activity theory

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Análise das representações gráficas da teoria da atividade em periódicos internacionais| Analysis of graphic representations of activity theory in international journals | Analysis of graphic representations of activity theory in international journals

Análise das representações gráficas da teoria da atividade em periódicos internacionais| Analysis of graphic representations of activity theory in international journals | Analysis of graphic representations of activity theory in international journals

Activity theory is a relevant framework for the Design field, and their graphic representations are cognitive artifacts that aid the understanding, use and communication of this theory. However, there is a lack of consistency around the graphics and labels used in these representations. Based on this, the aim of this study was to identify, analyze and evaluate these differences and propose a representation that aims to be more suitable for the theory. For this, uses as method a literature review based on Engeström (2001) and its three generations of visual models, combined with graphical analysis of representations collected in a hundred papers from international journals.
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Cad. EBAPE.BR  vol.8 número2

Cad. EBAPE.BR vol.8 número2

We focus on AT as a framework for understanding the service encounter and explain how power and political behavior have impact as barriers or facilitators for value actualization in service encounters in one Colombian HE institution. AT provides a framework of interactive elements from which development emerges. The activity system is the unit of measure of activity theory and includes the subject(s) who are the doer(s) of the activity (e.g. students, academics, secretaries, administrators); the object, the transformation of which is the aim of the activity (e.g. curriculum design, a solution to an inquiry, scientific understanding, vocational instruction); and the community, which is the group of actors who share a particular object (e.g. psychology students, finance academics, board of directors). The relationships among these elements are mediated by the artifacts (e.g. practices, procedures, teaching materials); the division of labor (e.g. task specialization, job roles, power); and the rules (e.g. cultural norms, organizational guidelines and standards, classroom rules, political behavior). Since organizational activities can be considered as open systems equilibrium is an exception, therefore, contradictions and disruptions are fundamental ingredients of the activity system which can also be known as a disturbance-producing system; these contradictions produce incoherencies, inconsistencies, tensions, and paradoxes, but also novel efforts to transform the activity . We use third generation of AT, in which two or more activity systems come into contact, to explore the perspective of multiple actors in the HE environment. Our aim was to generate a number of narratives from those members of the institution at the cutting-edge of service delivery. Due to the presence of distrust and negative power we generated one narrative and also some question/answer responses. We found barriers to collaboration are caused by lack of clarity and coherence in processes, inflexible bureaucratic rules, highly fragmented division of labor, lack of knowledge and recognition about practices, scripts, plans, and procedures. These barriers were present in the HE institution studied; we believe they affect collaboration for value actualization in service encounters, and potentially hinder institutional development in HE in Colombia.
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Saude soc.  vol.23 número1

Saude soc. vol.23 número1

Saúde e Sociedade: Could you tell us something about the trajectory and the history of CRADLE research center at the University of Helsinki? Jaakko Virkkunen: Yes, we can divide the history in three phases. There was a pre-history of CRADLE from late 1970s’ on. There was in Finland a speci- fic kind of collaboration between researchers and practitioners. First there was only one researcher, Yrjö Engeström, who was academically oriented person. The practitioners were working in human resources development in working life, who were all interested in Cultural-Historical Activity Theory and in applying the theories of Vygotsky and Leon- tiev in their work. So we had collaboration between researchers and practitioners on questions of deve- lopment of professional work and work practices in working life. The first period of development ended with having a group called: “Group of Developmen- tal Work Research”. The first phase ended in 1994 when the approach was already documented and well established. Yrjö Engeström, who was the leading figure, had his dissertation on 1987 1 . Many projects
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Uma análise da teoria da atividade de aprendizagem no e para o trabalho interescolar

Uma análise da teoria da atividade de aprendizagem no e para o trabalho interescolar

Figure 2 represents the social/collective elements in an activity system, through the elements of community, rules and division of labour while emphasising the importance of analysing their interactions with each other. The object is depicted with the help of an oval indicating that object- oriented actions are always, explicitly or implicitly, characterized by ambiguity, surprise, interpretation, sense making, and potential for change (ENGESTRÖM, 1999). Recent developments have witnessed increased emphasis on the multi-voicedness of activity systems and the way in which individual actors bring in their own histories from the social positions that they take up in the division of labour that obtains within the activity. Following in the Vygotskian ‘genetic’ tradition, a historical developmental analysis of activity is adopted in which contradictions are thought of as sources of change and development. Engeström sees the construction and redefinition of the object, as related to the ‘creative potential’ of activity (ENGESTRÖM, 1999, p. 381). He maintains that it is important to extend beyond the singular activity system and to examine and work towards transformation of networks of activity. To this end he sees potential in the exploration by some activity theorists of ‘concepts of boundary object, translation, and boundary crossing to analyze the unfolding of object- oriented cooperative activity of several actors, focusing on tools and means of construction of boundary objects in concrete work processes’ (ENGESTRÖM, 1999, p. 7). The third generation of activity theory outlined in
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Ens. Pesqui. Educ. Ciênc. (Belo Horizonte)  vol.14 número2

Ens. Pesqui. Educ. Ciênc. (Belo Horizonte) vol.14 número2

A revista ENSAIO continua o compromisso de publicar, a cada número, um artigo internacional. Neste número, apresentamos a discussão em torno dos discursos em salas de aula de Ciências, feita por meio do artigo An activity theory-based analytic framework for the study of discourse in science classrooms, no qual é proposta uma estrutura analítica para o exame dos movimentos discursivos dos professores, que os autores denominam de Procedimentos Discursivos Didáticos.

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Prod.  vol.25 número2

Prod. vol.25 número2

Etymologically, ergonomics comes from the old Greek words érgon (work or job) and nómos (law or rules). However, as argued by many ergonomists, two fundamental issues are to be considered to understand work: the what and the how, meaning what workers have to do and how they do it. At a basic level, work activity is a conceptualization of how workers complete the job. However, the basic question of human activity raises theoretical and practical problems of an extreme complexity. Work activity questions conceptualizations that stem from physiology (gestural sequences, tiredness and physical health), psychology (information process, representation or sense-making), sociology (collective work and power in work settings), or anthropology (the impact of culture on work practices), etc. Currently, the concept of human activity is actively discussed within a large community of international researchers, which come from different traditions and backgrounds (cultural and historical activity theory, situated approaches of action and cognition, workplace studies, etc.). The challenge pursued by this community is to consider that the knowledge produced regarding work activity is useful for designing work systems, jobs and products to make them compatible with the needs, abilities and limitations of people. The papers collected in this section particularly focus on innovation.
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Rev. Gaúcha Enferm.  vol.36 número3

Rev. Gaúcha Enferm. vol.36 número3

behaviour refers to a grouping of physiological responses (fever, pain, increased activity of the hypothalamic-pitu- itary-adrenal axis and the autonomic nervous system) and behavioural responses (changes in sleep pattern, loss of interest in daily activities, dysphagia, decreased social inter- action and sexual interest) that was originally discovered during experiments on murines (11) . Similarly, in humans,

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Manuscrito  vol.34 número1

Manuscrito vol.34 número1

depending on the resources of the language and the logic we use, the properties of the concepts that can be defined, including those of in- discernibility and individuality, will change. It is then unclear whether it is possible to formulate explicitly the metaphysical conception of an individual. According to a universal theory of structures, since defin- ability is a property that depends on the language and the logic we use, the definability of concepts such as indiscernibility and individu- ality will also be language- and logic-dependent. Rather than absolute concepts (as the metaphysical conception would have it), indiscerni- bility and individuality are then relative to the logic and language in question. A significant philosophical re-conceptualization of the issues emerges.
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Fatores determinantes do uso ou desuso da informação na Wikipédia

Fatores determinantes do uso ou desuso da informação na Wikipédia

The theory was developed through a review and consolidation of the constructs of 8 models from earlier researches to explain IS usage behavior. These 8 models are theory of reasoned action (TRA), technology acceptance model (TAM/ TAM2), motivational model (MM), theory of planned behavior (TPB), a combined theory of planned behavior/technology acceptance model (C-TPB- AM), model of PC utilization (MPCU), innovation diffusion theory (IDT), and social cognitive theory (SCT). The UTAUT supported that the effect of performance expectancy on behavioral intention was stronger for men and younger users. And the effect of effort expectancy on behavioral intention was stronger for women, older users, and users with less experience. The effect of social influence on behavioral intention was stronger for women, older users, under conditions of mandatory use, and users with less experience. Finally, facilitating conditions were not significant to behavioral intention, but the effect of facilitating conditions on usage was stronger for older users and users with more experience.
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A teoria da atividade: reflexões para o ensino e formação de professores de matemática / Theory of activity: reflections for the teaching and training of mathematics teachers

A teoria da atividade: reflexões para o ensino e formação de professores de matemática / Theory of activity: reflections for the teaching and training of mathematics teachers

This article makes a theoretical reflection on the teaching of Mathematics as a guiding element of the teaching action, in this perspective we approach the assumptions of the Theory of Activity (TA), whose unfolding of this theory implies the Teaching Guiding Activity (AOE). The trends in Mathematics Education seek to identify and show pedagogical practices that can facilitate and contribute significantly to the teaching and learning of that science, in this sense, given that the theories that provide theoretical support for this area of knowledge have as their main motivation and aim to provide better learning for students and teachers to improve the approach in teaching and formalizing concepts, and mathematical knowledge. In this perspective, we carried out a qualitative bibliographic study, from this approach we make reflections on the teaching of Mathematics supported by AT. As a result of the discussion, we understand and reflect that AT can improve the teaching and learning of Mathematics, as this is the purpose of all Theories that are inserted in this perspective of Mathematical Education.
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Convexity in semi-metric spaces, decision theory and consumer theory

Convexity in semi-metric spaces, decision theory and consumer theory

Convexity is a concept usually developed in vector spaces. However since the seventies of the 20th century, convexity is also study in metric spaces in general. In this paper we develop a theory of convexity - including convex real functions - in semi-metric spaces and we suggest some possible applications in Economics and Decision Theory.

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THE THEORY OF THE FIRM AND THE EVOLUTIONARY GAMES

THE THEORY OF THE FIRM AND THE EVOLUTIONARY GAMES

2. The institutional and neo-institutional perspective on the theories of the firm The Walrasian model (1873) was imposed, economics focused exclusively on production and consumption. Postulating institutions and rational behavior made it possible to develop mathematical models by which the interaction on the free market could be conceptualized. Thorstein Veblen (1899) argued the need for a reorientation of the economic theory from the exclusive concern regarding individual choices towards the study of institution’s impact and evolution. John R. Commons (1931) advanced the idea that the economy is defined by institutions and conflicts of interest. The institutional paradigm developed as a reaction to the tendency of economics’ specialization on supply and demand issues, ignoring the problem of institutions that enable the functioning of markets (Veblen 2005).
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Water activity and activation diameters from hygroscopicity data – Part I: Theory and application to inorganic salts

Water activity and activation diameters from hygroscopicity data – Part I: Theory and application to inorganic salts

out water contents for the crystallization (hysteresis) branch of the ammonium sulfate curve, whereas our HTDMA experiments always started with dry particles. As with the HTDMA method, it is difficult to control the experimental RH in the EDB at RH>95%, so their polynomial fit is less constrained for dilute solutions. Low (1969) used activ- ity and osmotic coefficients reported by Lange (1961) to determine water activity over

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ON THEORY MULTIPLE CONTRACTION

ON THEORY MULTIPLE CONTRACTION

The AGM model of belief change is considered the standard model in the Logic of Theory Change. In such framework essentially three kinds of changes are con- sidered, namely expansions, contractions and revisions. However, in their seminal paper [AGM85], Alchourr´on, G¨ardenfors and Makinson have considered only expan- sions and contractions as basic operations and treated revisions as being operations which are derived from those two. Such option was taken in accordance with the ar- guments presented by Levi [Lev77] supporting that all acceptable revision functions can be obtained by a two steps procedure consisting of a contraction followed by an expansion, as described in equation (2.1), which is, nowadays, commonly known as the Levi identity.
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Alternative banking and theory

Alternative banking and theory

This article explains the unexpected persistence of alternative banks as follows. Section 2 defines alternative banks and differentiates these institutions from private banks. Section 3 explores the history of alternative banks to introduce their institutional foundations of competitive advantage. Section 4 summarizes and discusses recent evidence on the (good overall) performance of alternative banks in the challenging context of a changing bank industry and regulatory environment over the past decades. Section 5 explores why these findings about alternative banks matter for socio-economic development and banking system stability. Section 6 discusses the ability (and limits) of contem- porary banking theory to explain the competitive advantages of alternative banks. Section 7 turns to agency theory, the dominant approach in banking theory and the literature on comparative bank performance, to identify several important competitive advantages of alternative banks – against the very con- clusions offered by mainstream banking studies on the basis of their use of agency theory. However, Section 8 goes beyond agency theory to show how stakeholder governance embedded in social and political institutions helps alternative banks better mitigate information asymmetries through relationship banking. Section 9 further explores how alternative banks obtain funding and hold equity, reserves, and patrimony differently, and often better, than private banks. Section 10 summarizes the sustainable business models of alternative banks. Section 11 reviews evidence that alternative banks help smooth inter- temporal risk, a critical function of banking systems. The conclusion synthesizes recent findings to suggest that banking studies may benefit both from analysis of alternative banks and the institutional foundations of competitive advantage in banking.
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Essays on banking theory

Essays on banking theory

We also see that an extreme environment with a high level of wariness implies a truncated economy which all depositors receive the initial deposit back until the first patient depositor [r]

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After Theory, Terry Eagleton

After Theory, Terry Eagleton

Acredita Eagleton que as pessoas que vêem a verdade como dogmática, e assim não querem conversa com ela, são como aquelas que se auto designam não moralistas porque acre-[r]

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Materials and Methods Theory

Materials and Methods Theory

Until now, the quantitative genetics theory for ge- nomic selection has focused mainly on the relationship between marker and additive variances assuming one marker and one quantitative trait locus (QTL). This study extends the quantitative genetics theory for genomic se- lection to prove that prediction of breeding value based on thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) depends on linkage disequilibrium (LD) between mark- ers and QTLs, assuming dominance. We also assessed efficiency of genomic selection toward phenotypic selec- tion, assuming mass selection in an open-pollinated pop- ulation, all QTLs of lower effect, and reduced sample size, based on simulated data.
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TEORIA DAS FILAS (Queueing Theory)

TEORIA DAS FILAS (Queueing Theory)

Como é raro um processo onde taxa de chegada dos clientes seja regular, ou seja, não existe nenhuma variação entre os valores para os intervalos entre chegadas, são adotadas distr[r]

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TOC - (Theory of Constraints)

TOC - (Theory of Constraints)

1) Lista das tarefas, ou atividades, a serem executadas para execução do projeto; 2) Na execução, do projeto, quais tarefas são dependentes de uma ou mais tarefas; 3) Quais os tem[r]

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