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GESTATIONAL ECHO BIOMETRY IN BRACHYCEPHALIC PREGNANT BITCHES ECOBIOMETRIA GESTACIONAL EM CADELAS GESTANTES BRAQUICEFÁLICAS

GESTATIONAL ECHO BIOMETRY IN BRACHYCEPHALIC PREGNANT BITCHES ECOBIOMETRIA GESTACIONAL EM CADELAS GESTANTES BRAQUICEFÁLICAS

This study obtained important and unpublished values of biometry of gestational vesicles, fetal development and equations to estimate the gestational age of the breeds: English Bulldog, Pug and Shih Tzu. The results obtained for biometrics of parietal and abdominal diameter, abdominal area, femur length, cardiac length and width, cardiac area and volume and liver area in brachycephalic conceptus may help assessing the development of fetuses, complementing the conventional ultrasound of pregnant bitches and be a model for the study in alternative breeds of dogs and other animal species.
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MORPHOLOGICAL AND PRODUCTIVE CHARACTERIZATION OF FORAGE CACTUS VARIETIES

MORPHOLOGICAL AND PRODUCTIVE CHARACTERIZATION OF FORAGE CACTUS VARIETIES

ABSTRACT - Cultivars of the genus Nopalea are known in Brazil for being tolerant to cochineal carmine at- tacks, thus making the cultivation of this genus a promising alternative for mitigating the negative effects of this insect on the production of biomass. With the objectives of characterizing morphologically spineless forage cactus varieties and identify morphological characteristics that may be the focus in spineless forage cactus breeding programs, an experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with 11 treatments and four replications. The variety Alagoas showed the highest values of weight, area and volume of cladodes. The varieties Negro Michoacan F7 and V7, Tamazunchale V12 showed the highest values of the cladode area index, the total volume of cladodes and total fresh mass production. The varieties Negro Michoacan V7 and F7 presented the highest water use efficiency and dry mass yield. Cladode volume showed the highest correlation coefficients with the fresh weight of cladodes. Aiming the release of varieties for biomass production, varieties Negro Michoacan F7, V7 and Tamazunchale V12 may substitute the Miúda variety. The number and cladode area index may be used as criteria for selection of superior varieties in breeding programs.
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USO DE DADOS DE PARCELAS PERMANENTES DE ÁREA VARIÁVEL EM MODELAGEM DE CRESCIMENTO E DA PRODUÇÃO

USO DE DADOS DE PARCELAS PERMANENTES DE ÁREA VARIÁVEL EM MODELAGEM DE CRESCIMENTO E DA PRODUÇÃO

ABSTRACT: This study was carried to evaluate the efficiency of the Bitterlich method in growth and yield modeling of the even-aged Eucalyptus stands. 25 plots were setup in Eucalyptus grandis cropped under a high bole system in the Central Western Region of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The sampling points were setup in the center of each plot. The data of four annual mesurements were colleted and used to adjust the three model types using the age, the site index and the basal area as independent variables. The growths models were fitted for volume and mass of trees. The efficiency of the Bitterlich method was confirmed for generating the data for growth and yield modeling.
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Development of Cortical Morphology Evaluated with Longitudinal MR Brain Images of Preterm Infants.

Development of Cortical Morphology Evaluated with Longitudinal MR Brain Images of Preterm Infants.

In this population, it has been described that the development of the cerebral cortex, with respect to changes in surface area [5,6] and cortical folding [7], might be related to functional and cognitive development. Furthermore, preterm infants exhibit abnormal development of cortical thickness when measured in adolescence [8–10]. In normal development, thinning of the cerebral cortex by pruning of dispensable neurons and synapses, leading to more efficient synaptic connections, occurs during childhood and adolescence [11–14] and continues with aging [15,16]. In preterm infants, this process seems to be disturbed [10]. Some studies found that preterm infants have larger cortical grey matter (CoGM) volumes compared to healthy infants in several regions at term equivalent age [17,18], and in adolescence [19], while others found smaller volumes [20]. Padilla et al. [18] found that preterm infants without focal brain lesions have decreased CoGM volume over the whole brain, but increased grey matter volumes in the occipital lobes.
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CROWN DELINEATION INFLUENCE ON STANDING VOLUME CALCULATIONS IN PROTECTED AREA

CROWN DELINEATION INFLUENCE ON STANDING VOLUME CALCULATIONS IN PROTECTED AREA

The aim of this study was to evaluate the automatically determined parameters of tree crowns, which are then used in two-phase inventory method of growing stock. Research was performed in forest stands of different age, located in the Stolowe Mountains National Park (south-western Poland) where the dominant species was Norway spruce (Picea abies L.). On the test area of approximately 500 hectares, 35 sample plots were measured. On LIDAR-based Crow Height Model (CHM), in the places corresponding to the position of 500 m 2 circular ground samples, automatic segmentation was carried out. The extent of the crown
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Quím. Nova  vol.34 número3

Quím. Nova vol.34 número3

Data of methylene blue number and iodine number of activated carbons samples were calibrated against the respective surface area, micropore volume and total pore volume using multiple regression. The models obtained from the calibrations were used in predicting these physical properties of a test group of activated carbon samples produced from several raw materials. In all cases, the predicted values were in good agreement with the expected values. The method allows extracting more information from the methylene blue and iodine adsorption studies than normally obtained with this type of material.
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Mat. Res.  vol.10 número2

Mat. Res. vol.10 número2

MPM. In particular, this approach has been used on a routine basis to interpret results obtained for recrystallization kinetics. The usual methodology consists in measuring quantities on a planar section: the volume fraction transformed, V V , and the interfacial area between transformed and untransformed regions per unit of volume, S V , as a function of time. From these data, it is possible, by means of equations from formal kinetics, to extract information concerning the average nucleation and growth behavior of individual regions. Such analysis is usually carried out assuming that nuclei are randomly located in space, a fundamental assumption of JMAK’s.
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Mat. Res.  vol.12 número1

Mat. Res. vol.12 número1

If textural parameters of both catalytic formulations are compared, it can be seen that, although both of them are quite similar, the apricot core coal has a slightly higher surface area and pore volume, with more presence of micropores. This small difference could explain the slightly higher catalytic activity observed for the apricot core AC based catalyst compared to that of grape stalk based catalyst for the oxidation of MB and for PVA

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Estudo sedimentológico e geoquímico do permo-triássico da Bacia do Maranhão

Estudo sedimentológico e geoquímico do permo-triássico da Bacia do Maranhão

Area de Concentração: Paleontologia e Estratigrafia. VOLUME 2[r]

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Mat. Res.  vol.6 número4

Mat. Res. vol.6 número4

tion, before significant impingement (say for V V < 0.3), the shape of the growing regions in real space is likely to re- main constant. As impingement starts it is reasonable to expect the growing regions will change their shape. Not- withstanding, if the growing regions remain equiaxed this change in shape probably results in a small change in the shape factor, α. For example, if the grains are spherical at the beginning of the reaction but become tetrakaidecahedra towards its end then A will increase from 4.8 to 5.3. Since the sphere has the minimum area for a given volume one might expect α to be smaller than the unity.
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CONSIDERATIONS ON COMMERCIAL GLOBALIZATION (I – THE DYNAMICS OF THE COMMERCIAL FLOWS: EVOLUTIONS AND STRUCTURAL MODIFICATIONS)

CONSIDERATIONS ON COMMERCIAL GLOBALIZATION (I – THE DYNAMICS OF THE COMMERCIAL FLOWS: EVOLUTIONS AND STRUCTURAL MODIFICATIONS)

This phenomenon is obviously stimulated by the general trend of liberalization of industrial trades that followed the end of the WWII. This made the subject of multilateral negotiations within GATT (Rainelli 2003). Starting with the first rounds of negotiations organized in Geneva and Annecy at the end of the 1940s, the average customs taxes on imports from the industrialized countries dropped 10 times, getting from 40% to 4% in 2000 (Adda, p.68). The liberalization of the trades was also stimulated by establishing the Common European Market and by various projects of customs unifications or regional agreements of free trade launched afterwards (such as Mercosur, which regroups Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay in Latin America and NAFTA, which unites the United States, Canada and Mexico in North America). It has finally extended, since the beginning of the 1980s, towards the developing countries under the effect of the liberalisation policies imposed by the IMF and the World Bank within the management of the debt crises.
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Quím. Nova  vol.36 número8

Quím. Nova vol.36 número8

Figure 3 shows the XRD patterns of 12K/NaY-B and 12K/NaY-A compared with that of the parent zeolite. After impregnation using both solutions and heat treatment, the characteristic peaks of NaY were still observed in both 12K/NaY-B and 12K/NaY-A but with a significant decrease in the peak intensities. These results indicated that the zeolite structure was preserved upon impregnation and calci- nations; however, some collapse of the structure may have occurred. In addition, the peak intensities in the XRD pattern of 12K/NaY-B were higher than those of 12K/NaY-A, indicating that the use of potassium acetate buffer preserved the NaY structure better than the use of potassium acetate alone. The XRD analysis of the zeolite impregnated with water and then calcined was also performed. The characteristic peaks of zeolite NaY were still observed in this material with no significant difference in the intensities compared with those observed for the untreated zeolite, suggesting that the partial damage of zeolite after impregnation is not mainly due to the thermal treatment during the calcination process. Therefore, the decrease in the intensity of the NaY peaks in the XRD pattern after potassium loading are mainly due to the hydrolysis of Si–O–Al bonds by the alkali metal during the thermal treatment of the zeolite. 15 Hydrolysis may have
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An Institutionalist Outlook On The Origins Of Property From The Perspective Of Transaction Costs

An Institutionalist Outlook On The Origins Of Property From The Perspective Of Transaction Costs

The works of the above mentioned institutionalists reference concrete examples in the history of the emergence of private property; Indian castor hunters in Western Canada, farmers and cattle growers in the West American fields, fishing in the waters of the global ocean etc. Their writings lead to the conclusion that the first form of exploitation of any resource was common ownership. The passage from common to private ownership did not manifest itself as a bloody, “primitive” and gross process, in the Marxist version, but as a process in which hedonistic calculation played an essential role. As long as land or wild animals were plenty and enjoying full freedom, their value equalled zero. With the introduction of exclusive property rights, the value of these first primordial resources became positive. The appropriation process occurred in two forms. In pre-State phases there occurred a self-attribution of exclusive rights. Once States were formed, a process of ownership establishment was registered. In this latter case, the State is the master and the warrantor of common property. Yet in both cases, the passage from common to private is determined by similar reasons. The forceful idea and the common denominator of all arguments is that the acquisition of exclusive rights occurs only when potential future owners expect net gains from exclusivity.
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CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN ROMANIA

CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN ROMANIA

Regarding the fact that in Romania the minimum wage is much under the one in the average European states, the Romanians are seen as low cost. Moreover, in most of the cases, the Romanian employees of a foreign company are paid less than the locals who have the same position. In exchange, for a Romanian citizen, a salary of a few thousands or even tens of thousands of Euros a month represents a huge sum of money, that is one of the reasons for more and more Romanians choose to work abroad, especially because they get other benefits like health or life insurance, a place to stay or even free trips for their families to comeă andă visită them,ă besidesă theă usuală payment.ă ―Veryă rarely,ă foreignă companiesă hireă aă Romaniană justă because he is professional and pay him the same wage as a local citizen. Only those who have lived a while ină thată countryă haveă aă chanceă ofă gettingă theă sameă salaryă asă theă locals‖,ă asă theă recruitmentă companiesă researches show. According to this one, a Romanian manager earns in England between 25 000 and 40 000 poundsăaăyear.ă‖Theăbestăpaid Romanians are the construction engineers but this is a consequence of the hard working conditions in countries like Kazakhstan. In the IT field, the minimum wages start from 5 000 Euro, to which they add the benefits: the place to stay, sometimes a pack of benefits for the wife and the kids.ăHowever,ăthereăareăsmallerăbenefitsăthanătheăonesăforătheăforeignersăwhoăcomeătoăworkăinăRomania‖.ă The increasing investment in the local economy generated in the last few years a huge lack of workforce in Romania. Because 2007 is a crucial year for Romania, the workforce mobility will be free in the European Union, the acceptance of Romania as an EU member state shall increase this phenomenon. The human resources specialists estimate that most of the Romanian professionals will go and work abroad. The vacant positions shall be
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L’HARMONISATION DE LA FISCALITÉ ENVIRONNEMENTALE DANS L’UNION EUROPÉENE : UNE ÉTUDE COMPARATIVE

L’HARMONISATION DE LA FISCALITÉ ENVIRONNEMENTALE DANS L’UNION EUROPÉENE : UNE ÉTUDE COMPARATIVE

Environmental protection issues took magnitude in recent years, being included on the list of priorities of the European Union. To reduce the negative externalities, a solution of compromise is taxing products whose consumption or production creates pollution, and too, the solution being offered by the European Union. Moreover, because taxation of these goods has impact of sale prices, concern for the harmonization of fiscal legislation in this area has become a priority. Thus, in this paper we will try to analyze the state of harmonization in the taxation environment, on the one hand; on the other hand, to show that the place is occupied by green taxes, we perform a comparative analysis of the share of tax revenues from this source, in GDP and total tax revenue, in EU Member States, based on official data available.
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INSTITUTIONS AND VALUES OF ROMANIANS – COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF HISTORICAL REGIONS

INSTITUTIONS AND VALUES OF ROMANIANS – COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF HISTORICAL REGIONS

Recent international research focuses mainly on cultural factors which draw a line between economic performance, work discipline, economic thinking, or the respect paid to some traditional institutions like property or contracts. Culture influences institutional development. At the same time, the integration of cultural elements within the frame of the institutions of society is a mechanism which leads to their own persistance 111 . In this context, it is necessary to be aware of the fact that certain behavior rules have a very slow changing rhythm, finding their origin in immutable cultural factors, while others can change to the extent to which the economic game is more attractive as far as the economic results are concerned. The inherited behavior rules and beliefs are constituted by and, at the same time, reflect the cognitive models shared by individuals, thus representing common knowledge in terms of expected and, at the same time, socially accepted behavior. These can hardly be changed and the main reason for this is the ideology of a social community.
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LOHN PRODUCTION – AN ECONOMIC OR SOCIAL MEASURE?

LOHN PRODUCTION – AN ECONOMIC OR SOCIAL MEASURE?

With all the limitations of lohn production – the absence of the Romanian manufacturer from the international market, him depending on the commissions from the commissioner, the low price due to the increment only on the manufacturing, etc – it must not be seen as a mostly negative phenomenon. We must mention that this operation made possible the survival of some industries, which otherwise would have been insolvent (unsuccessfull). The removal of the custom taxes between Romania and the EU on 1 January 2002 created favourable conditions for production. At the moment, products such as hosiery, clothing and footwear are Romanian merchandise which is requested for import due to the price-quality ecuation, a ratio which is also determined by the fact that the employees producing them have the lowest wages. The most part of the exports is still represented bu the clothing and shoe industry. The clothing and footwear exports have reached 35,5 % of the total exports in 2007, dropping from 35,7% in the previos year, and after having gained in 2000 30% over the figures reached in 1999 (the lohn produced goods represented almost 90% of the expots of the clothing and shoe industry in 1999, about 98% in 2002 and dropped to only 60% in 2006, the remaining percentage representing exclusively complete exports of goods.
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IDENTITY AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

IDENTITY AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

Besides, there are two sides of a person’s identity: the public identity – which is the ‘outside’ of our concept of the self, and the private identity which is the ‘inside’ of our identity. The former is how others see us, and the latter is how we see ourselves. When considering someone’s identity we have to take into consideration some social elements such as: class, nation, race, ethnicity, gender, religion. All these give color to an identity. An identity is not an object which stands by itself and which offers the same face to each observer in each period. Perhaps when we are thinking of identity we should think of all the events that happened to us and how these transformed us in time. Making some researches on the idea of identity, economists and psychologists come to the conclusion that individuality and individual identities are separate and distinctive from social identities. So, two selves seem to appear with the individual/personal unique self being regarded as more real, more significant and quite different from the socially learned or social self. How these two entities may be linked is an uncertain issue. In 2004, Richard Jenkins in his book entitled Social Identity adopted a starkly different point of view, noticing that
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STATE AIDS AND ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION PERSPECTIVE

STATE AIDS AND ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION PERSPECTIVE

As an important “actor” on the international market, the European Union could not permit a different approach from the one provided by the multilateral agreements, taking into consideration that it played an active role within their negotiation. Nowadays, we can all agree that the fears regarding the elimination of the State aids were totally ungrounded. Of course, the need for a strict observance of the commitments on State aid assumed by EU and its Member States it continues within WTO continues to be valid.

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ENGLISH LANGUAGE CERTIFICATES - MEETING REQUIREMENTS OR SIMPLE FASHION

ENGLISH LANGUAGE CERTIFICATES - MEETING REQUIREMENTS OR SIMPLE FASHION

Surprisingly enough, the second position is detained by the item referring to acknowledgement by the Romanian Universities instead of admission examination in English, exceeding 68%, which is rather concerning, as there is no connection between the two things; the Romanian higher education system functions on regulations from the Ministry of Education and a certificate of linguistic competence will not normally replace the examination for admittance to any institution of higher education, maybe except particular cases, depending on the autonomy of the institutions. The same is valid for the baccalaureate or any other future examinations in English. Even if the percentages are smaller for these items, their existence, getting closer to 50 % and respectively to 30%, are really worrying as all these are signs of a major misunderstanding and misperception of the true value and nature of these tests. Expectations of permanently, from then on, being given credit for any future tests in English on the basis of once having passed a test for international recognised certificate of linguistic competence is rather absurd. That would not only be lacking common sense, for reasons easily noticeable, from evading or not respecting any curricula to the impossibility of equivalence of a grade in one test with dozens of marks further needed to complete one’s education throughout university or other learning programmes, but also get to finally demolish the whole educational system with no need of foreign language studies beyond the level of the 11 th or 12 th grade when high school students generally sit for such exams of linguistic certificates.
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