21 Analysis of the internal and external environment suggests eliminating inefficiencies and irregularities distinctively lessening production lead time and wastages from the country’s apparel production and exporting processes. Under the highly competitive environment, the garment industry has numerous opportunities for improvement using lean principles (Mercado, 2007). This is mainly because of the nature of operation of the export-oriented RMG firms. The improvement of deep-level competitiveness through a reduction in total “production and distribution” time will improve surface-level competitiveness by reducing lead time.
Article 3 is noted for extreme values, reaching both maximum and minimum tensile strength as dynamic, characterized by a high degree of anisotropy. Its use in the apparelindustry would be recommended only if it can be used only 00-1800 direction that is where we have a very high dynamic tensile strength. Although consumption of material would be quite high due respect this direction, it is recommended especially for outdoor clothing products intended for manners that the circumstances in which it carries, are frequently subjected to various stresses that act very quickly.
In order to build a comprehensive outsourcing framework that captures relevant factors to be taken into account in such decisions, input from theory and practice has been considered. First, a literature survey on outsourcing in general (operational and strategic aspects) and on the apparelindustry in particular was carried out (previous section). From this review, key factors to be considered in outsourcing decisions were identiied and grouped into four stages of the decision-making process. At each stage, based on the empirical evidence provided by several studies and previous frameworks proposed by Bolumole et al. (2007), Embleton and Wright (1998), Fill and Visser (2000), Franceschini et al. (2003), Gulla and Gupta (2011), Incognito (2001), Jennings (1997), Lonsdale (1999), Marshall et al. (2005), McIvor (2000), Tate and Ellman (2009), Vining and Globerman (1999) and Zhu et al. (2001), we identiied and characterized the main activities and their sub-activities. hese were captured in a preliminary framework, which was discussed and iteratively modiied ive times as a result of the input received from interviews with academics and an in-company case study (which includes several interviews with senior managers). As suggested by the research procedure presented in Pero et al. (2010), as information was being collected and knowledge on the domain of study became more robust and integrated, the framework was gradually modiied by adding and subtracting information. Input from theory and empirical research proved to be key in building the framework. According to Voss, Tsikriktsis, & Frohlich (2002), theory and empirical research are helpful in identifying overlaps and contradictions between theory and practice. his process is now described in more detail.
Following the country ranking the top countries were further evaluated by taking into consideration available apparelindustry specific variables e.g. consumer expenditure (per capita) of apparel and footwear, development level of retail sector and size of apparel imports. Lastly, an in-depth analysis of the two most attractive markets was conducted considering indicators such as market competition, market channel conditions, infrastructure, FDI and import regulations, non-tariff trade barriers, foreign exchange regulations and labour force. To complement the country ranking, a qualitative systematic approach in the form of primary data collection through expert interviews was followed. Each telephone interview lasted for approximately 30 minutes. The first interview was conducted with Derek Engelbrecht, Africa Consumer Products Leader at Ernst & Young South Africa. The second interview was conducted with Tatjana Wolff, Retail Analyst at Planet Retail Germany specialized in Sub- Saharan Africa. The interviewed persons were questioned to name and evaluate attractive markets for apparel retailers, critical success factors and risks as well as relevant indicators for IMS decisions in Sub-Saharan Africa (Appendix I: Interview Questionnaire). The answers were integrated throughout the thesis.
Materials, financial and time resources are the most critical organizational resources in apparelindustry. Among the direct materials utilized in the production process of the company, fabrics and sewing threads are the decisive elements. The aim here is to determine the optimal material utilization. In the cost category, labor cost and materials cost constitutes the major proportion of the cost of finished apparels. The time required to process a unit of each product type have been estimated based on the company's recent five year historical data (see table 1). The company currently manufactures Men's Polo-shirt, Men's s/s Basic T-shirt, Short pant, Singlet, and Men's V-neck T-shirt. Each of these products are denoted by decision variables x 1 , x 2 ,..., x 5 respectively.
As an active player in the fashion apparelindustry, fashion designers should bear in mind that those who approve and seal fashion items are tastemakers and/or gatekeepers and they often show up at social meetings (Kawamura, 2006). According to Currid (2007) these people spend a lot of time in the social realm. They, along with all the other creative people who also thrive in the social life of a fashion hub city, give meaning to a world that outsiders think of as frivolous, superficial, or filled with cute people who have nothing to say. Creative fashion designers are also present in the social circuit of fashion hub cities, such as Paris, New York, London and Milan. Being among a town’s celebrity brokers and society hostesses can allow some fashion designers to be introduced to people that have the credibility to crown fashion items with the approval and the seal that make them worth wearing and buying. So, a fashion designer will have the opportunity to show his/her work and, who knows, even be accepted to a project runway where in fact his/her collection will or won’t be given aesthetic value by experts.
The potential bias associated with industry-sponsored research has been suggested in previous works that have found an association between industry funding and the reporting of favorable results [20–22] and lower methodological quality . Friedberg et al. found that pharmaceutical company sponsorship of economic analyses was associated with reduced likelihood of reporting unfavorable results . Djulbegovic et al. reported that industry-funded trials more often compared innovative treatments to either a placebo arm or no therapy, resulting in a higher proportion of such studies favoring the new intervention . This type of research has generally concentrated on examining the association between industry funding and study results. However, the next step in the dissemination of results is through their subsequent citation, and Patsopoulos et al. have recently shown that the proportion of most frequently cited articles funded by industry has been increasing .
Besides these points, industry specialists (Cramblet, 2014) blame Nintendo’s predicament to the mismanagement of the Wii U launch, it was not accompanied by: the release of new blockbuster games (in house or from third parties); no massive advertisement campaigns were made; and no attempt to clarify the customers’ perception of the differences between the Wii U and the previous console, the Wii. All these facts made customers believe that the Wii U was just a small upgrade of the Wii, and not a new console, and instead of buying an old console upgrade customers preferred to wait a little more for the next generation consoles, the Xbox One and the PlayStation 4. There are still other sources (Kohler, 2014), who claim that “Wii U has staked out a weird middle ground that nobody seems to be standing on. On one flank it has the high-end videogame consoles, which are actually not that much more expensive than a Wii U. On the other are tablets and smartphones, which represent a much better value for more casual players” 8 .
In this paper, we provide an overview of the development of intra- industry trade (IIT) between Japan and various European countries, including both old and new EU members, as well as emerging Eastern European countries. The formation of stronger economic ties between European countries due to the creation and expansion of the EU contributed to an increase in intra-industry trade for European countries, even with respect to non-European countries. In contrast, according to factor proportion theory’s predictions regarding trade volume (Krugman, 1979; Lancaster, 1980), intra-industry trade increases with an increase in the similarity of two economies, resulting in more horizontal IIT (differentiated products of same quality). The price ratio of exports to imports in this horizontal IIT category is expected to be close to unity. This phenomenon should be more likely observed between older EU member countries and Japan. On the other hand, a country may export a product whose quality is different from its corresponding import, as in the North-South trade model of Flam and Helpman (1987) and Falvey and Kierzkowski (1987). In this case, we observe vertical IIT, with price ratios of export to import deviating from unity. We expect to find this vertical IIT in trade between Japan and less- developed European countries. In addition, emerging economies in Eastern Europe provide opportunities for foreign direct investments, resulting in increasing parts and components trade between subsidiary and parent firms, or intra-firm trade. This also suggests vertical IIT between emerging European countries and Japan.
The virtual water flow between two nations is the volume of water that is being transferred in virtual form from one place to another as a result of product trade. The virtual water flows between nations related to trade in rice products are calculated by multiplying commodity trade flows (ton/year) by their associated water footprint (m 3 /t) in the exporting country. Indian Leather Industry is 6th in the world(CLE).Tanneries consume a huge amount of water. The processes involved in tanneries which consume water are soaking, liming, deliming, pickling, chrome tanning, vegetable tanning, mycrobing, stripping, bleaching, neutralisation, dyeing, liquoring, steam generation and washing.
Inventory management activities in steel industry are logistics activities which happened during the inbound, in process, and outbound logistics process. Inbound logistics of raw materials are quite complicate in the quantity calculation. Sometimes, the quantity of raw materials ordered for the production is according to the economical quantity but it is necessary to take into consideration the quantity required for each production cycle because the lead time to purchase raw materials from abroad is 45 to 60 days. If the raw materials purchased are not sufficient for the production in that purchase ordered, it will have direct effect to the production and will create a very high production or opportunities lost cost. In another case, when the company who is also steel manufacturer has got a chance to make profit from sales of raw materials to other manufacturers, the calculation of inventory quantity and inventory management will be much more complex accordingly.
In Australia, mining industry personnel use risk-based management approaches to control hazards to occupational health and safety: RISKGATE is in line with that approach and represents ACARP's largest investment in occupational health and safety research. Project manager and Professor at MISHC, Philipp Kirsch, afirms that the system has application across the mining industry and not only coal, as well as it is applicable to different contexts and realities. According to him, due to the clean structure of the bow-tie analysis modelling used to build the system, adaptation to other environments outside Australia is relatively straightforward.
As discussed in Section 3.1, over the last few years, significant efforts have been put into the research of the various facets of predictive manufacturing in Industry 4.0. In (Lee, Bagheri, & Kao, 2014) the authors overview the recent advances and trends regarding CPPS and big data analysis, identifying self-predictiveness and self-awareness as key characteristics to gain insight into Industry 4.0 factories. Also, the authors mention that several sources of information in current prognostics methods remain untapped, such as peer-to-peer evaluation and historical life-cycle information from identical assets. Insightful discussions and guidelines regarding solutions for PMS can also be found in the current literature (Canito, Fernandes, & Pra, 2017) (Siafara, Kholerdi, Bratukhin, Taherinejad, & Wendt, 2017), with some common denominators including the employment of CPPS for virtualization, ML models for data analysis (e.g. early fault detection, quality control), decentralization and self-adjustment. However, the discussions are often on the conceptual or architectural level, with a lack of deployable implementations or results.
Balinese Batik. As Balinese Hindu culture does not restrict the depiction of images, the Balinese have traditionally focused more on sculpture and painting than on textiles. Balinese batik was influenced by neighbouring Javanese Batik and is relatively recent compared to the latter island, having been stimulated by the tourism industry and consequent rising demand for souvenirs (since the early 20th century). In addition to the traditional wax-resist dye technique and industrial techniques such as the stamp (cap) and painting, Balinese batik sometimes utilizes ikat (tie dye). Balinese batik is characterized by bright and vibrant colors, which the tie dye technique blends into a smooth gradation of color with many shades.
However, the figures above do not tell the whole story, because the analysis is of the ICT industry in its narrowest sense. It does not cover the companies developing products controlled by embedded computers and software. More than pure software products, these represent the leading edge of the Finnish ICT industry. This product category includes instrumentation, telecommunications, and machine engineering products, among others. Typical examples of this category are mobile phones and harvesters. Nokia has reported that the development costs of mobile phone software represent approximately 80% of the total. A harvester used to harvest timber in forests is a high-tech product controlled by close to ten computers interacting with each other. The total size of the software in these products is in the range of millions of lines of code, representing a reasonably wide variety of software types, from very typical administrative applications to complex real time and telecommunications software.
During the past few years, there have been tremendous efforts on using recent advances in technology to provide electronic services and helping people transfer funds electronically, which increases security and bring peace of mind among banks’ customers. One of the primary concerns in banking industry is to measure the relative efficiency of banking industry in terms of e-business. This could be done through considering different criteria and measures them in terms of various perspectives using multi criteria decision making (MCDM) approaches such as data envelopment analysis (DEA) (Charnes et al., 1978, 1994; Andersen et al., 1993), analytical hierarchy process (AHP) (Saaty, 1992), Entropy and Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS).
The textiles and clothing sectors can be seen as a supply chain consisting of a number of discrete activities. Increasingly the supply chain from sourcing of raw materials via design and production to distribution and marketing is being organized as an integrated production network where the production is sliced into specialized activities and each activity is located where it can contribute the most to the value of the end product. When the location decision of each activity is being made, costs, quality, reliability of delivery, access to quality inputs and transport and transaction costs are important variables. Apparel and Garment manufacturing industry environment is characterized by:
INTERFACES WITH THE INDUSTRY. Brazilian chemical industries face several problems regarding Research, Development and Innovation (RDI). The present paper shows that simple cooperation between chemical industries and university laboratories can be a way to overcome some of the present difficulties. The work carried out at LABOCAT has several industrial interfaces. It involves, among other areas of RDI, the development of anti-HIV-protease (and other virus-related-protease) drugs, the establishment of new (industrial) chemical processes and the implementation of industrial (biodiesel and related) plants.
However, in times of economic activity downturn, the industry needs to seek new horizons of performance and one of the paths to tread, certainly, is to increase competitiveness. There is no way to retrieve the course of growth without optimize production methods, to reduce waste, to improve workmanship, to make rational management and to look at the aspect of sustainability – the world is increasingly demanding with regard to social and environmental responsibility of enterprises, and this aspect has been established as a key distinguishing factor.