Associations of Local Development

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Civil Society and Local Development

Civil Society and Local Development

The type of organisation encompassed by the term ‘civil society’ is not the only issue. Social organisations generally take four fundamental forms: (i) associations or associational (sharing an organisational objective); (ii) communities or community-based (held together by social bonds and a culture of solidarity, a shared sense of belonging); (iii) class-based organisations (defined by a pursuit of class interest or political power); and (iv) networks (in- formal or formal, social relations horizontal in form]. For convenience, civil society analysis normally or often focuses on the first two types, treating the third as ‘economic’ (for example, multinational corporate forms of capitalist enterprise) or ‘political’ (for example, political parties) rather than ‘social’ forms of organisation. As for social networks they can lead to or be combined with both associational or community-type social relationships among the units, but what characterises them is horizontality and, in a community context, opportunities for building ‘social capital’ based on shared norms of reciprocity and a culture of solidarity. In this typological context, social organisations can be numerous and diverse, with overlapping memberships, referring to one of four ways of achieving shared purposes and common objectives.
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Local Self-Government as an Architect of Coalitions for Local Development

Local Self-Government as an Architect of Coalitions for Local Development

I happened to be a mayor at that time (…) and one day I found myself taking part in a meeting organized at the Marshal Office and after the meeting the Marshal tells me that there is going to be another meeting with the already existing LAGs [some of the LAGs had been created in the framework of the LEADER+ program] and if I’m interested I should come and listen to what they say. And so I went there and listened to what they were talking about, even though I did not quite understand what was it all about. But I liked it because they talked a lot about some kind of societal initiatives (…) And later it just all began like this, I first organized a meeting of mayors from some municipalities, because I’ve come to the conclusion that it will be easier for us to recruit the leaders using the self-government units (…) The mayors brought with them to this meeting in K. [the name of one of the municipalities participating in this LAG] leaders from their local communities, ladies from rural housewives’ societies, some associations’ chairmen, some active councilors, and this is how all this began (XII/1/CA).
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Innovative local and regional economic development initiatives in Latin America: a review

Innovative local and regional economic development initiatives in Latin America: a review

Local producers and their associations are key actors in enterprise and local business development. Inter-firm cooperation and joint action plays a central role. However, local producers are very often individualistic and find it difficult to combine competition with cooperation. Several commentators have indicated that joint action and inter-firm co- operation, of the kind enumerated above, does not come easily. Some argue that such collaboration requires a kind of external catalyst or brokerage role (Meyer-Stamer, 1998, Barzelay, 1991, Helmsing, 2001a). The multiple roles of business associations in economic development are increasingly recognized and they may take a variety of forms (Levistky, 1993). Traditionally, they represent their members in their dealings with government. They often negotiate with trade unions. Their other traditional function is a social one. An association provides a reference group for individual entrepreneurs. More recently, the emphasis shifted to two other functions, the provision of business development services and what some have called ‘private interest governance’ (e.g. establishing codes of conducts for an industry, settling disputes, etc.).
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Local development initiatives as promoters of social innovation: evidence from two European rural regions

Local development initiatives as promoters of social innovation: evidence from two European rural regions

connect ‘remote rural communities with groups, organisations, and networks in other places, fields, and spatial scales’ (Richter 2019: 185). Despite the fact that LAGs and LDAs are not necessarily so- cial enterprises, the above still holds true for such organisations. By serving as an intermediary (an embedded intermediary, in Richter’s terms), LAGs and LDAs serve as a bridge between mem- bers of a local community, between local commu- nities and regional authorities (such as Regional Directory of Alentejo), between actors on local level and national networks and groups and between local and EU levels through the direct communication in case of LAGs. In addition, be- cause the research concerns rural regions on the periphery of Austria and Portugal, those organ- isations serve as an intermediary in cross border cooperation between various regions. By connect- ing a local community with external actors (and exogenous resources), LAGs and LDAs promote cooperation, know-how exchange and inclusion of local actors into the supra-regional networks beyond their respective regions, which supports the neo-endogenous approach to the rural de- velopment where actors are connected to wider contexts (Neumeier 2012; Bock 2016). Facilitating access to the (financial) resources is another im- portant part of such organisations’ work, es- pecially in rural areas where organisations and individuals usually find themselves in a situa- tion of a limited access to the resource pool. By facilitating access to various sources of funding, the most important of which being LEADER and European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), LAGs and LDAs provide local communities with more opportunities for financial support availa- ble for both existing and emerging initiatives.
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Development of Fast Disintegration Tablets As Oral Drug Deliverysystem :A Review

Development of Fast Disintegration Tablets As Oral Drug Deliverysystem :A Review

I. Freeze-Drying or Lyophilization- Freeze drying is the process in which water is sublimed from the product after it is frozen. This technique creates an amorphous porous structure that can dissolve rapidly. A typical procedure involved in the manufacturing of ODT using this technique is mentioned here. The active drug is dissolved or dispersed in an aqueous solution of a carrier/polymer. The mixture is done by weight and poured in the walls of the preformed blister packs. The trays holding the blister packs are passed through liquid nitrogen freezing tunnel to freeze the drug solution or dispersion.Then the frozen blister packs are placed in refrigerated cabinets to continue the freeze-drying. After freeze-drying the aluminium foil backing is applied on a blister-sealing machine. Finally the blisters are packaged and shipped. The freeze- drying technique has demonstrated improved absorption and increase in bioavailability. The major disadvantages of lyophilization technique are that it is expensive and time consuming; fragility makes conventional packaging unsuitable for these products and poor stability under stressed conditions.
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State of art: instruments for local development in SMEs and VSEs

State of art: instruments for local development in SMEs and VSEs

Entrepreneurship has not received a clear definition in economic thought Yet, during the last fifteen years economic theory has been paying a new attention to the firm. The dominant general theory still teaches how decisions concerning supply come from a firm-point, only considered as a “black-box” since the technology is given and perfectly known. It ignores that economies are in a continuous process of adaptation, generating a lot of radical or incremental innovations. Several new representations have been built in during the eighties, taking into account innovations- not only the physical ones, but also the commercial, financial and organisational new technologies. These heterodox theories are recognising the fundamental fact, ignored by the orthodox thought, that “production takes place in organisations” (LYDALL, 1998). Unfortunately they are not coherent between them, so that we are now facing quite different new theories, accepting only two common features for the firm: first its organisational character, secondly its role as an institution (B. CORIAT, O. WEINSTEIN, 1995).
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Development of an SSR-based identification key for Tunisian local almonds

Development of an SSR-based identification key for Tunisian local almonds

The 10 microsatellite primer pairs revealed 130 al- leles and 250 potential genotypes among the 54 almond accessions studied (Table 2). Overall, primer pairs showed alleles in size ranges larger than those reported (Mnejja et al., 2005). Unique genotypes for all 54 cultivars identified a subset of the best 10 microsatellite primers for almond cultivar differentiation. To develop the identification key, the data were analysed separately for each microsatellite marker. The most polymorphic marker was chosen as the principal marker. The remaining markers were used to separate the genotypes in groups created by the previous marker until all accessions were clearly identified. We be- gan by selecting the most polymorphic loci that revealed the most different genotypes, CPDCT042 (36) and CPD- CT025 (31). We based the identification key first on the primer CPDCT042 and then on CPDCT025. These two SSRs discriminated among all 50 Tunisian genotypes as well as the four of unknown origin. Theoretically, these two loci could encompass a total of 36 × 31 = 1116 possi- ble genotypes, suggesting that there is room to expand our key to discriminate more genotypes. The most polymor- phic SSR primer, CPDCT042, allowed unambiguous dif- ferentiation of 28 of the 54 studied cultivars (52 %). The use of the additional CPDCT025 primer pair was required to identify the remaining cultivars. An identification key was thus established for these local almond accessions (Figure 2).
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A interiorização do ensino público federal e o desenvolvimento local / The interiorization of federal public education and local development

A interiorização do ensino público federal e o desenvolvimento local / The interiorization of federal public education and local development

In the last years there has been a strong expansion of the Federal Education System. The purpose of this study was to analyse the impact of the internalization of the Federal Education System on the local development dimensions – environmental, cultural, economic and social. Bibliographic research was used with examples that analysed could stimulate unsderstanding the facts. Economic dimension is best known for the investments made, the raise of local salary mass, job creation, the raise in demand for services and real state valuation. In the social dimension, free quality public education offer is featured allied to affirmative actions provided locally create the opportunity of academic qualification and social ascension to community members. Cultural and environmental dimensions are harder to describe once they depend on actions, mainly in extension, realized by educational institutions. It is projected that internalization of the Federal Education System will provide an elevation of HDI on the regions covered by the units installed, and also, a raise of the diversity of proposals for local development, contemplating the environmental, cultural, economic and social dimensions.
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Genesis of cluster associations of enterprises

Genesis of cluster associations of enterprises

the goal of the article is the study of genesis of creation of cluster associations of enterprises. It considers genesis of cluster deinitions. It shows and analyses components that deine the “cluster” concept. Researchers from many countries ofer a signiicant number of deinitions of the “cluster” term speciically in the economic direction, but there is no single generally accepted deinition as of today. this fact is the result of a signiicant diversity of cluster structures. the article conducts a comparative analysis of classiications of cluster associations of enterprises. It identiies advantages and shortcomings of the cluster approach both from the position of an enterprise and from the position of a regional economy administration. the article marks out speciic features of the life cycle of cluster associations of enterprises, which consists of the preparatory stage and stage of commercialisation. majority of studies consider the preparatory stage and the stage of commercialisation, which consists of the following stages: entering market with a common brand, growth, maturity and crisis – is, practically, not considered. taking into account the fact that the main result of cluster activity is the synergetic efect from mutually beneicial co-operation and activity results facilitate ensuring competitiveness of cluster enterprises, regional and national economies, the author gives own deinition of a cluster.
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Media, Participation, and Social Change: Introduction to the Special Section

Media, Participation, and Social Change: Introduction to the Special Section

Creative Commons Non Commercial CC-BY-NC: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution- NonCommercial 3.0 License (http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages (https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage).

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REPOSITORIO INSTITUCIONAL DA UFOP: Desenvolvimento local e economia solidária : a experiência da Incubadora de Empreendimentos Solidários da UFOP (INCOP).

REPOSITORIO INSTITUCIONAL DA UFOP: Desenvolvimento local e economia solidária : a experiência da Incubadora de Empreendimentos Solidários da UFOP (INCOP).

De   acordo   com   Borinelli   et   al   (2010),   a   economia   solidária   preza   por   um   modelo   de   economia  que  visa  aos  aspectos  sociais  do  conjunto,  indo  além  do  atendimento  às  necessidades   materiais.   Podem   ser   empreendimentos   e   projetos   produtivos   coletivos,   cooperativas   (populares,  de  agricultura  familiar,  de  prestação  de  serviços,  entre  outras),  redes  de  produção,   comercialização   e   consumo,   pequenos   produtores   que   se   unem   para   comprar   e   vender   em   conjunto.   Também   podem   ser   redes   de   comércio   justo,   incubadoras   de   empresas,   clubes   de   troca   e   de   microcrédito   ou   instituições   financeiras   voltadas   para   empreendimentos   populares   solidários,  empresas  autogestionárias,  que  dinamizam  as  economias  locais,  garantem  trabalho  e   fomentam  a  economia  local,  tendo,  ainda,  como  princípio,  a  preservação  do  meio  ambiente.  
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Genetic variation of ITGB3 is associated with asthma in Chinese Han children.

Genetic variation of ITGB3 is associated with asthma in Chinese Han children.

Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in children, and it is characterised by bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and reversible airway obstruction. Both genetic and environmental factors play important roles in the development of asthma. Although more than 100 genes have been associated with asthma, most of these associations have proven to be non-replicable in multiple populations, which indicates a complex genetic suscep- tibility pattern. Integrin b3 (ITGB3) is a serotonin-related gene on chromosome 17 that encodes a beta chain integrin subunit. Integrins are known to participate in cell adhesion and cell surface- mediated signalling. Recent investigations have suggested that ITGB3 is involved in the pathogenesis of asthma, particularly in early childhood [1,2]. Five SNPs in the ITGB3 gene have been linked with asthma in a Hutterite population, but these results were not observed in three other unrelated populations, most likely due to differences in environmental exposures in childhood [2]. Rogers et al. demonstrated that few identified SNPs could be replicated in different populations [3]. Factors such as the criteria used to diagnose asthma, environmental exposures, numbers of subjects, different patterns of linkage disequilibrium, and popula- tion stratification could be potential causes of this non-repeatabil- ity [3,4]. Multiple studies in diverse populations would be helpful to identify true candidate genes [3]. To date, few studies have been performed to investigate associations between the ITGB3 gene
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Ecodesign in the perspecƟ ve of local development and sustainability

Ecodesign in the perspecƟ ve of local development and sustainability

Para defi nir quais ar gos seriam considerados válidos, inicialmente foram lidos todos os resumos e as conclusões dos estudos encontrados a par r das palavras-chave. Em seguida, foi realizada uma leitura dos ar gos completos que passaram pela triagem inicial. Por meio das referências nos ar gos, foram encontrados ainda outros trabalhos. E, após essa varredura, ou screening inicial, a revisão aconteceu em duas etapas: a primeira tenta conceituar o tema, em ordem cronológica e relacionar com o campo conceitual do desenvolvimento local, da sustenta- bilidade e territorialidade. Em segundo lugar, os ar gos foram agrupados de forma a categorizar a refl exão dos autores.
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Local Border Traffic as a Form of Visa Liberalisation and Territorial Development

Local Border Traffic as a Form of Visa Liberalisation and Territorial Development

In an interview with RIA Novosti, the Polish ambassador to Russia, Katarzyna Pełczyńska-Nałęcz, stressed that “Poland was very interested in local border traffic with Kaliningrad”. “This was a mutual initiative of the two sides, both Russia and Poland, which have done everything possible to make the lives of our citizens easier. The results have surpassed all expecta- tions — the border is no longer a barrier to travel. We are interested in as many Russian citizens as possible visiting Poland as often as possible. It is important to us that Russians see what type of neighbour Poland is”, Pe łczyńska-Nałęcz said, adding that Warsaw was calling for the speedy es- tablishment of a visa-free regime between Russia and the European Union. In 2013, Polish consular establishments issued 143,799 Schengen visas of one year or less, 75,545 two-year multi-entry visas, 4,993 visas valid for three years, 689 for four years and 27 five-year visas. To the question about the strategic problems in Russian-Polish bilateral relations, she said, “There is a rift in Moscow-Warsaw relations, but this is not a deterioration of rela- tions between Russia and Poland, but rather between Russia and the Euro- pean Union. Second, the energy issues: we pursue different interests here. Poland is interested in diversification of energy deliveries, while Russia is interested in its active presence at the Polish and EU markets. Russia treats the European energy legislation differently” [19].
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Rev. Saúde Pública  vol.48 número2

Rev. Saúde Pública vol.48 número2

development indices, others have levels well below the municipal mean. On the other hand, the city has plen- tiful seafront and many parks and squares, providing conditions favorable to doing leisure-time physical activity. However, the access of the population to such environmental conditions is not homogeneous. In this study, doing leisure-time physical activity varied signiicantly according to neighborhood. It was more prevalent among residents in neighborhoods with better social conditions and access to public areas of leisure, regardless of individual attributes. However, after simultaneous adjustment, socio-environmental charac- teristics grouped in the social development index were shown to be more important than physical character- istics in determining the practice of leisure-time phys- ical activity. The Theil index, associated with physical activity in the unadjusted models, lost its statistical signiicance after adjusting for individual variables, suggesting that inequality in income distribution is not associated with doing leisure-time physical activity. There is relatively little data on Brazilians’ leisure-time physical activity, although what there is agrees with the indings presented in this study. Data from the 2011 Surveillance System for Chronic Disease Telephone Survey (VIGITEL) indicate a prevalence of 30.0% for leisure-time physical activity in the state capitals, with
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441 ROMANIA AND THE LOCAL DEVELOPMENT POLICY

441 ROMANIA AND THE LOCAL DEVELOPMENT POLICY

The National Development Plan is the fundamental instrument by which Romania seeks to recover the disparities towards the EU: the strategic planning document and multi- annual financial programming prepared in a broad partnership, which will guide and stimulate socio-economic development of Romania in accordance with Cohesion Policy of the European Union. The National Development Plan is an important component of the National Strategy for Economic Development, which is a tool for prioritization of public investment for development. Based on it will be prepared the National Strategic Reference Framework 2007-2013 which is the programming document setting the strategic areas of intervention of the structural instruments in each Member State and which is being negotiated with the European Commission.
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Rev. paul. pediatr.  vol.29 número4

Rev. paul. pediatr. vol.29 número4

No difference was observed between the groups in terms of the frequency of Behavior Disorder during the neurological assessment. The statistical treatment suggested a tendency towards a greater degree of hypertonia among the PT-LBW schoolchildren (p=0.057). The remaining conditions investi- gated during the neurodiagnosis, such as Speech Disorders, Hypotonia, Signs of Dysmorphism, Psychomotor Agitation, Inattention and Anxiety, were all more common in the SG (p<0.05). There was a signiicant difference (p=0.001) be- tween the children in the SG and the CG in terms of their Neurological Development Proiles: 34 (63%) children in the SG were classiied as below-expected for their chronologi- cal age, in contrast with 8 (15%) in the CG, which indicates greater neurological immaturity in the SG children.
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Linking local wildfire dynamics to pyroCb development

Linking local wildfire dynamics to pyroCb development

In their analysis of the 2003 Canberra bushfires, Sharples et al. (2012) demonstrated several cases where interactions between strong winds and rugged topography resulted in rapid wildfire development. The resulting process, which they termed “fire channelling”, resulted in a transition from the usual frontal burning pattern to an areal burning pattern caused by a combination of rapid lateral fire propagation (transverse to the prevailing winds) and downwind infill by short- to medium-range spotting. For the Flea Creek event (Sharples et al., 2012, p. 288) they showed a direct link be- tween the lateral spread and the pyroCb development, which Fromm et al. (2006) has shown reached 15 km a.g.l. A se- ries of large fires merged on a rugged landscape on a day of elevated fire danger, eventually covering over 90 000 ha in 3 h. Line-scan data showed that deep flaming in numerous locations was primarily caused by the lateral spread associ- ated with fire channelling. There was a close association of this with pyroCb development, but in such a complex setting clear linkages have not yet been demonstrated.
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Formação em Emergência e Primeiros Socorros no Local de Trabalho – Normas de Orientação Clínica

Formação em Emergência e Primeiros Socorros no Local de Trabalho – Normas de Orientação Clínica

No âmbito da Saúde Ocupacional, e para efeitos da presente Informação Técnica, considera-se “primeiros socorros” o atendimento de emergência prestado no local de trabalho em situação de lesão ou de doença súbita (OSHA, 2006) que ocorre antes de chegar o atendimento especializado de emergência, visando evitar/minimizar o agravamento do estado de saúde do trabalhador e/ou assegurar as suas funções vitais. Este conceito engloba os procedimentos primários e simples aplicados numa situação de emergência, e integra o processo de acionamento do pedido de socorro, comunicação e encaminhamento das situações de maior gravidade para atendimento especializado por profissionais de saúde.
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LOCAL DEVELOPMENT INICIATIVES: THE CASE OF SÃO PAULO AND ABCD MUNICIPALITIES 10

LOCAL DEVELOPMENT INICIATIVES: THE CASE OF SÃO PAULO AND ABCD MUNICIPALITIES 10

Given the demographic “gigantism” of São Paulo, the largest metropolis in South America, but mainly to its infrastructure, the provision of world standard service and the concentration of coordination and command functions associated with transnational companies, São Paulo can be describe as a “Global City”. Even though São Paulo is also the “Metrópole das Desigualdades”, with high levels of population living in poverty and social exclusion, coupled with a chaotic urbanization and a dilapidated housing infrastructure, it also has in certain areas of the city (Avenida Paulista, Marginal Pinheiros, Avenida Luiz Carlos Berrini), a large number of companies, infrastructures and equipment and highly qualified workforce, capable to match with the main worldwide “Global Cities”, such as New York, London or Tokyo.
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