐❛ ♣❛r❛ ♥✉✈❡♥s ❝♦♠♣✉t❛❝✐♦♥❛✐s t❛♠❜é♠ sã♦ ❞✐s❝✉t✐❞♦s s♦❜ ♦ ♣♦♥t♦ ❞❡ ✈✐st❛ ❛❝❛❞ê♠✐❝♦ ♣♦r ●❛❧❧❛r❞ ❡t ❛❧✳ ✭✷✵✶✷✮ ❡ ❈❤❡♥✱ ❩❤❛♥❣ ❡ ▲✐ ✭✷✵✶✶✮✱ ❡ ❝♦♠ ❢♦❝♦ ❡♠ s♦❧✉çõ❡s ♣❛r❛ ♦ ♠❡r❝❛❞♦ ♣♦r ❳✉ ❡ ❨❛♥❣ ✭✷✵✶✶✮ ❡ ❨❛♥ ❡t ❛❧✳ ✭✷✵✶✶✮✳

❖ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❢♦r♠❛❧✐③❛❞♦ ♥❛ ❙❡çã♦ ✷✳✶ tr❛t❛ ❞❛ ❛❧♦❝❛çã♦ ❞❡ r❡❝✉rs♦s ❡♠ ❞❛t❛❝❡♥t❡rs ✈✐rt✉❛❧✐③❛❞♦s✳ ❊♠❜♦r❛ s♦❧✉çõ❡s s❡❥❛♠ ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛❞❛s ❝♦♠ ❢r❡q✉ê♥❝✐❛ ♥❛ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❛ ✭❇❡❧♦❣❧❛③♦✈ ❡ ❇✉②②❛ ✭✷✵✶✵❛✮ ❡ ■s❧❛♠ ❡t ❛❧✳ ✭✷✵✶✶✮✮✱ ♣♦✉❝❛s tr❛t❛♠ ❛s q✉❡stõ❡s r❡❧❛❝✐♦♥❛❞❛s à ❡✜❝✐ê♥❝✐❛ ♥❛ ✉t✐❧✐③❛çã♦ ❞❡ r❡❝✉rs♦s✱ ♠étr✐❝❛s ❞❡ ◗♦❙ ❡ ❡s❝❛❧❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❞❡ ❢♦r♠❛ ✐♥t❡❣r❛❞❛✳ ❈❛rr❡r❛ ❡t ❛❧✳ ✭✷✵✵✽✮✱ ❋❛♠❛❡② ❡t ❛❧✳ ✭✷✵✵✽✮ ❡ ❚❛♥❣ ❡t ❛❧✳ ✭✷✵✵✼✮ ❝♦♥✜r♠❛♠ q✉❡ ❣r❛♥❞❡ ♣❛rt❡ ❞❛s s♦❧✉çõ❡s ❡♥❝♦♥tr❛❞❛s ❛❞♦t❛ ✉♠❛ ❛❜♦r❞❛❣❡♠ ❞❡ ❣❡r❡♥❝✐❛♠❡♥t♦ ❝❡♥tr❛❧✐③❛❞❛ ❡ t❡♠✱ ♣♦r ❝♦♥s❡❣✉✐♥t❡✱ ❛ ❡s❝❛❧❛❜✐❧✐❞❛❞❡ ❞♦ s✐st❡♠❛ ❝♦♠♦ ♣r♦❜❧❡♠❛ ❝♦♠✉♠✳

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