Rev. Bras. Anestesiol. vol.66 número4

Texto

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REVISTA

BRASILEIRA

DE

ANESTESIOLOGIA

Publicação Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia

www.sba.com.br

SCIENTIFIC

ARTICLE

Construction

of

a

tool

to

measure

perceptions

about

the

use

of

the

World

Health

Organization

Safe

Surgery

Checklist

Program

Luis

Antonio

dos

Santos

Diego

a,b

,

Fabiane

Cardia

Salman

a,c

,

João

Henrique

Silva

a,d

,

Julio

Cezar

Brandão

a,e,f,g,∗

,

Getúlio

de

Oliveira

Filho

a,f,h

,

Antonio

Fernando

Carneiro

a

,

Airton

Bagatini

a

,

José

Mariano

de

Moraes

a

aSociedadeBrasileiradeAnestesiologia(SBA),RiodeJaneiro,RJ,Brazil

bFaculdadedeMedicina,UniversidadeFederalFluminense(UFF),Niterói,RJ,Brazil cFundac¸ãoOswaldoCruz,RiodeJaneiro,RJ,Brazil

dHospitalMoinhosdeVento,PortoAlegre,RS,Brazil

eUniversidadeFederaldeSergipe(UFS),SãoCristóvão,SE,Brazil

fTranslationalMedicine,UniversidadeFederaldeSãoPaulo(Unifesp),SãoPaulo,SP,Brazil gMassachusettsGeneralHospital,Harvard,USA

hUniversidadeFederaldeSantaCatarina(UFSC),Florianópolis,SC,Brazil

Received2September2014;accepted11November2014 Availableonline1May2016

KEYWORDS Tool; Checklist; Safesurgery; Adverseevents; WorldHealth Organization

Abstract

Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) hasrecommended greater attention to

patientsafety,particularlyregardingpreventableadverseevents.TheSafeSurgerySavesLives (CSSV)programwasreleasedrecommendingtheapplicationofasurgicalchecklistforitemson thesafetyofprocedures.Thechecklistimplementationreducedthehospitalmortalityratein thefirst30days.InBrazil,wefoundnostudiesofanesthesiologists’adherencetothepractice ofthechecklist.

Objective: Themainobjectivewastodevelopatooltomeasuretheattitudeof

anesthesiolo-gistsandresidentsregardingtheuseofchecklistintheperioperativeperiod.

Method: This was across-sectional study performedduring the59th CBA inBH/MG, whose

participants wereenrolledphysicianswho respondedtothequestionnairewith quantitative epidemiologicalapproach.

Results:Fromthesampleof459participantswhoansweredthequestionnaire,55%weremale,

44.2%under10yearsofpractice,and15.5%withover30yearsofmedicalschoolcompletion.

Correspondingauthor.

E-mail:juliobrand@hotmail.com(J.C.Brandão).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjane.2014.11.011

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Sevenitemswith78%reliabilitycoefficientwereselected.Therewasastatisticallysignificant differencebetweenthegroupsofanesthesiologistswhoreportedusingtheinstrumentinless ormorethan70%ofpatients,indicatingthattheattitudequestionnairediscriminatesbetween thesetwogroupsofprofessionals.

Conclusions:Thesevenitemsquestionnaireshowedadequateinternalconsistencyanda

well-definedfactorstructure,andcanbeusedasatooltomeasuretheanesthesiologists’perceptions aboutthechecklistusefulnessandapplicability.

©2015SociedadeBrasileiradeAnestesiologia.PublishedbyElsevierEditoraLtda.Thisisan openaccessarticleundertheCCBY-NC-NDlicense( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

PALAVRAS-CHAVE Ferramenta; Checklist; Cirurgiasegura; Eventosadversos; Organizac¸ãoMundial daSaúde

Construc¸ãodeumaferramentaparamedidadepercepc¸õessobreousodochecklist

doProgramadeCirurgiaSeguradaOrganizac¸ãoMundialdaSaúde

Resumo

Introduc¸ão:AOrganizac¸ãoMundialdaSaúde(OMS)temrecomendadoumamaioratenc¸ãocom

aseguranc¸adopaciente,maisespecificamenteemrelac¸ãoaoseventosadversosevitáveis.Foi lanc¸adooprograma‘‘CirurgiaSeguraSalvaVidas(CSSV)’’,querecomendaaaplicac¸ãodalista deverificac¸ãocirúrgica(checklist)para aconferênciadeitensrelacionadosàseguranc¸ado procedimento.A implantac¸ãodochecklistreduziuamortalidadehospitalarnosprimeiros30 dias.NoBrasil,nãoforamidentificadosestudossobreadesãodosanestesiologistasàpráticado

checklist.

Objetivo:Desenvolvimentodeumaferramentaparamensurac¸ãodaatitudedos

anestesiologis-taseresidentesemrelac¸ãoaousodochecklistnoperíodoperioperatório.

Método: Estudotransversalfeitoduranteo59◦ CongressoBrasileirodeAnestesiologia(CBA),

em BeloHorizonte (MG),cujosparticipantes forammédicos inscritosequeresponderam ao questionáriocomabordagemepidemiológicaquantitativa.

Resultados: A amostraconstou de459 participantesque responderamao questionário, 55%

dosexomasculino, 44,2%commenosde10 anose15,5%acimade30anosdeconclusãodo cursomédico.Foramselecionadosseteitenscomcoeficientedeconfiabilidadede78%.Houve diferenc¸aestatisticamentesignificativaentreosgruposdeanestesiologistasquereferiramusar oinstrumentoemmenosoumaisde70%dospacientesassistidos.Issoindicaqueoquestionário deatitudesdiscriminaentreessesdoisgruposdeprofissionais.

Conclusões:Oquestionáriodeseteitensmostrouadequadaconsistênciainternaeuma

estru-turafatorialbemdelimitada.Podeserusadocomoferramentaparamedidadaspercepc¸õesde anestesiologistasquantoàutilidadeeaaplicabilidadedochecklist.

©2015SociedadeBrasileiradeAnestesiologia.PublicadoporElsevierEditoraLtda.Este ´eum artigoOpen Accesssobumalicenc¸aCCBY-NC-ND( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Introduction

The 55th World Health Assembly, World Health Organiza-tion(WHO),throughtheResolution55.18hasrecommended toitsmemberstatesincreasedattentiontopatientsafety, particularly regarding preventable adverse events. So, in October 2005 it was introduced the first Global Patient SafetyChallengewiththetheme:CleanCareisSaferCare, whilethesecondGlobalChallengeaddressedthe fundamen-talsandpracticesofsurgicalsafetyfocusingonprevention ofsurgicalsiteinfections,safeanesthesia,surgicalteams, anduseofindicatorsforsurgicalcare.

In2009,theWHOlaunchedtheSafeSurgerySavesLives (SSSL)program,1whichrecommendstheapplicationofthe

surgicalsafetychecklist,whichdeterminesthreebreaksin theperioperative periodfor checkingthe itemsregarding procedure security. The checklist and its implementation manualwere translatedintoPortuguese and publishedby theMinistryofHealth/ANVISA/PAHO(Fig.1).

Themethodchosen2fortheproject‘‘SafeSurgery’’was

based on the tool created at the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutionforimprovedcommunicationamongprofessionals participatingintheoperatingroomteam.Themain objec-tive wasfor all the operation planning tobeshared and, thus,facilitatetheintegrationintheprocedure implemen-tation.

Thisstructuredcommunicationtool,inspiredbyaviation, fragmentscomplextasksinmorewatertightsteps,inorder toreducethechancesofforgettingakeyitemforthe qual-ityandsafetyofthewholecare.Checkingtheitemslistedin apreviouslymadechecklistspeedstheprocessand,atthe same time,creates barriers toany process failures.3 One

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Patient has confirmed

• Identity • Site • Procedure • Consent

Site marked/not applicable

Anaesthesia safety check completed

Pulse oximeter on patient and functioning

Does patient have A:

Known allergy?

No Yes

Difficult airway/aspiration risk?

No

Yes, and equipment/assistance available

Risk of >500ml blood loss

(7ml/kg in children)?

No

Yes, and adequate intravenous access and fluids planned

Nurse verbally confirms with the team:

The name of the procedure recorded

That instrument, sponge and needle

counts are correct (or not

applicable)

How the specimen is labelled

(Including patient name)

Whether there are any equipment

problems to be addressed

Surgeon, anaesthesia professional and nurse review the key concerns for recovery and management of this patient

Sign in

Confirm all team members have introduced themselves by name and role

Surgeon, anaesthesia professional and nurse verbally confirm

• Patient • Site • Procedure

Anticipated critical events

Surgeon reviews: What are the

critical or unexpected steps, operative duration, anticipated blood loss?

Anaesthesia team reviews: Are there

any patient-specific concerns?

Nursing team reviews: Has sterility

(including indicator results) been confirmed? Are there equipment issues or any concerns?

Has antibiotic prophylaxis been given within the last 60 minutes?

Yes Not applicable

Is essential imaging displayed?

Yes Not applicable

Time out Sign out

Before induction of anesthesia Before skin incision Before patient leaves operating room

Surgical safety checklist (first edition)

This checklist is not intended to be comprehensive. Additions and modifications to fit local practice are encouraged.

Figure1 Surgicalsafetychecklist.

Haynesetal.4The useofchecklisthasbeen stimulatedby

accreditingorganizationsoperatingin Brazil thatconsider itan instrumentof perioperativebestpractices,5 but one

cannotsay thatit hasbecome awidespread andcommon practice.Newprocedureslikethisamonghealth profession-als arenotalwaysreceivedpositivelyat first,particularly whentheeffectivenessofitsresults,thoughperemptory,is noteasilydemonstratedintheshortterm.

Thus,adherencetochecklistdependsonhavingpositive attitudesandperceptionsregardingitsusefulnessand appli-cability,inserted,preferably,ininstitutionsthatemphasize safety culture, because it is believed to be an essential requirement to reduce the occurrence of adverse events affecting rates security and entail reduction of patients’ morbidityandmortality.6---12TheimplementationoftheSafe

SurgeryChecklistProgramreducedhospitalmortalityinthe first30days.Althoughtheimpactontheoutcomewaslower than previously reported,the effectdepends crucially on theadherencetotheroutineuseofthechecklist.12

InBrazil,wefoundnostudiesofanesthesiologists’ adher-enceto theWHO ‘‘Surgical Safety Checklist’’norreports onadherence totypeof subgroupsof healthcare institu-tion,departmentofanesthesiologypracticeandprocedure complexity. Thus, assessing the attitude of profession-als regarding adherence to checklist is very important, particularly in the development of educational activities thatencouragethesafetyculture,asanesthesiologistsare present in all threestages of its implementation,aswell asnursingstaff.Thechecklistintroductioninseveral Euro-peancentersalsofacedbarriersandbiasesandledtosome

difficultiesinitsimplementation,butwiththesafetyculture inanesthesiatherewasabetterstandardofacceptanceand modificationof thestandard practiceof suchcentersand adequacyforthechecklistregularuse.12---14Themain

objec-tiveofthisstudywasthedevelopmentofatooltomeasure theattitudeofanesthesiologistsandresidentsregardingthe useofthechecklistintheperioperativeperiod.

Method

Cross-sectional study performed during de 59th Brazilian AnesthesiologyCongressinBeloHorizonte(MG),whose par-ticipantswereenrolledanesthesiologistsandresidentswho went to the stand of the Brazilian Society of Anesthesi-ology (SBA) and voluntarily responded to the web-based self-administered electronic questionnaire with quantita-tiveepidemiologicalapproach.Thestudywasapprovedby theResearchEthicsCommitteeoftheNationalInstituteof Cardiology,andwritteninformedconsentwasobtainedfrom allparticipants----anonymitywasguaranteed.

The instrument design prioritized the inclusion of questions that could contribute to the understanding of perceptions and attitudes of the profession being stud-ied. Responses were obtained on a 5-point Likert scale7

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Table1 Meandifference between total andfactorial scores of questionnairebetween anesthesiologists groups using the checklistinlessormorethan70%ofpatients.

Meandifference 95%MeandifferenceCI p

Inferior Superior

F1 −0.31 −0.42 −0.20 0.00

F2 −0.15 −0.29 −0.02 0.03

Total −0.25 −0.35 −0.14 0.00

been formulated in a positive way, or 1 and 2 (strongly disagree/partially disagree) to the questions formulated negatively.Inthisprocess,thescoresassignedtoitemswith negativeconnotations(1and2tothequestionsformulated positivelyand4and5tothoseformulatednegatively)were reversed,soastoproduceaninstrumentwithmean maxi-mumrangeequalto5points,representingthebestattitudes andperceptionsregardingthechecklist.

The questionnaire reliability was evaluated through internalconsistency,estimatedbytheCronbach’salpha reli-abilitycoefficient,relevantbecausethequestionnairewas appliedonceinthesample.Cronbach’salphavaluesrange from0 to1and thelowerlimitusuallyacceptedis 0.60.8

Afterselecting theitems usingthe correlation coefficient withtotalscore≥0.3,theCronbach’salphacoefficientwas

calculated.Theselecteditemsweresubjectedtoprincipal componentsfactor analysiswithorthogonalrotation (Vari-max)toidentifythefactorialstructureoftheinstrument.

Discriminantvalidityoftheinstrumentscoreswastested bycalculatingthedifferencebetweenthefactorandtotal scoresofthequestionnaireamonganesthesiologistsgroups whoreportedusingthechecklistinlessormorethan70%of patients(Table1).

Predictivevaliditywasassessed(a)usingthecalculation ofSpearman’scorrelation coefficientsbetween thescores andthebinaryvariableofchecklistuseinlessormorethan 70%ofcases(theoutcomevariable)and(b)theanalysisof theROCcurveparametersbetweenthetotalscoreandthe outcomevariable.

Results

The total sample of 459 participants who completed the questionnaireinfourdaysoftheaforementionedCongress, 55% male and 44.2% with less than 10 years and 15.5% over30yearsofmedicalschoolcompletion.Only2.2%said theyhavedoneorbedoingaspecializationcourseor resi-dencyinanesthesiology.Theaverageageofparticipantswas 40.7years.

Seven items with 78% reliability coefficient were selected.Factoranalysisidentifiedtwofactors:F1,related totheperceptionoftheutility,andF2relatedtothe per-ceptionoftheapplicabilityofthechecklist(Table2).These twofactorsexplained58%ofthevarianceinscores.

Therewasastatisticallysignificant differencebetween the groups of anesthesiologists who reported using the instrumentinlessor morethan70%of patients.This indi-catesthattheattitudequestionnairediscriminatesbetween thesetwogroupsofprofessionals.

Table2 Perceivedutilityfactorsandapplicability.

Questionsregardingtheperceptionfactoronutility(F1)

•Areyoufamiliarwiththe‘‘SafeSurgerySavesLives’’

project(Checklist)?

•Itisusefulandpreventserrorsduringsurgery •Itisusefulandpreventserrorsduringanesthesia •Checklistshouldbemandatory

Questionsregardingtheperceptionfactoronapplicability

(F2)

•ShouldbeusedonlyininstitutionswithHospital

Accreditation

•Shouldbeappliedsolelybynurses

•Checklistisnotapplicabletoinvasiveproceduresinthe

DiagnosticCenter,suchasspinalinfiltration

Thecorrelationcoefficientsbetweenthefactorandtotal scoresandtheoutcomevariablewererho=0.32,p<0.01for F1scores;rho=0.14,p<0.02forF2scores;andrho=0.28, p<0.01fortotalscore.Thesevaluesaresignificant,butthe predictivevalidityof thequestionnaireis low.These find-ingsaresubstantiatedbythepercentageofareaunderthe curve=0.66(0.61---0.71).Thisindicates lowsensitivityand specificity of the instrument asa predictor of the use or non-useofthechecklistinmorethan70%ofpatientsseen byanesthesiologists.

Discussion

TheWHOSafeSurgerySavesLivesprogramaimstoincrease thequalityandsafetystandardsinhealthcare;contemplate theprevention ofsentinelevents, surgicalsite infections, safeanesthesia,safesurgicalteams,andindicatorsof sur-gicalcare.Itwasdecidedthattheinstrumentwouldserve acore set ofsafetystandardsthatcouldbe applied glob-allyand in differentscenarios. Inthis set, itwas obvious themultidisciplinarycharacter,includingallwhoworkand contributetotheexcellenceofpatientcare.

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The use of checklist is being monitored by the WHO,9

andcurrentlyabout1800healthcarefacilitiesreporttheir systematicuse,particularlyinthecountriesofNorth Amer-icaandEurope,inadditiontoanincreasingimplementation inAsia andMiddleEast.Brazil, sofar,does notappearas oneofthecountriesthatexpresstheuseofchecklisttoits fullest.

TheSBApresentedtheWHO‘‘SafeSurgerySavesLives’’ project to Brazilian anesthesiologists for the first timein 200910 and,sincethen,theQualityandSafetyCommission

in Anesthesia (CQSA) hasbeen promoting theproject dis-seminationactionsinallofficialeventsoftheSociety and many ofits regionalfacilities nationwide.However,there wasnoway tohave an estimate of anesthesiologistswho workinthecountryandusethechecklist.Thus,theBoard ofSBAin2012acceptedtheproposalofCQSAtoperforma surveyduringthe59thCBAinBH/MGandprovidedresources forthesurveyapplicationpresentedhere.

The choice of the event was due primarily to allow that the largest number of participants could respond to the questionnaire, as the number of subscribers, around 2500professionals, allowit toreacha highpercentageof response, which is essential for successful studies using questionnaires as a tool, as well as being a more homo-geneous sample due tothe participation of professionals fromaroundthecountry,eventhoughthesampledoesnot includeanesthetistswhodonotusuallyattendtheCongress ofAnesthesiology.

Conclusions

The7-itemquestionnaireshowedadequateinternal consis-tency(Cronbach’salphacoefficient>0.7)andawell-defined factorial structure, it can be used as a tool to measure anesthesiologists’ perceptions about the usefulness and applicability of the WHO Safe Surgery Saves Lives check-list. However, although the perceptions captured by the questionnaireareabletodiscriminateamong anesthesiolo-gistswithhighestandlowestpercentageofusechecklistin practice,thescoresresultingfromthequestionnaires can-notpredicttheuseoftheinstrument.Thatis,despitethe moreorlesspositiveperceptionsaboutthechecklist,there isnoassociationbetweentheprobabilityofusingornotthe instrumentinpractice.

Conflicts

of

interest

Theauthorsdeclarenoconflictsofinterest.

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Imagem

Figure 1 Surgical safety checklist.

Figure 1

Surgical safety checklist. p.3
Table 1 Mean difference between total and factorial scores of questionnaire between anesthesiologists groups using the checklist in less or more than 70% of patients.

Table 1

Mean difference between total and factorial scores of questionnaire between anesthesiologists groups using the checklist in less or more than 70% of patients. p.4