Microencapsulation of spirulina platensis by spray drying method as a promising alternative for the development of new products / Microencapsulação da spirulina platensis pelo método spray drying como alternativa promissora para desenvolvimento de novos p

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Microencapsulation of spirulina platensis by spray drying method as a

promising alternative for the development of new products

Microencapsulação da spirulina platensis pelo método spray drying como

alternativa promissora para desenvolvimento de novos produtos

DOI:10.34117/bjdv6n4-262

Recebimento dos originais: 10/03/2020 Aceitação para publicação: 20/04/2020

Thâmilla Thalline Batista de Oliveira

Mestre em Ciência de Alimentos pela Universidade Federal da Bahia Doutoranda em Ciência de Alimentos pela Universidade Federal da Bahia

Instituição: Universidade Federal da Bahia

Endereço: Rua Barão de Jeremoabo, 147, Faculdade de Farmácia da UFBA, Ondina, Salvador - BA, 40170-115

E-mail: thamillabatista@hotmail.com

Izabel Miranda dos Reis

Graduada em Farmácia pela Universidade Federal da Bahia Instituição: Universidade Federal da Bahia

Endereço: Rua Barão de Jeremoabo, 147, Faculdade de Farmácia da UFBA, Ondina, Salvador - BA, 40170-115

E-mail: izabelmiranda_mr@hotmail.com

Mariana Bastos de Souza

Graduanda em Farmácia pela Universidade Federal da Bahia Instituição: Universidade Federal da Bahia

Endereço: Rua Barão de Jeremoabo, 147, Faculdade de Farmácia da UFBA, Ondina, Salvador - BA, 40170-115

E-mail: maribastosouza@hotmail.com

Andressa de Oliveira Cerqueira

Mestre em Ciência de Alimentos pela Universidade Federal da Bahia Instituição: Universidade Federal da Bahia

Endereço: Rua Barão de Jeremoabo, 147, Faculdade de Farmácia da UFBA, Ondina, Salvador - BA, 40170-115

E-mail: andressacerqueira1@hotmail.com

Pedro Paulo Lordelo Guimarães Tavares

Mestre em Ciência de Alimentos pela Universidade Federal da Bahia Doutorando em Ciência de Alimentos pela Universidade Federal da Bahia

Instituição: Universidade Federal da Bahia

Endereço: Rua Barão de Jeremoabo, 147, Faculdade de Farmácia da UFBA, Ondina, Salvador - BA, 40170-115

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Janice Izabel Druzian

Doutora em Ciência de Alimentos pela Universidade Federal de Campinas Instituição: Universidade Federal da Bahia

Endereço: Rua Barão de Jeremoabo, 147, Faculdade de Farmácia da UFBA, Ondina, Salvador - BA, 40170-115

E-mail: janicedruzian@hotmail.com

Leonardo Fonseca Maciel

Doutor em Ciência de Alimentos pela Universidade Estadual de Londrina Instituição: Universidade Federal da Bahia

Endereço: Rua Barão de Jeremoabo, 147, Faculdade de Farmácia da UFBA, Ondina, Salvador - BA, 40170-115

E-mail: lfmaciel@ufba.br

Eliete da Silva Bispo

Doutora em Tecnologia de Alimentos pela Universidade Federal de Campinas Instituição: Universidade Federal da Bahia

Endereço: Rua Barão de Jeremoabo, 147, Faculdade de Farmácia da UFBA, Ondina, Salvador - BA, 40170-115

E-mail: eliete.bispo@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

A cyanobacterium that has a high protein content, several bioactive compounds in addition to some vitamins has been microencapsulated so that it can be inserted in the development of new products. This cyanobacterium is of the genus Spirulina and the platensis family and its use is related to benefits that aid human health. Microencapsulation for food preparation is a process in which one or more ingredients or additives (core) are coated with an edible capsule. The objective of this work was to apply three procedures for the wall material: maltodextrin, soy lecithin and a combination of both, in the microencapsulation of microalgae Spirulina platensis, using the dry powder production method from drying using atomization or spray drying technique. Tests of wettability, solubility, sedimentation and determination of moisture were performed for all samples. The best results were obtained from the sample with the highest maltodextrin content as a wall material. In this way, it was possible to perform a microencapsulation using a combination of two compounds as a wall material, however, the ideal conditions for this core material and for each encapsulator still need further studies.

Keywords: microalgae; encapsulation; maltodextrin; soy lecithin.

RESUMO

Uma cianobactéria que apresenta elevado teor protéico, vários compostos bioativos além de algumas vitaminas foi microencapsulada para que seja inserida no desenvolvimento de novos produtos. Tal cianobactéria é do gênero Spirulina e família platensis e seu uso têm manifestado potenciais benefícios que auxiliam à saúde humana. O microencapsulamento para elaboração de alimentos é um processo no qual um ou mais ingredientes ou aditivos (núcleo) são revestidos com uma cápsula comestível. O objetivo deste trabalho foi aplicar três tratamentos para o material de parede: a maltodextrina, a lecitina de soja e a junção de ambos, no microencapsulamento da fonte protéica e antioxidante, a microalga Spirulina platensis, utilizando o método de produção de pó seco a partir da secagem empregando a técnica por atomização ou spray drying. Foram realizados testes de molhabilidade, solubilidade, sedimentação e determinação da umidade para todas as amostras. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos a partir da amostra com o maior teor de maltodextrina como material de parede. Dessa forma, foi possível realizar a microencapsulação utilizando a combinação

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de dois compostos como material de parede, entretanto, as condições ideais para este material núcleo e para cada encapsulante ainda necessitam de estudos complementares.

Palavras-chave: microalga; encapsulação; maltodextrina; lecitina de soja.

1 INTRODUCTION

In the food industry, formulations in the micrometer and / or nanometer range have been used to increase the shelf life of perishable foods as well as incorporating vitamins and nutraceutical compounds in order to offer a differentiated product on the market and that allows beneficial properties to human health, such as antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antioxidant or anti-inflammatory (Herrero et al., 2006).

With the intention to propose new ways of using substances with a high nutritional content in several industrial sectors, the microencapsulation technique can emerge as a useful tool (Assunção et al., 2014). Microencapsulation allows the development of formulations in which the content is protected and its release can be modified in order to act in a specific place, for a certain period of time and at a specific speed (Suave et al., 2006). Arshady (1993) described microcapsules as packaging made up of a polymer (wall material) and an active material called a core. Arshady (1993) stated that, while conventional packaging is normally used to facilitate transportation, storage, handling and presentation of food, microcapsules are generally used to improve the performance of the material or create new applications.

Gouin (2004) and Desai & Park (2005) stated that, through finely adjusted and controlled release properties, microencapsulation is no longer just a method of adding substances to a food formulation, and becomes a source of totally new ingredients with unique properties.

The main microalgae studied and produced due to its nutritional and therapeutic properties is of the genus Spirulina, mainly S. platensis. This cyanobacterium that contains high protein value (50-70% of its weight), essential amino acids, vitamins (especially B12), mineral salts, in addition to containing high levels of antioxidants, such as, for example, carotenoids (source of vitamin A), especially beta-carotene and phycocyanin, which is its main pigment, fatty acids, omega-3 and other biologically active compounds (Buijsse et al., 2007; Hollenberg, 2006; Colla et al., 2007). Certified as GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration), Spirulina was added to food and beverages in studies, being consumed in quantities of 0.1 to 6g/individual/day with average consumption estimates of 3g/individual/day. In Brazil, it is classified as a new ingredient and its daily intake should not exceed 1.6g/individual (Food and Drug Administration, 2003).

The present study evaluated the ability to form microcapsules of two polymers constantly used in food: maltodextrin, soy lecithin and the combination of both. In this study, treatments were carried out in which the core is Spirulina platensis and the wall material is maltodextrin and soy

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lecithin, so that the stability of Spirulina is maintained and that its nutritional value remains active and is not diminished between production dates and consumption. Microencapsulation was also used as a means to mask the aroma and color of microalgae as an ingredient, since flavor, aroma and visual aspect are essential components in the food purchase decision and Spirulina alone does not present these aspects positively.

2 MATERIALS AND METHODS

2.1 MATERIALS

The materials used in the present work were Spirulina platensis, Maltodextrin (ADS Nutrifunctional Laboratory LTDA, São Paulo) and soy lecithin (Pantec Technology for Food, São Paulo). The biomass of the microalgae Spirulina platensis was produced at the pilot plant located at the Faculty of Pharmacy of the Federal University of Bahia (UFBA), Brazil.

2.2 METHODS

2.2.1 Sample preparation

The maltodextrin and soy lecithin were used as wall material in different proportions. The concentrations used were determined in Table 1.

Table 1 - Proportion of the material used in microencapsulation

A 100 ml of distilled water was added for each concentration. The samples were homogenized on a Shaker for 30 minutes at 250 rpm mechanical agitation and kept refrigerated.

2.2.2 Spray Drying Microencapsulation

Microencapsulation was performed with a Spray Drying equipment (Labmaq, Brazil/LM MSD 0.5), using a feed rate of 0.5 L/h, 120°C as the outlet temperature and 175°C as the inlet temperature. Subsequently, the samples were stored at 4ºC for the following analyzes, all in triplicate.

Concentration Spirulina (%) Soy lecithin (%) Maltodextrin (%)

Concentration 1 10 90 -

Concentration 2 10 - 90

Concentration 3 10 45 45

Concentration 4 10 60 30

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2.2.3 Moisture

The moisture was determined by drying under infrared in a Moisture Analyzer (MX-50 Mettler), adjusting the intensity of the emitted radiation so that the sample reached 105ºC.

2.2.4 Wettability

One gram of the powder was sprinkled on the surface of a beaker containing 100 mL of distilled water at 23±2ºC without stirring. The time required for the dust particles to settle or submerge and disappear from the water surface was timed and used for a relative comparison between the samples according to the methodology proposed by Schubert (1993). The wettability rate was calculated according to Equation 1.

W=N/t (1)

Where:

W – wettability;

N – mass of the sample in (g); t – time (min).

2.2.5 Solubility

Solubility was calculated according to the method described by Cano-Chauca et al. (2005), with some modifications, where 25 mL of distilled water were transferred to a beaker and placed under agitation at 2500 rpm, in an Ultra-Turrax homogenizer. Then, 1 g of the powder (dry base) was added carefully, and stirring was continued for 5 min. The solution was transferred to a tube and centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 5 min. An aliquot (20 mL) of the supernatant was transferred to a previously weighed Petri dish and subjected to drying for 5 h at 105ºC in a vacuum oven. The percentage (%) of solubility was calculated by weight difference and determined in grams.

2.2.6 Sedimentation

2.5 g of the different concentrations of microencapsulated Spirulina were weighed then added in an Inhoff cone of 500 mL with distilled water at 82°C, and left for 5 minutes. Subsequently, the sediment volume was read.

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2.2.7 Statistical analysis

To characterize the samples, the mean test was performed with the triplicate standard deviation. To compare the results presented for the different concentrations, the Tukey test at 5% was performed with the aid of the statistical program STATISTICA 7.0.

3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Wettability is characterized as the ability to rehydrate powder in water. The ability of microcapsules to mix with water is one of the most important properties related to reconstitution (Bae & Lee, 2008). Figure 1 shows the results obtained on the wettability results of the different samples.

Figure 1 - Wettability rate in relation to the different concentrations of wall materials

The samples prepared only with a wall material (Sample 1 and Sample 2) showed a higher level of wettability with 0.047 and 0.013 (g/min). It can be seen in Figure 1 that the lowest rate of wettability was found for Sample 3, which contained in its composition the same proportion (45%) of maltodextrin and soy lecithin. Wettability is directly related to the product dissolution. Studies such as the one performed by Montes et al. (2011) showed that the dissolution time of different powder samples also depends on the diameter of the particles after agglomeration, the composition of the product and its viscosity.

The Table 2 describes the values found in the analyzes carried out with the different wall materials. 0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035 0.04 0.045 0.05 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 W et ta b il it y r a te (g/ m in ) Samples

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Table 2 - Describes the values found in the analyzes carried out with the different wall materials Analysis Spirulina (10%) and maltodextrin (90%) Spirulina (10%) and soy lecithin

(90%)

Spirulina (10%), maltodextrin (50%)

and soy lecithin (50%)

Spirulina (10%), maltodextrin (60%)

and soy lecithin (30%) Spirulina (10%), soy lecithin (60%) and maltodextrin(30%) Moisture (%) 4.920 0.850a 5.196 0.654a 4.680 0.563a 4.370 0.451a 4.300 0.523a Sedimentation (mL) 0.966 0.057a 1.666 0.378b 0.100 0.000c 0.100 0.000c 0.200 0.000c Solubility (g) 0.772 0.012a 0.677 0.048b 0.694 0.021b 0.781 0.007a 0.653 0.001b

Means followed by the same letter do not differ by Tukey's test at the 5% significance level

According to the results obtained for the solubility analysis, a significant difference was noted between the different concentrations (Table 2), considering the wall materials used. Microcapsules that showed a higher amount of maltodextrin in their composition (Concentrations 1 and 4), as well as those that contained only maltodextrin (Concentration 1), showed greater solubility when compared to concentrations that contained a greater amount of soy lecithin. This can be justified due to the low viscosity of the solution even at high solids contents.

One of the main factors that influence the stability of encapsulated compounds is the nature of the encapsulating material (Rosenberg et al., 1990). The choice of the material to be used must take into account a number of factors, such as: physical and chemical properties of the core (porosity, solubility, etc.) and of the wall (viscosity, mechanical properties, glass transition, etc.), core compatibility with the wall, control mechanism and economic factors (Brazel, 1999). The wall material must be insoluble and not reactive with the core (Jackson & Lee, 1991).

In addition, one of the most important factors that determines the stability of the powders is the presence of moisture (Baik et al., 2004). The prepared samples had a low moisture content, ranging from 4.300 to 5.196%, not differing significantly between themselves (Table 2). Among the objectives in the use of Spray Drying in food, the highlight is to obtain a product with specific properties, such as instant solubility (Gharsallouli et al., 2007). It is also worth mentioning that this technique is the most common and cheapest to produce microencapsulated food materials, the equipment is easily available and the production costs are low (Gharsallouli et al., 2007).

The highest sedimentation value was found in Concentration 2 (Spirulina and soy lecithin), followed by Concentration 1 (Spirulina and maltodextrin). It was observed that the greater the amount of soy lecithin in the sample composition (Concentration 5), the greater the sedimented volume, compared to Concentration 3 and 4. As described in Table 2, there was a statistical difference between the samples. Sedimentation results from a difference in density between the two phases and consists

    

    

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of the migration of one of the substances to the top of the emulsion, without necessarily being accompanied by flocculation of the drops (Shaw, 1992).

Many vitamins are highly oxidizable and can benefit from microencapsulation, which, in addition to increasing the stability of these compounds, can also mask possible foreign flavors or odors. In this case, the wall material should release the nucleus only after ingestion, that is, in the stomach or intestine. Hydrophobic materials, such as waxes, are generally used, although many cellulose derivatives and cross-linked proteins can also promote enteric release (Brazel, 1999).

Due to their low viscosity at high concentrations, maltodextrins have been studied as possible substitutes for gum arabic in atomized emulsions (Bangs & Reineccius, 1988; Trubiano & Lacourse, 1988). On the other hand, maltodextrins have low emulsifying capacity. (Kenyon, 1995; Apintanaong & Noomhorm, 2003). The results obtained by Thevenet (1995) indicated that a 1:1 mixture of gum arabic and maltodextrin was almost as efficient as pure gum arabic for oxidative stabilization of orange essential oil. Bhandari et al. (1992), testing different proportions between gum arabic and maltodextrin, also observed greater retention of volatiles as the gum arabic/maltodextrin ratio increased.

4 CONCLUSIONS

From the evaluation made between the different concentrations of the microencapsulated, it can be seen that the sample with the highest maltodextrin content accompanied by soy lecithin showed efficient results for microencapsulation. Thus, the behavior of these polymers was verified to ensure the stabilization of the microcapsules and to maintain its properties of protecting the compounds present in the nucleus and improving their dispersibility when exposed to the environment.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The researchers would like to thank the Graduate Program in Food Science at the Faculty of

Pharmacy - UFBA for providing laboratory and reagents in order to carry out the analyzes.

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Imagem

Table 1 - Proportion of the material used in microencapsulation

Table 1 -

Proportion of the material used in microencapsulation p.4
Figure 1 - Wettability rate in relation to the different concentrations of wall materials

Figure 1 -

Wettability rate in relation to the different concentrations of wall materials p.6
Table 2 - Describes the values found in the analyzes carried out with the different wall materials  Analysis  Spirulina (10%)  and  maltodextrin  (90%)  Spirulina (10%) and soy lecithin

Table 2 -

Describes the values found in the analyzes carried out with the different wall materials Analysis Spirulina (10%) and maltodextrin (90%) Spirulina (10%) and soy lecithin p.7

Referências