Urban policy goals and territorial planning articulations and lessons from planning urban regions in Portugal


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Urban policy goals and territorial

planning – articulations and lessons

from planning urban regions in


João Cabral / José Luís Crespo

Faculdade de Arquitectura – Universidade Técnica de Lisboa

4ª Rencontres Internationales de Recherche en Urbanisme de Grenoble

Territorial planning – imaging, anticipating and organising space


Urban policy goals and territorial planning

1. Problems in the articulation between policy

goals and territorial planning -

Can territorial

planning still be a useful and necessary tool

for promoting urban policies?

2. Rescaling politics and policies – the changing

system of urban regulation

3. The challenges

4. The Portuguese planning legislation and

planning system

5. Learning from urbanisation trends in the

Lisbon Metropolitan Area 1965-2001

6. Territorial planning scales, agendas and


– the emergence of evaluation

and collaborative procedures and land use



Urban policy goals and territorial planning

Rescaling politics and policies – the changing system of urban


Changes in the functional relationship between the prevailing

modes of regulation and urbanisation and suburbanisation patterns

Collapse of the comprehensive ideal of urban planning

Urban infrastructure ‘crisis’

Changing political economy of urban infrastructure development

and governance

Physical growth and extension of urban regions

Challenge of social and cultural change and social movements.

Increasing functional relationship between economic development

and land use control

Tensions between spaces of “politics” and “policies” associated

with differentiated national, regional and municipal interests


Urban policy goals and territorial planning

Imaging, Anticipating and

Organising Space

the challenges:

To develop forms of


analysing and evaluating urban


namely in terms of

availability and allocation of

resources and in the involvement of

users and consumers

To develop the capacity and the

competence for formulating and

implementing adequate (alternative)

urban development models

To guarantee social control over the

use of resources through


urbanism and an adequate land use

planning system and development



PNPOT (2006)

National programme for

spatial planning policies –

urban system and transport

infrastructure network


Portuguese Planning System –

Role and Hierarchy of Spatial Plans










Central State





(1) The regional planning level is the responsibility of the central administration


- National programme for spatial planning policies (framework)


- Sectorial plans from the different departments of the central administration



- Special plans for protected areas, coastal zones and natural parks

(regulatory and mandatory)


- Regional spatial plans (framework)


- Intermunicipal spatial plans (produced by associations of municipalities)



- Land use plans (municipal, urbanisation and local) (regulatory and



Urban policy goals and territorial planning

The Portuguese spatial planning system


• Based on a written

Constitution (1976)

and a civil code in

the tradition of the Napoleonic planning families.

• Law no. 48/98

establishes the general principles for the

structure of the territorial planning legislation.

• Recent changes


• 1) decision making and responsibilities on territorial plans

given to Municipalities without providing the adequate

resources (rules are applied the same way in metropolitan

and rural areas) – obligation of results, not of means;

• 2) consultation and participation procedures to include

stakeholders and responsible authorities from the very



The Territorial Planning System versus The Political Economy of Spatial Development

1986 – Entrada Comunidade Europeia

19891993 Plano Desenvolvimento Regional -I Quadro Comunitário Apoio (QCA) (Objectivo 1) 1991 - Lei Quadro Regiões Administrativas (Lei 56/91)

1994 - PROSIURB (Planos Estratégicos Cidades Média Dimensão)

1994-1999 - II QCA (Programa URBAN, Intervenção Operacional Renovação Urbana -IORU)

1997 - Esquema Desenvolvimento Espaço Comunitário (EDEC)

1998 – Projecto Urbano EXPO 98 2000-2006 - III QCA

2000 - Programa POLIS

2003 – Áreas Metropolitanas e Comunidades Intermunicipais (Leis nº10/2003 e nº11/2003) 2007 – Política de Cidades POLIS XXI 1987 – Lei de Bases do Ambiente (Lei 11/87)

1988 - Plano Regional Ordenamento Território (PROT) (DL176- A/88) 1989 - Reserva Agrícola Nacional (RAN) (DL 196/89)

1990 - Planos Municipais Ordenamento Território (PMOT) (DL69/90) 1990 - Reserva Ecológica Nacional (REN) (DL 93/90)

1993 - Rede Nacional Áreas Protegidas (DL 19/93)

1995 - Planos Especiais Ordenamento Território (PEOT) (DL 151/95) 1998 - Lei Bases da Política de Ordenamento Território e de

Urbanismo (LBOTU) (Lei 48/98)

1999 - Regime Jurídico Instrumentos Gestão Territorial (RJIGT) (DL 380/99)

2001 – Lei de Bases da Política e do Regime de Protecção e Valorização do Património Cultural (Lei 107/2001)

2001 – Regime Jurídico da Urbanização e da Edificação (DL 177/2001, altera DL 555/99)

2007 – Regime Jurídico da Avaliação Ambiental de Planos e Programas (DL 232/07)

2007 – Regime Jurídico Instrumentos Gestão Territorial (RJIGT) (DL 316/07, altera DL 380/99)

1974 - Revolução 25 April

1976 – Constituição da República

1977 – Competências Autarquias Locais (DL79/77)

1979 – Lei Finanças Locais (Lei 1/79) 1976 - Lei de Solos (DL 794/76)

1976 – Código das Expropriações (DL 845/76) 1982 - Plano Director Municipal (DL 208/82) 1985 - Património Cultural Português (Lei 13/85)

1968-73 - III Plano de Fomento 1970 - Lei de Solos (DL 576/70)

1971 - Planos Gerais Urbanização / Planos Pormenor (DL560/71) 1973 – Regime das operações de loteamento urbano (DL289/73)

1928 - Estado Novo

1931 - Lei Condicionamento Industrial

1945 - Lei Fomento e Reorganização Industrial 1953-58 - I Plano de Fomento

1959-64 - II Plano de Fomento 1864 - Plano Geral de Melhoramentos

1934 - Plano Geral de Urbanização 1946 - Ante Planos de Urbanização 1949 - Património Cultural (Lei 2032/49)



835 hab/sq km


3,213 Sq.Km


Area of Lisbon

Nº Municipalities

Pop. Density



Urban Region


Urban policy goals and territorial planning

Urbanisation trends in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area 1965-2001*

The role of public investments on roads and transport infrastructures

An increase in accessibility largely supported by public investments on roads and

transport infrastructures has led to structuring changes in the LMA: i) greater

mobility and interaction in the metropolitan space; ii) circulation in the LMA to be

carried out outside Lisbon, favoured a multi-polarisation of the metropolitan

space; iii) structured the morphology of the metropolitan space as a continuous

built space.

The role of municipal land use planning

Comparison of urban land uses from the 1990’s Municipal Master Plans, with the

2001 maps of urban occupation shows spaces classified for urban use in excess

in terms of urbanisation needs and an uncoordinated and fragmented urban

expansion and a relative incapacity of municipal regulation to implement an urban

development model consistent with the planning principles foreseen by the

legislation and the planning system.

The role of regional metropolitan planning

The three territorial plans produced for the LMA have thought and mapped

different strategies for polycentric development (1964, 1990-04, 2003) only the

last one was approved and ratified becoming a statutory document. There is no

articulation between the municipal and the metropolitan planning levels and an

effective territorial metropolitan strategy for the metropolitan area.

• *Cabral, J., Morgado, S., Crespo, J.L. e Coelho, C. “Urbanisation trends and urban planning in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area” in Pereira, M. S. (editor) A Portrait of State-of-the Art Research at the Technical University of Lisbon, Springer, 2007


Lisbon Metropolitan Area - urbanisation 1960-1991

Source: Pedro George,

Sofia Morgado (2004)


Lisbon Metropolitan Area - urbanisation 2001

Source: Pedro George,

Sofia Morgado (2004)


Lisbon Metropolitan Area – urban agglomerations


Source: Projecto

Totta / UTL (2007)


Urban policy goals and territorial planning

State and Municipal Agendas

Land use conformation to property

rights and to private and public


Coherence of environmental and

infrastructural networks

Conformation to market dynamics,

community pressures & to budget

strategies (property tax)

Rationalisation and efficiency of

public investment

Land use control, zoning, public


Legal and institutional framework

Municipal agenda

Central and Regional State


Urban policy goals and territorial planning

Territorial planning competences

Land use planning system and

development control – the

formal debate (rule and order)

Capacity to guarantee

quality urbanism &

social control over use

of resources



Collaborative planning – the

political and accountability


Capacity to formulate

alternative urban

development models


Comprehensive evaluation – the

methodological and conceptual


Capacity to read,

analyse, evaluate

dynamics and define



Articulating State and Municipal

agendas and priorities

Planning competences



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