This work was developed with the purpose of identify the influence of organizational commitment and entrenchment, as well as his relationship with the people management agency-communitymodel. Therefore, we carried out a survey of descriptive character, drawing on quantitative methodologies. The research sample consisted of 268 technical and administrative staff of a Federal Institution of Higher Education, to which was applied a questionnaire from the evaluation model of Organizational Commitment and Entrenchment proposed by Bastos et al (2008) and people management agency-communitymodel proposed by Rousseau and Arthur (1999). Data were analyzed using software "Windows Excel", "SPSS 18" and "SAS 9". Simple correlations descriptive statistics was used the Shapiro-Wilk test and Kruskal-Wallis. We identified positive correlations between the dimensions of commitment and positive correlations between the dimensions of entrenchment. Positive correlations were also found between the people management communitymodel with affective commitment and positive correlations between of people management agencymodel with normative commitment and entrenchment "Social Position Adjustment" and "Limitation of Alternatives". The results show that the predominant basis of employees is followed by affective instrumental and realize the existence of practices in community management actions in the organization. Despite the agency management practices are not prevalent in the perception of employees, these principles and practices are important when related to personal goals, the concept of self, the need of the employee being seen as an individual with feelings and expectations. Based on the results, one realizes that the Institution has immense significance for the servers, they are interested in her fate and feel proud to tell people that are part of the institution in which they work. The greatest fear of leaving the organization is linked to loss of financial benefits and stability. The survey attributes that a major factor for the dimension of affective commitment identify the strongest bond among the sample studied is how managers think and guide the organization, considering the organizational structure and people. The commitment of people towards the activities they perform; accepting the values of the organization, associated with the implementation of management practices may represent agency and community in the management of UFSM the direction of human effort to achieve the organizational objectives, taking into account the personal objectives, sense of individual and collective responsibilities.
The organizations are gradually being pressured by market, society and governments to reach strategical aims each time more complex and challenging. These pressures are not related only by economic and financial aspects, but, mainly, to social and politics changes, and also to cycles of development generated by the transistion between a model of work organization that can not give necessary and adequate answers for all the questions confronted by the organizations. The objective of the present study is the development a proposal of a management model of people based in the modelagency-community: a study in a company of research and development. The theoretical referencial board approaches the aspects related to the knowledge, pelople, abilities and innovation management. In the point of view of its nature, the works will achieved with applied research utilization. Concerning to the shape of approach, the research will be qualitative, and regarding the investigation ways, it will be such/as a case study. The results obtained allowed to diagnose how the management model of people, adopted by the organization, is distant to the concepts advocated by the agency-communitymodel – what implies in the necessity of a management model of people adoption that gives conceptual and practical support necessary to organization and people can attain its interests in a integrated, cooperative way, considering the alignment between the individual and collective one.
This study aimed to compare the perception of the technical-administrative civil servants of UFSM and UFMA regarding people management agency-communitymodel, and the binding types of commitment and organizational entrenchment. The research sample was 242 technical-administrative civil servants of UFSM and 139 of UFMA, with who was applied a questionnaire drawn from the assessment model of commitment and organizational entrenchment, proposed by Bastos et al. (2008), and people management agency-communitymodel, proposed by Rousseau and Arthur (1999). Descriptive analyses were performed to investigate the accuracy of data entry, size and sample description, as well as variable distribution. Were identified high affective commitment to both institutions, high instrumental to UFMA and medium to UFSM, medium normative to UFMA and high to UFSM. The entrenchment has submitted an adjustment to the social position high to UFMA and medium to UFSM; medium alternative limitations to both institutions, and high impersonal bureaucratic arrangements to UFMA and medium to UFSM. Were identified high community models and medium agency models to both institutions. Were encountered, related to socio- demographic data, affective commitment, entrenchment and high community notion and medium agency notion between civil servants with over 46 years of both institutions; positive correlations when related the commitment dimensions, and entrenchment bases; positive correlations between people management communitymodel and instrumental commitment in UFMA and affective in UFSM. Referring to agencymodel, the relationship, in UFMA, was negative, and, in UFSM, presented positive normative commitment correlations, entrenchment social position adjustment and alternative limitations. Regarding to entrenchment, the communitymodel presented all correlation positive weak, in UFMA, and total relationship absence in UFSM. The agencymodel presented a negative correlation with entrenchment social position adjustment, in UFMA; in UFSM, presented positive relationship with the alternative limitations, social position adjustment and relationship absence with impersonal bureaucrats arrangement. The results show that the predominant civil servants bases is affective, followed by instrumental, once that the civil servants realize the existence of community practices in organizational people management actions. As a contribution, this study leave, in addition to comparative study, an extensive of published studies in the country and abroad and contributes to understanding the importance of adopting new people management models that consider the alignment between the individual and collective.
The present research aims to offer to the field of PO&T and related areas a greater knowledge about the social impact business, its model of policies and practices of people management and their interorganizational relationships. The articulation between these three fields of study has as a general objective the analysis of the insertion of social impact businesses into interorganizational networks, evaluating the types of exchanges and to what extent the interactions developed are related to the intensity with which the hybrid management model of agency-community people is adopted. In methodological terms, this study is characterized as descriptive, cross-sectional and quantitative approach. In order to do so, a research instrument was applied, inspired by Ribeiro (2006), Macambira (2013) and Impact Reporting and Investments Standards, IRIS, (2016), and the Agency-Community Scale of the people management model (Grangeiro, 2006). In order to identify the different combinatorial profiles of the agency and community dimensions and of networks, descriptive statistical analyzes were conducted with the purpose of characterizing these organizations in the Brazilian scenario in order to recognize the relational patterns established by the initiatives studied. The results obtained allowed the construction of three articles: a) the first one turns to the characterization of Brazilian social impact businesses, trying to understand them in their more general features and based on their profile of people management; b) the second demand describes the relational aspects of the interorganizational networks woven by the hybrid organizations, narrowing the analysis by type of information exchanged; c) the third one seeks to understand the interactional patterns of the social impact business, both based on the different organizational natures of the links found in the network and from the different profiles of adoption of the agency-communitymodel. In general, the evidence indicates that the scenario formed by Brazilian hybrid organizations is quite complex and diverse, their practices reflect the agency-communitymodel but with a collectivist tendency. The networks were fragmented and the most transacted types of content are "consulting" and "organizational management". As a rule, social impact businesses have heterophilic patterns of relationship with the possibility of mimetic isorphorism of people management practices among the adopting profiles of the agency-communitymodel.
Some of the difficulties caused by differences due to trun- cation and rounding in climate codes that result in non-BFB simulation data are discussed in Clune and Rood (2011). In particular, the authors cite the need for determining ac- ceptable error tolerances and the concern that seemingly mi- nor software changes can result in a different climate if the simulation is not run for a sufficient amount of time. The work in Rosinski and Williamson (1997) is also of interest and aims to determine the validity of a simulation when mi- grating to a new architecture. They minimize the computa- tional expense of a long run by setting tolerances for round- ing accumulation growth based on the growth of a small per- turbation in the atmospheric temperature after several days. However, this test is no longer applicable to the atmospheric component of CESM, called the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM), because the parameterizations in CAM5 are ill-conditioned in the sense that small perturbations in the in- put produce large perturbations in the output. The result is that the tolerances for rounding accumulation growth are ex- ceeded within the first few time steps. Our work builds on this idea of gauging the effects of a small temperature pertur- bation on the simulation, though improvements in software and hardware allow us to extend the simulation duration well beyond several days. Further, by looking only at climate sig- nals, we relax the restriction on how the parameterizations respond.
The following Tier 3 case illustrates a partnership between community members, local organizations and national nonprofits, and the creation of a coalition and partnership with a legal clinic. What started as a Tier 2 Community Project focused on halting development of a specific new coal terminal facility in Ironton, Louisiana, developed into a Tier 3 Partner Project as a coalition formed to not only halt the single coal terminal development, but also to stop expansion and construction of similar facilities in nearby communities with similarly fragile wetland ecosystems. The coalition and partnership included community members in Ironton and neighboring areas; local, regional, and national nonprofit organizations Louisiana Environmental Action Network, Gulf Restoration Network, and Sierra Club; and Tulane Environmental Law Clinic. Ultimately, this partner project resulted in a legal settlement and stakeholder participation by the coalition with the polluting facility. In 2012, a coal operation, RAM Terminals began steps towards a new coal export terminal facility next to a historically African-American neighborhood, Ironton, in Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana, which already had two coal terminals. Problematically, the proposed new terminal would be the first major railway connector in the area and would also threaten wetland restoration plans in the ecologically sensitive area. Communities adjacent to the proposed RAM terminal and local environmental nonprofits, Louisiana Environmental Action Network (LEAN) and Gulf Restoration Network (GRN), worked together to begin advocating against this export terminal, and local members of the national nonprofit Sierra Club also joined forces. In this combined effort through the “Coasts Over Coal” initiative of GRN and “Beyond Coal” initiative
This woman’s acceptance of her elders’ choice of husband and timing of marriage does not reflect an absence of agency because agential capacity also includes those acts which enable the status quo to persist. Rather, we interpret her stance as one of carefully weighing the pros and cons of agreeing to a marriage fixed by her parents and then doing what she thought was the “right thing” given the context. Here, she fears that the repercussions of being assertive or expressing her point of view would probably be detrimental. She was likely to earn the socially undesirable tag of disobe- dient daughter. She felt obliged to conform for emotional reasons, to avoid hurting the feelings of her parents and wider family. And because seeking her consent for the mar- riage is socially undesirable, she was expected not to play any role in her marriage settlement. Hence, the most prudent course of action in the given context was non-confrontation. This was a decision that she took and to which she adhered. By deciding to comply in the face of coercion, she did not refrain from using agency. Rather, she used agency by taking that decision even though she could have refused to comply.
– ‘‘Screening strategy with CP’’: patients were screened for OSAS by the CP before visiting their GP. They were informed of an OSAS screening program through flyers that were placed on the counter. The CP identified 50-year-old male or older with 3 symptoms highly evocative of OSAS (snoring, obesity and hypertension) and convinced them to consult their GP for further investigation. Indeed, the pre-test probability of having OSAS is usually high in this population (see below). After recruitment, the CP program involved a discussion with the patient on the risks and comorbidities associated with untreated OSAS and 2 validated questionnaires for OSAS screening, including the Berlin Questionnaire and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale [15,16]. The Berlin questionnaire, given the way it is scored, had 100% chance to have 2 or more positive categories (high likelihood of having OSAS) in this population. The Epworth score might vary, but it was in no case, if low, an indication not to pursue investigations. In this scenario, together with a letter to the GP, explaining that the patients had symptoms highly evocative of OSAS, patients were asked to communicate their scores to the GP to encourage a referral to a sleep specialist. The CP could also call the doctor. We assumed that some of the patients who received a CP program did not keep their GP informed. This source of uncertainty was taken into account in the different screening rates that were further tested in the model.
Pos‑graduation Program in Health Sciences, Federal University of Goias, Goiânia, Brazil Although dispensing of medication has been addressed by theoretical models, studies that confirm the impact of this service are still needed. The objective was to evaluate the impact of a new model of medicine dispensing system on patients’ medication knowledge, adherence to treatment and satisfaction. One hundred and four patients attending the dispensing service of a community pharmacy between 21 January 2013 and 20 April 2013 were included in this intervention study. The impact of the service on patients’ medication knowledge, adherence to treatment and satisfaction was assessed by using validated questionnaires at two time points: at the moment of medication dispensing and 30 days thereafter by telephone contact. Statistical analysis was performed by McNemar’s test, and a p<0.05 was set as statistically significant. The number of patients showing insufficient knowledge about medications decreased by 50% (p < 0.05), and the number of those showing sufficient knowledge was three times greater (p < 0.05) after medicine dispensing. A high level of satisfaction was observed. Improvement of medication adherence, however, was not observed. The proposed system model for drug dispensing improved patients’ knowledge about medication and satisfaction.
The participants were seated in a comfortable armchair in a dim sound-attenuated room. Visual stimuli were presented on a computer screen and auditory stimuli via headphones. The experimental design was based on Sato and Yasuda . At the beginning of the experiment, participants performed 300 training trials to learn the relationship between actions and their consequences (Figure 1). Participants were instructed to press the left button (left Alt key on a key board) with the left index finger and the right button (right Alt key) with the right index finger in random order whenever a white square was presented for 200 ms on the screen. After each button press, a 400 Hz or a 800 Hz tone was presented after 100 ms for 200 ms. The inter-trial interval varied between 2000, 2500 and 3000 ms duration. The assignment of buttons to tones was consistent for each participant, but counterbalanced across participants. Then the EEG cap was put on and the actual experiment started. Participants were instructed to freely choose between pressing the right or left button whenever a white square was presented on the screen (as in the learning phase). They were told that tones could be either produced by themselves (as in the learning phase) or by the experimenter who was seated in front of a computer behind a folding screen. In reality, the experimenter did not produce any action–effects, but all tones were generated by the computer and presented with a specific delay after the button press of the participant. In the congruent tone condition, each button press evoked the same tone that had followed right and left button press in the learning session. By contrast, in the incongruent tone condition, a tone that differed from the predicted tone followed the button press. Moreover, the onset of the tone was manipulated and varied between 100 ms, 300 ms and 600 ms. Conguency and delay was manipulated to evoke uncertainty about self-agency. After each trial and a delay of 3000 ms, participants had to judge on a visual analogue rating scale by means of a computer mouse, if they produced the action–effect or the experimenter did (‘‘Who produced the tone?’’,1 = ‘‘Me’’, 100 = ‘‘Somebody else’’). Each of the six experimental blocks consisted of 60 trials. After each even experimental block, a short period of the training phase (20 trials) was repeated to refresh the action-effect mapping. After each block participants were allowed a short break.
In the functional form of multicollinearity, at least one of the paired links between explanatory variables is a linear functional dependence. In this case, the matrix X'X is special, since it contains linearly dependent column vectors and its determinant is zero, that is, the precondition for regression analysis is violated. This leads to the impossibility of solving the corresponding system of normal equations and obtaining estimates of the parameters of the regression model. [KP 02]
Therefore, we consider that shareholders of a firm, which intends to enter in a new market, need to hire a manager to supervise the investment option and take the implemen- tation decision, which may be justified by several possible reasons for instance, lack of knowledge or opportunity cost matters. Consequently, shareholders will offer a contract mix composed by a continuous fixed wage while the project is idle and a combination of a continuous fixed wage and a variable value sharing component when the project is active. Since manager is a utility maximizer agent, his acts may differ from the shareholders desired choices, when a sub-optimal contract is agreed, generating deviated investment decisions. So, we find that under some conditions, and since there are information asym- metry shareholders ignore the options value drivers evolution - an agency issue arises. Nonetheless, providing an optimal contract mix that properly represents the relative op- portunity costs of manager and shareholders, the latter can ensure optimal agent behavior without the need of further supervision. So, through this simple but adequate contract structure, we can simultaneously embody the agency issue and provide an optimal solu- tion that mitigates the risks and the consequent agency costs.
Ghan, S. J., Horowitz, L. W., Lee, Y. H., MacKenzie, I. A., Nagashima, T., Naik, V., Plum- mer, D., Righi, M., Rumbold, S. T., Schulz, M., Skeie, R. B., Stevenson, D. S., Strode, S., Sudo, K., Szopa, S., Voulgarakis, A., and Zeng, G.: The Atmospheric Chemistry and Cli- mate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP): overview and description of models, sim- ulations and climate diagnostics, Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 179–206, doi:10.5194/gmd-6-179-
this as benevolent, the Mediomatrici surely saw this as an opportunity to continue pre-Roman, Celtic religious practices without interference from Rome. This accommodation extended both directions: unlike the worship of Icovellauna, the taurobolium was a Roman religious practice, possibly imported by legionaries. Romanization would explain the presence of the taurobolium as a unidirectional impact of the presence of imperial forces within the region, but creolization incorporates a degree of bidirectionality. The presence of both practices within the landscape of Divodurum illustrates a degree of syncretism present within the community, an interpretatio Romana that extended not only from Rome to the Mediomatrici, but from Divodurum to Romans.
Table 4 and Table 5 present mixed results. In both, coefficients for the dummies of low debt and high past profits present the expected sign and are highly significant, indicating that firms in fact pay dividends when the model would predict them to pay. Also these coefficients present similar magnitude in both tables, indicating robustness. However, the coefficient for the low drawn debt dummy is only significant and with the expected sign in Table 5. On one hand this goes in favor to the model, in the sense that it’s predicted that firms pay dividends when the drawn amount in the credit line is zero, and Table 5 used a lower threshold for the dummy; on the other hand this could indicate that the results are not robust. Also, looking at the columns that refer to this variable we note, by the number of firms in the regressions, that more firms passed from using more than 10% of the credit line to less than 10% than passed from using more than 20% of the credit line to less than 20%, this should be explained by the zero lower bound. In both tables, the coefficients for operating income always present the expected positive sign but they are never statistically significant.
Observing agents and dealership processes relating to a particular artistic territory, specifically the plastic arts. And, furthermore, seeking to make a contribution to filling gaps in the interpretation of the organisation of that characteristic system 1 , a system that, excepting certain incidences, “may not have been the subject, as such, of sufficiently public assertion, absent both in the media and sociological analysis” 2 . At a time when new places for art are emerging 3 , the search for a critical reflection on the processes mentioned above is extremely relevant, in an attempt to attain something new that is sociologically significant and also able, perhaps, to contribute to an understanding of certain features of the present context of the Portuguese contemporary art space. In terms of what I would dare call a research style, it is appropriate to say in advance that the investment was made in a singular and empirical observable, namely, an art agency that is an unprecedented initiative. And since it is always relevant to define an orientation on the subject, the general questions at the base of this paper are as follows: appearing in December 2003, what did the “Vera Cortês – Art Agency” model bring to the space of contemporary art? How is it to be understood within that same panorama? An art agency not taken in a merely descriptive sense but as an “immersion zone”, in an attempt to unveil, along the route, a nexus of reciprocal interactions, i.e. by creating a dialogue between the configuration of the artistic field and the singularity of the case-study and then seeing how they question each other. And how both question the paradigms and the sociological corpus relating to art.
Finally, this work speaks more generally to the question of the flexibility/malleability of infants’ initial determination of an entity’s status as an agent or a non-agent. That is, after learning whether that object was associated with an outcome of a particular type or valence, can infants shift their assessments from non-agent to agent and vise versa? Whether infants can modify their initial agency attributions is an important question, as it bears on the flexibility of infant’s object and agent concepts and their ability to update existing representations with new information in a dynamic fashion. Unfortunately, previous findings relevant to this question are ambiguous. For instance, in Newman et al. ’s  Experiment 3, infants were habituated to a non-agent creating order, to determine whether infants could learn that a particular non-agent can create order, despite whatever assumptions they typically hold. Despite this repeated experience, however, infants were still relatively more surprised by the non-agent creating order (a scene they were now very familiar with) than they were by an unfamiliar agent doing so (an unfamiliar scene). These results suggest that infants’ agency-attributions are fairly rigid, and unlikely to be updated based on seeing a non-agent performing agent-like behavior. In contrast, work by Johnson and colleagues [34,73], also with 12-month-olds, has shown that infants who view a typical non-agent engage in contingent interaction with a known agent will attribute agency to that non-agent in the future (as measured by their readiness to follow its ‘‘gaze’’, and by the Woodward paradigm as in the current studies). That is, Johnson and colleagues’ results suggest that infants’ agency-attributions are fairly fluid, and updatable with new information. Clearly, further study is required to disentangle these apparently conflicting results, and to elucidate the exact computational processes involved in infants’ and adults’ construction, and adjustment, of agent- representations based on various inputs. The current studies represent an important piece of evidence from which to build, supporting the idea that agency-representations are fluid and updatable from very early in life.
The behavioral agency models take stock of these perverse effects but stick to designing more appropriate incentive structures rather than devising adequate organizational solutions. For Rebitzer and Taylor (2011), it is pay structures that have to perform the multiple duties of motivating workers, signaling the principal’s trustworthiness, making workers identify with the organization and taking account of agents’ intrinsic motivations and social preferences. Rob and Zemsky (2002), who assume that cooperating increases the workers’ utility, recommend that pecuniary incentives be set so as not to crowd out the workers’ cooperative dispositions; but they say nothing about how these may be fostered though they recognize that cooperative dispositions are endogenous to the work context. Similarly, since it is now acknowledged that monetary incentives crowd out intrinsic motivations, high-powered incentives are considered “inefficient”. Holmstrom (1999: 89) states that firms must often suppress “excessively strong incentives on individually measured performance for the benefit of enhancing the effectiveness of more delicate and subtle instruments aimed at encouraging cooperation”. But nothing is said about what the content of these “subtle instruments”. Besides, low-powered incentives are now assumed to potentially attract workers with high intrinsic motives, which may subsequently promote high effort work norms (Sliwka 2007). Notwithstanding, according to agency theory, this kind of incentive structure always entails a second-best situation.
The present study aimed to present a Logic Model (LM) of the “Vida Ativa Melhorando a Saúde” (VAMOS – Active Life Improving Health) program for its application in community interventions in adults and old age in Brazil. The VAMOS pro- gram purpose is to motivate people to have a healthier lifestyle. It is divided in 12 group meetings usually held weekly, varying from three to five months of duration. VAMOS is guided by specific booklets and conducted by health professionals with prior certification. The LM consists of activities (advertising, meetings, community outreach), products (financial resourc- es, promotion, increase in attendance) and short, medium and long term objectives (adoption of the program, knowl- edge and empowerment of participants). Participants of the VAMOS program maintained their physical activity levels for longer when compared with traditional and control groups. VAMOS is under expansion in Brazil, supporting behavior changes in order to reach a healthier lifestyle.