To recognize the existence of devices, such as libraries, as producers of meaning, is also to determine the effect of cultural mediation as acts of meaning, experienced with modes of interaction between different cultural experiences. Monitoring activities are understood as socio-cultural practices and processes of assertive subjects in the construction of meaning, referring to the production and reception of symbolic goods and devices as spacesof cultural appropriation. Thus, the paper aims to review the literature on the reflection of cultural mediation (focusing on reading practices)in socio-cultural environments, specifically in public libraries.
On the other hand, this diffusion of virtual images is not without effects in what concerns the marketing of cities, since images of the street art the cities exhibit can contribute for the creation of a imagery of contemporary and modern city, made to attract visitors and investment. Another aspect approached was the way in which the configuration ofpublic space can expose the relationships of power that constitute it – particularly, in what concerns the disuse of physical urban structures. These, on the other hand, have the potential of proposing new ways of living the city, through the appropriationof these structures - be it by occupation, or by being subject to artistic interventions – and through their reconversion. Specifically, we’ve seen how the ephemeral nature of street art is connected with the impermanence of the urban buildings, and how this artistic practice can assume the role of promoting dialogue and discourses on the public space, in a specific urban context where the issues of degradation and abandonment of buildings is a distinct feature.
The set ofpublic free spaces in the city of São Paulo, despite the successive deletions and mutilations experienced over time, seems to have been conceived and consolidated for the purpose of promoting, even if in a limited and dis- continued way, a type of sociability focused on recreation and sports, seeking, ultimately, the improvement of the urban environment and the preservation of natural resources. At the end of the twentieth century, in the democratic man- agement metropolis proposed by Souza (1998), new forms ofpublic life led to the proliferation - in a world already guided by mobility and ways to make it more efficient - of private and semi-publicspaces as integral parts of a pecu- liar form of sociability. Denying the first, this new form of sociability found in shopping malls, business centers and boardwalks, elements able to perform a function of the public sphere, which does not require public space. This charac- teristic, contradictorily, assured the elements that made up the set of free spaces in the city, the sense of both spaces in public ownership and spacesofpublicappropriation, without the need for co-presence.
place under the lens of a relational spatial understand¬ ing. Based on the same spatial theory, Frank Oster¬ mann and Sabine Timpf use visual representation in their contribution, « Use and appropriationof space in urban public parks. GIS methods in social geogra¬ phy » to show that at one and the same place, different people groups) produce different spaces. Publicspaces are very instructional « observatories » for teaching and
With the aim to physically and functionally connect the square to the surrounding buildings, the new paving was designed according to a simple principle: to adopt different textures for the places to move and for the places to stay, which are otherwise integrated in a unitary system. Special attention was put to create a continuous flooring, which passed along the main axial lines and connected all doors, thus creating a functional and wide pedestrian route-space marked by a resistant and anti-slip material. The remaining areas were subsequently divided into two qualitatively different zones: green spaces, which perform some programmatic functions and host some coherently selected botanic species, and paved areas which represent the places to stay, to seat and to contemplate. The former ones were generally located along the perimeter of the square, while the latter ones occupied the actual core of the plaza. Specifically, the areas to stay have been designed with the aim to invite stationary activities by providing a large and feasible number of places to sit, good visibility conditions and close proximity to the walking paths. All the described spatial and programmatic subdivisions are coherently highlighted by the use of different materials: black basalt for the strolling paths and white limestone for the places to stay, somehow recalling the traditional Portuguese flooring. When it comes to the places to sit, a further effort was done for improving the outdoor thermal comfort conditions during the hot months. Finally, this resulted in the introduction of a temporary lightweight shading system, whose design follows the same generative rules of the entire project.
Figure 7 displays results for two experiments. See also Table 3. 36 In the first one, Exp. 1A, we only change the public sector wage premium and keep all other parameters at their baseline value. The reduction in ζ has an inverted U-shape effect on aggre- gate output. In order to understand this, notice that a smaller wage premium attracts fewer workers to a public sector job (see the percent ofpublic employees on Table 3). However, because of higher income uncertainty and a less generous retirement pen- sion in the private sector, individuals have more incentive to save. Hence, as one can see in Table 3, aggregate capital increases. On the other hand, the fall in public sector employment reduces the supply ofpublic infrastructure, G, and therefore has a neg- ative effect on private production. Experiment 1A shows that for reductions in ζ up to 10 percentage points from the baseline value (from 25% to 15%), the former effect dominates and output increases by as much as 8%. However, if the wage premium is reduced further, the later effect dominates and consequently aggregate output falls. In fact, the model predicts that a public-private wage premium of ζ = 10% would decrease output by nearly 10% in comparison to the benchmark case. Therefore, only reducing the attractiveness of the public sector does not necessarily increase aggre- gate output, since public infrastructure might be seriously reduced.
For many decades, the study of cultural encounter between Early Iron Age Central Europe (ca. 700-400 BC) and the Mediterranean has been dominated by the bipolar opposition of ‘Greeks’ vs. ‘Celts’. Both were understood as radically different entities epitomizing very different kinds of societal organisation, world views, life styles, daily practices etc. The differences between both entities were emphasized. Homogeneity within each entity was assumed, generally not further problematized (in the case of the ‘Greeks’) or even stressed (in the case of the ‘Celts’) while the spectacular finds from a very few places were considered sufficient enough to explain the situation at all other sites (Eggert, 1989, p. 53). The different forms of contact between the two entities have been intensively discussed and a broad range of complementing (or sometimes also contradictive) explanations have been brought forward — from transhumant herders via foreign visitors who brought presents/keimelia up to intense economic exchange or the long-term stay of specialists from the Mediterranean in order to transfer technological knowledge — e.g. in the case of the construction of the mud brick wall of the Heuneburg. The focal area of this contact was generally equated with the so-called Westhallstattkreis.
Lebesgue and Sobolev spaces with variable exponent have been intensively studied during the last decade. We only mention the surveying papers [9,31,38], where many references may be found. In particular, embeddings of Sobolev spaces started to be investigated since the beginning of the theory of these spaces, mainly those into Lebesgue spaces over Eu- clidean domains (cf. [8,11,12]). In [13,22] corresponding generalizations were investigated within the frameworks of the measure metric spaces. We also refer to , where the continuity of Sobolev functions was proved in the limiting case.
By 2050, it is expected that about 6.25 billion people, 15 per cent of whom are persons with disabilities, will be living in urban centers. Urbanization has the potential to be an engineer for achieving sustainable and inclusive development for all. The current lack of environmental accessibility faced by people with disabilities, in particular in many cities in the world, presents a major challenge (United Nations, 2016).
The log is organized in educational presentations Nurses Luminescent three times, namely: 1) group presentation and exhibition about the activity to be performed, by which time we can see the excitement and expectation of the public, 2) performance of the group through piece itself, emphasizing the interaction with the audience because educational practices should appreciate the construction firm common knowledge that the worldviews of the subjects, and 3) pamphleteering, worked to reaffirm the knowledge and enable them to be disseminated. The leaflets have key information of theme.
When we are faced with the profusion of declarations of love than man make for women in these funerary epigrams, we can see that, if we speak of types or standards of representation, these standards do not necessarily coincide with those which are mobilized by the texts of the classical period. For example, we can suppose that women such as Melita, Mnesareta or Dionysia are examples of good wives, but this will greatly reduce the capacity that their epigrams have to say other things! Beginning with the wide range of relationships that sometimes connect one of these wives to their mother, father, or brother, and even types of activity such as priestess. Furthermore, Dionysia did not love wealth, but more than this loved her mother and prudence; Melita was the best lover of her husband and, if this was chresté, it was also kratisté, the best; and she will not be remembered for any reproductive activities, like Mnesareta will not, but rather for having reached all the virtues, an undying areté. And Beltiste, whose son want others to see and for this to cover her with honors! We can presume that the honors due to Beltiste or Mélita came from their position as good wives; but we can only presume, since this is not what the epigrams tell us. In the funerary spaces wives are honored and are loved and it is perfect to exhibit this, and even compete for it: for the biggest love of the consort, for the greatest share of virtue, honor and praise that a woman can obtain.
necessary to conduct borough-specific analyses. Indeed, none of the significant city-wide associations were also observed for every borough individually. Second, the case-control study did not account for the potential spatial heterogeneity in their logistic regression model. Nevertheless, this previous case-control study represents the most substantive exploration of the landscape epidemiology of human–rodent encounters, as measured by rodent bites, in any major US city prior to this current investigation. Interestingly, despite different measures of the human-rodent interaction outcome (rodent bites vs. rat sight- ings) and a different accounting of the spatial dynamics of these encounters, the current investigation still identified many of the same landscape features identified previously. However, given the much larger sample size and less restrictive outcome classification, the current findings provide more substantive support for specific features of the landscape that may be relevant for the implementation of rodent control in unique contexts.
The enthusiastic response to this initiative and the encouraging progress seen in many cities throughout Latin America also brought to light some of the difficult challenges municipal leaders face as their cities rapidly grow, develop, and indus- trialize (7). Some types of built environments force residents to rely on motorized transportation in place of common means of conveyance such as walking and cycling. This increases traffic conges- tion and air pollution while reducing open, public green space available for safe recreation and social interaction (8). Further, such trends may be con- tributing to the rising levels of sedentary living in the Americas (9). It is estimated that about two of every three adults living in an urban area in the Re- gion of the Americas lead a sedentary lifestyle, meaning that they are simply not active enough to accrue health benefits (10). This is cause for concern because, as recent epidemiologic evidence unequiv- ocally shows, independent of other risk factors such as tobacco, alcohol, and poor diet, physical inactivity is associated with noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) such as stroke, cardiovascular disease, dia- betes, and osteoporosis as well as their risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and obesity (11) These NCDs were once thought to be only “diseases of affluence,” but they are now the leading causes of morbidity and mortality through- out the Region of the Americas, accounting for some 70% of all-cause mortality and 66% of the burden of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and afflicting persons of all ages and backgrounds. 3 In economic
These plans were opposed by the activist group “100% Tempelhofer Feld” who advocated lack of trust towards the local government and developers, arguing that the park was best left as it was. They forced a local referendum (held in 2014) in which, with 64.3% votes, citizens decided to affirm the results of interim land use, accepting the current state and the bottom-up development. Community gardens, racing tracks on the runways, protected areas for rare bird nesting, temporary bars and small-scale makeshift architecture became legal and welcomed. In 2017, Tempelhofer Feld was seen as one of the best examples of truly democratic, participatory publicspaces in the world. Architect Martin Rein-Cano claims that it is one of the best parks in the world and that no landscape architect could better design a space for such an array of activities and an open place that makes everybody feel like they are welcomed and can do something for themselves . These low-budget, spontaneous and informal arrangements are recognized as distinctive for the process which became a valid strategy for the Tempelhofer Feld Park (Figure 2).
Born in a municipality of the countryside Rio Grande do Sul in 1967, white, studied until 5th grade of elemen- tary school. She is from a family of 5 children. Deceased father; he was a construction worker; when younger, her mother helped her husband in the cleaning service in the buildings in addition to performing household chores. Ma- ria do Prumo liked to accompany her father in the rough construction work, carrying bricks and mixing cement, however, household chores were imposed by her moth- er as a way to prepare her daughter to be a good house- wife. The games that attracted her the most were playing football, riding a ball bearing cart, among others deemed culturally masculine. The father always encouraged her to face life and defend herself. She has an adult and married son. Divorced, worked as a cleaner until starting to work in construction as a building painter for four years. Works as a freelance painter and considers that the current job gives her satisfactory economic autonomy. In one of the companies where she provided her services she had major confrontations with a male colleague.
It must also be said that in addition to being considered as secondary or accessory, public open spaces often seem disconnected from other urban functions such as those in the areas of health and education. At a time when researchers are addressing ways of making cities healthier, open spaces beyond the environmental services supplied perform an extraordinary function in providing vegetation-covered areas with equipment able to be incorporated into public health promotion policies, including prevention and curing of the chronic illnesses that increasingly consume the State’s budget. Meanwhile, a movement for Educator Cities has been launched in Barcelona advocating educational curricular actions in areas outside school buildings; a park, in itself, can represent a whole range of possibilities for greater contact with natural elements, for both esthetic fulfillment and promotion of health and learning.
In this chapter we shall collect the most important properties of nuclear spaces, Fock spaces over Hilbert spaces, and some facts about holomorphic functions over a locally convex topological vector space, see Sections 2.1, 2.2, and 2.3 below, respectively. We will not reproduce full details in the men- tioned subjects but rather give the convenient descriptions for our purpose. Hence, the results concerning nuclear triples and kernel theorem are best summarized in [BK95], [GV68], [HKPS93]. About topologies in co-nuclear spaces we refer to the books [K¨ot71], [RR73], [Sch71], and [Tr`e67] for details, proofs, and examples. In Section 2.2 we define the Fock space over a Hilbert space and define on it the creation, annihilation, and second quantization operators which play an important role in the further chapters. Detailed description of Fock spaces can be founded in [BK95, Chapter 2 Section 2], [HKPS93, Appendix A.2], [Oba94], and [RS75a]. The standard references for holomorphy in locally convex spaces are [Din81], [Bar85], and [Col82].
In February of 2003 there were approximately 25.500 top level domains (geographical and organisational) in Portugal. (Fig. 2) If we analyse the type of top level domains, only 22% are CONE domains (.com, .net and .org), the other 78% are geographical (CC) domains. This means that per each CONE domain there are 4 CC domains. One of the reasons to this difference was the late liberalisation of the telecommunication sector. Only then, Internet service providers (ISP) began to operate and the registration of CONE domains could be done. But this also reflects that Internet in Portugal is (still) turned to internal market. This value also reflects the true importance of Portugal in foreign markets, even in a European context. In other international studies (Zook, 2001) the number of CONE domains was much more near to the CC number.
Since substantial evidences indicate that numerous human disorders and diseases present the involvement of oxidative stress, the attention of scientists has turned on the prospection and evaluation of antioxidant agents for the prevention and treatment of several diseases such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, aging, immune suppres- sion and neurodegeneration (Saeed et al. 2012). Among the species selected for the in vitro biochemical tests, Struthanthus flexicaulis (commercialized for treatment of cardiac diseases), Gochnatia polymorpha (commercial- ized for treatment of respiratory diseases) and Malva parviflora (commercialized for treatment of urinary dis- eases) emerged as highly promising antioxidant species, according to the ABTS and FRAP tests, and the amount of total phenolics observed. The positive and statistically significant correlation between phenols content and the ABTS and FRAP tests suggests that phenolic compounds are the principal elements responsible for the anti- oxidant activity of these plants. On the other hand, the absence of significant correlation of flavonoid content with phenolic compounds and the ABTS and FRAP tests suggests minor participation of these compounds in the antioxidant activity of the studied plants. However, this lack of correlation of flavonoids content with phenolic compounds and the antioxidant tests needs further eluci- dation. At least in part, the method applied in this study may underestimate the real content of total flavonoids in the samples since the method is specific for flavones and flavonols (Cruz et al. 2014).
These days, cities are getting more populated, so the amounts of green places are becoming less and limited for citizens. GPS provide exercise area for people that improve physical activity of people which is influential in their well-being (Bowler et al. 2010). GPS provide opportunities for social interaction that potentially reduces social isolation and increase social capital that finally leads to higher level of well-being (Lee et al. 2015). Having enough publicspaces in neighborhood is more important for older people (Sugiyama & Ward Thompson 2008). Maas et al. (2006) declared that young people (younger than 24) and elderly (older than 65 years) benefit more than adults from GPS, because they spend more time in GPS (Maas et al. 2006). So, publicspaces must be multi- functional and multigenerational to be best desired (European Commission 2011). In other words, they must provide a proper situation in publicspaces for all residents.