Attitudes towards organizational change

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ANALYSING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGES - THE CONNECTION BETWEEN THE SCALE OF CHANGE AND EMPLOYEES ATTITUDES

ANALYSING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGES - THE CONNECTION BETWEEN THE SCALE OF CHANGE AND EMPLOYEES ATTITUDES

Our research results show that organizations more frequently engage in ‘Small scope’ (fine tuning, and incremental adaptation), rather than ‘Large scope’ (modular and organizational transformation) changes. From the adaptation strategy point of view reactive change is the most frequent. Most of the respondents reported positive employee attitudes toward change (cumulatively more than 71%), however the remainder of the employees are neutral (apathetic), or show passive, active or aggressive resistance towards changes. Regarding the connections between the answers we were able to find significant connections when we simplified the examination.
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Exploring associations between attitudes towards climate change and motivational human values

Exploring associations between attitudes towards climate change and motivational human values

constitute a circular structure that reflects the motivation that each value expresses [21]. This structure reveals the compatibilities and conflicts between the ten values and appears to be culturally universal. Schwartz [21] also states that what distinguishes one value from another is the type of objective or motivation that it expresses, and what makes it likely to be universal is the fact that they all result from three basic human needs, i.e., individual needs such as biological organisms, needs resulting from social relationships and survival needs and well-being of the groups. According to Schwartz [16,21,22], the ten human motivational values are universalism, benevolence, conformity, tradition, security, power, achievement, hedonism, stimulation and self-direction. In addition to these ten human motivational values, Schwartz’s theory [11,21,22] explains the structure of the dynamic relationship between the values. At the origin of this organizational structure of values is the fact that actions that seek to achieve a certain value have consequences that conflict with some particular values and that are congruent with distinct ones. This organization allows the ten values to be arranged in a two-dimensional structure, composed of four fundamental orientations (second-order or higher-order values), positioned in two bipolar conceptual axes: one that opposes values of openness to change (hedonism, stimulation and self-direction) values to conservation (conformity, tradition and security) values and another that opposes self-transcendence (universalism, benevolence) values to self-promotion (power and achievement) values [11,21,22].
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THE HUMAN SIDE OF CHANGE- A QUALITATIVE RESEARCH ON A PUBLIC SECTOR HOSPITAL MERGER

THE HUMAN SIDE OF CHANGE- A QUALITATIVE RESEARCH ON A PUBLIC SECTOR HOSPITAL MERGER

Mergers represent an increasingly common phenomenon across both profit and non-profit organizations (Marmenout, 2010). External events triggered by the economic environment or government decisions might force organizations into change. To be able to react promptly has thus become a focal point for organizations to survive in an increasingly competitive setting. As such, the underlying motives and goals associated with mergers may vary. Mergers are often viewed as strategically-driven decisions seeking to create synergies in order to attain competitive edge, increase efficiency or enhance service delivery quality (Cartwright & Schoenberg, 2006). Simultaneously, mergers may also derive from an attempt to withstand the impacts of the aforementioned external contextual factors. In such cases, resource-dependent organizations have little or no control upon the decisions being taken. Facing the possibility of losing autonomy and discretion, organizations tend to respond defiantly towards change implementation. Nonetheless, when change is the result of a governmental policy, compliance is more likely to occur (Oliver, 1991). Previous studies have drawn little attention upon the communication variables related to merger processes. As such, this study proposes to fill what we believe to be an empirical gap, aiming to assess what are employee’s attitudes towards organizational communication strategies following an externally-induced merger process. Organizational communication climate will impact employees’ readiness for change, which will finally shape employees’ commitment towards change. Furthermore, we will try to build upon
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Manuscrito  vol.39 número4

Manuscrito vol.39 número4

In order to explain and justify the asymmetry in our attitudes we should first turn our attention to the common belief that human life must have a beginning. This is not a metaphysical (or logical) claim about existence in general, according to which there must be a past time in which a human being does not exist, but rather a belief in a contingent biological fact, according to which any human being must undergo a biological process, such as natural conception and birth, by which this complex biological creature is created. Perhaps it is metaphysically (and logically) possible for something to exist without having a beginning in time. For example, some philosophers have argued that the universe has no beginning, and according to some interpreters Aristotle believed that species, including homo sapiens, has an infinite past (Lennox 2001, pp. 154-156). Obviously, the relevant idea for the current discussion is the idea of an infinite past of individuals, and indeed there are traditions which believe in reincarnation, and in some versions of the doctrine, there are infinitely many past incarnations. Whether this belief is true or not, it is not common or sufficiently justified, and thus irrelevant for explaining and justifying our prevalent attitudes. (Furthermore, if this belief had reflected the natural and common way of perceiving human life, an asymmetry in our attitudes would be unlikely. For this belief, which is commonly accompanied with the belief in immortality, is usually entertained specifically in order to dispel our fear of death.)
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TheExamining Secondary School Students’ Attitudes Towards Visual Arts Course

TheExamining Secondary School Students’ Attitudes Towards Visual Arts Course

Art education is thought to be quite an important factor in helping students find their own selves. Guiding students to help them determine their skills at an early age and to take education in the fields appropriate to their skills is the key to children’s success in their professional lives. The purpose of this study was to determine secondary school students’ attitudes towards Visual Arts Education. In order to collect the research data, “Attitude Scale towards the Course of Art and Drawing on the Basis of Multi-Field Art Education Method” developed by Orhun (2003) was used. The data were analyzed with the package software of SPSS 18. The participants in the study were 350 students from eight secondary schools located in two districts of the city of Diyarbakır. The results revealed that there were significant differences in the students’ attitudes towards the Visual Arts Course with respect to their gender, computer use and having family members interested in visual arts. On the other hand, no significant difference was found in relation to the students’ ages, their parents’ educational backgrounds or use of the Internet for the Visual Arts Course.
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Attitudes of General Population and  Physicians Towards Alcohol Addiction

Attitudes of General Population and Physicians Towards Alcohol Addiction

10. Arikan K, Uysal O, Cetin G. Public awareness of the efectiveness of psychi- atric treatment may reduce stigma. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci 1999;36(2):95–9. 11. Ünal S, Hisar F, Çelik B, Özgüven Z. Üniversite öğrencilerinin ruhsal hastalığa yönelik inançları. Düşünen Adam Psikiyatri Nöroloji Bilim Derg 2010;23(3):145-50. 12. Demirören M, Şenol Y, Aytuğ Koşan AM, Saka MC. Educational needs assess- ment of stigmatization towards mental illness in medical education: qualitati- ve and quantitative approach. Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry 2015;16(1):22-9. 13. Lim T, Zelaya C, Latkin C, Quan VM, Frangakis C, Ha TV, et al. Individual-level socioeconomic status and community-level inequality as determinants of stigma towards persons living HIV who inject drugs in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam. Journal of international AIDS Society 2013; DOI: 10.7448/IAS.16.3.18637
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Brazilian trade unions' stance towards technological and organizational innovations.

Brazilian trade unions' stance towards technological and organizational innovations.

The article analyzes trade union action that seeks to influence processes of technological and organizational innovation in companies in Brazil. The System for Monitoring Collective Bargaining, under the Inter-Union Department of Statistics and Economic Studies (SACC-Dieese), was used to analyze collective bargaining clauses (1990- 2005) that deal with innovative processes. Interviews were held with leaders of unions belonging to the SACC-Dieese, seeking to understand what actually occurred following formal agreement to the clauses. We observed that the agreed-upon terms were not enforced in practice, revealing that the trade unions’ influence in innovative processes was merely “apparent”. The article seeks to demonstrate that the limited success of Brazilian trade unions in affecting technological and organizational innovations has been due not only to external constraints, but also to the unions’ own limitations in formulating and interacting with technical and organizational changes.
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A case study of employee voice and organizational performance in the context of residential aged care

A case study of employee voice and organizational performance in the context of residential aged care

At the time of rapid changes in population demography due to changes in environmental transformation, economic crisis, globalization forces, information technology, workforce distribution, patterns of diseases and so on, healthcare delivery and funding is becoming increasingly complex and inter-dependent for service users and providers (Baghbanian & Torkfar, 2012; Khammarnia, 2013). Adaptive and innovative healthcare delivery systems are required that can accommodate the healthcare needs of older people with disability, and/or chronic or multiple conditions (Maglio et al., 2015). With safe and flexible workplaces that can also accommodate the needs of healthcare workers in order to enable them to fulfill the inherent requirements of their job (Sanford, 2016). Consideration of employee voice is crucial to their performance and to the positive organizational performance. The present study revealed that components of employee voice and silence namely self-efficacy, motivation and safety contribute to organizational performance. It was found that a positive voice climate acts as an important mediator of organizational and job performance. The study has potential implications for healthcare behaviours mediated by employees’ engagement in decision-making. Healthcare authorities and professionals are encouraged to consider the importance of employee voice and silence while making clinical and organizational decisions related to aged care. The initial findings of this research could be also used as a guide for future studies exploring the antecedents of employees’ voice behavior at work.
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Attitudes towards mental illness in the Commonwealth of Dominica

Attitudes towards mental illness in the Commonwealth of Dominica

No differences based on the commu- nity respondents’ gender were found in knowledge, attitudes, and percep- tion in regards to psychosis. In addi- tion, the respondents’ history of emo- tional or nervous disorder did not significantly affect the results. Among the community-member respondents, older individuals were more likely to believe there was nothing wrong with the person described in the vignette (t = 2.21, df = 131, P < 0.03). In addi- tion, those in the low-SES group more often felt that the person described needed to be in a mental hospital, 44.4% versus 26.8% for the middle-SES group and 16.7% for the high-SES group (x 2 = 14.32, df = 6, P < 0.03).
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Attitudes of the Portuguese Elites towards the European Union

Attitudes of the Portuguese Elites towards the European Union

Civil society and the interest groups representing those who would be most affected by EU membership had practically no role to play during any stage of the accession negotiations. European integration was a decision made by the political elite alone, rather than ‘a response to popular demand’ (Bermeo 1988, p. 14). The governing elites dominated the negotiating process, with only limited involvement of business associations or agricultural organised interests. Both the Confederation of Portuguese Industry (CIP, Confederac¸a˜o da Industria Portuguesa) and the Portuguese Industrial Association (AIP, Associac¸a˜o Industrial Portuguesa) supported accession, although to different extents. The CIP wavered between domestic liberalisation and protectionism towards the EEC, at the beginning demanding more pre-entry economic aid, and later on showing opposition to the final agreements. The AIP adopted a more pragmatic ‘join and see’ position. Nevertheless, despite the CIP’s occasional attacks, the hypothesis that the attitudes of these two organisations reflected an attempt to make the government adopt an aggressive negotiating stance, rather than any principled opposition appears plausible, especially since these attitudes did not enjoy much support among their affiliates. Several interviews with leading figures of the employers’ organisations reveal that their attitudes towards accession were driven by political considerations, the EEC being presented as the ‘guarantor for greater political security that will encourage investment in and modernisation of the productive structures in the country’ (Lucena & Gaspar 1991, p. 899).
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ATTITUDES OF VEGETABLE FARMERS TOWARDS PUBLIC AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICES

ATTITUDES OF VEGETABLE FARMERS TOWARDS PUBLIC AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICES

The rating presented in Table 10 means that the farmers were participating effectively in those rated activities compared to the other extension activities. The activities received the lowest attitude values were workshops and mass media with attitude values of 1.54 and 1.53, respectively. These findings means that farmers’ participation in those activities was a minimal in leaflet activity, with mean attitude values of 1.60 for both. The farmers’ level of participation in these types of services is the main reason for their negative attitude towards the public extension services. This situation could be attributed to insufficient awareness of those farmers about extension types.
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Attitudes of older mobile phone users towards mobile phones

Attitudes of older mobile phone users towards mobile phones

Although there is some evidence that the over-55-years group is not one homogeneous group but contains several sub-groups with distinct life styles, values and motivations (Bone, 1991; Vuori and Holmlund-Rytkönen, 2005), most studies on the adoption of the mobile phone communications by older adults have focused on identifying the determinants of mobile phone usage (e.g., Abascal and Civit, 2000; Chen, Chan, and Tsang, 2013; Conci et al., 2009; Mallenius et al., 2007) without considering the heterogeneity among this group. The segmentations proposed by Antoine (2003) and Krum (2010) are evidence of the distinct subgroups that can be found among the general population of mobile phone users. Different segments among the elderly are also likely to exist since some studies have noted that older people’s motivations for adopt- ing and using mobile technology vary (e.g., Duggan, 2013; European Senior Watch Observatory and Inventory, 2002; Tang, Leung, Haddad, and McGrenere, 2013). Segmenting mobile phone users, permits different feelings towards mo- bile phone adoption to be identified, and this can assist mobile technology designers and service providers when developing new communication devices and services to meet users’ needs and expectations. In fact, older people can only be successfully reached if there is a good understanding of their abilities, needs, and preferences (Rogers and Mynatt, 2003; van Biljon and van Dyk, 2011). This study contributes to this area by segmenting older mobile phone users according to their attitudes towards mobile phones and describing the differences underlying the various groups in terms of usage, key values towards mobile phone communications and socio-demographics. The paper is orga- nized as follows: In the next section, we describe the data and methods of the study. The results are presented in the section that follows, and finally, we present our conclusions and discuss the implications of our findings.
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Attitudes towards Chagas’ disease in an endemic Brazilian community

Attitudes towards Chagas’ disease in an endemic Brazilian community

High rates of recognition of the role of tri- atomine bugs in Chagas’ disease as reported by Bizerra and colleagues (Bizerra et al., 1981) stand in contrast to many reports on knowl- edge and attitudes for other vector-transmitted diseases. For example, malaria studies have frequently shown a lack of accurate knowledge about disease etiology in high-risk areas. A sur- vey conducted in five West African communi- ties showed that only 25-50% of residents identified mosquitoes as the cause of malaria (Aikens et al., 1994). A survey of residents in a coastal plain area in Guatemala found that while 93% of individuals recognized that a mosquito which had previously bitten a malar- ia patient could transmit the disease, a variety of other causes were believed to exist (Ruebush et al., 1992). Fifty percent of residents thought that houseflies could also transmit the disease, 77% thought malaria could result from drink- ing unboiled water, 77% felt that bathing too frequently could result in malaria, and 62% im- plicated lack of sleep as a causal factor (Rue- bush et al., 1992).
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Attitudes and behaviors of Croation consumers towards wine purchasing

Attitudes and behaviors of Croation consumers towards wine purchasing

This paper focuses on the importance of consumers’ habits, preferences and needs in the Croatian wine market to have a better understanding of consumer purchase and consumption behavior. Survey was conducted on Croatian consumers to identify purchasing variables and explain consumer attitudes and behaviors. Along with the online survey, results were also provided using additional journals and research examples. Both measures offered a better understanding of the issues mentioned. Additionally, both may be used in order to implement effective marketing strategies. The results are essential for the preservation of Croatian wine and purchase growth, but also consumption. Moreover, they offer foundations on which to improve Croatian wine offering.
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BAR, Braz. Adm. Rev.  vol.11 número2

BAR, Braz. Adm. Rev. vol.11 número2

Given the relevance of the need to manage parallel careers to attract and retain people in organizations, this paper provides insight into this phenomenon from an organizational perspective. The parallel career concept, introduced by Alboher (2007) and recently addressed by Schuiling (2012), has previously been examined only from the perspective of the parallel career holder (PC holder). The paper provides insight from both individual and organizational perspectives on the phenomenon of parallel careers and considers how it can function as an important tool for attracting and retaining people by contributing to human development. This paper employs a qualitative approach that includes 30 semi-structured one-on-one interviews. The organizational perspective arises from the 15 interviews with human resources (HR) executives from different companies. The individual viewpoint originates from the interviews with 15 executives who are also PC holders. An inductive content analysis approach was used to examine Brazilian companies and the Brazilian office of multinationals. Companies that are concerned about having the best talent on their teams can benefit from a deeper understanding of parallel careers, which can be used to attract, develop, and retain talent. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed.
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LITHUANIAN CONSUMERS’ ATTITUDES AND PURCHASING BEHAVIOUR TOWARDS DOMESTIC LIVESTOCK PRODUCTS

LITHUANIAN CONSUMERS’ ATTITUDES AND PURCHASING BEHAVIOUR TOWARDS DOMESTIC LIVESTOCK PRODUCTS

This study aimed to identify and analyze Lithuanian consumers’ attitudes and purchasing behaviour towards domestic livestock products. In order to get necessary information, Lithuanian residents were interviewed. A multi- stage stratified random sampling was used to select the respondents. This study draws on a survey of 1009 respondents. The analysis of collected data was performed using the methods of mathematical statistics. The results suggest that the vast majority of Lithuanian consumers regularly buy domestic livestock products. Among this group of respondents, the top reasons for purchasing are freshness, good taste and favourable prices. Only a small share of Lithuanian consumers rarely or never buys domestic livestock products. Among this group of respondents, the top reasons for not purchasing are unfavourable prices, short shelf-life and insufficient range of products. Domestic livestock products buyers tend to be older, higher educated and have higher level of income than non-buyers.
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"A house in the woods": values, attitudes and behaviours towards forests

"A house in the woods": values, attitudes and behaviours towards forests

Forests are an important source of resources, but public attitudes towards the forests have rarely been studied. This paper focus on this topic aiming at: (a) describing the attitude towards the forest and its correlates; (b) testing the hierarchic relationship between ecologic values, attitudes and use of the forest; and (c) testing the moderating role of attitudinal ambivalence in the association between attitudes and forest related behaviours. A sample of residents living close to forests was collected (N = 1206). Results show that the attitude towards the forest is quite favourable. More positive attitudes were found in the North, among those working in the forestry and those who live close. Universalistic values are associated with the use of the forest but this relationship was partially mediated by the attitude towards the forest. Finally, attitudinal ambivalence was a predictor of the behaviour, but not a moderator of the attitude behaviour association.
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Inclusion in a superordinate category, ingroup prototypicality, and attitudes towards outgroups

Inclusion in a superordinate category, ingroup prototypicality, and attitudes towards outgroups

Forty-seven participants who stated that they did not work in the field of social psychology took part in the experiment, which was announced as a "Europe Survey" on the Internet. As a cover story, participants were told that our university was studying attitudes towards Europe (or West-Europe, depending on the experimental condition) and the relationship of Germans to their East-European neighbors. Participants could take part online. At the end of the experiment, all of the participants told us that they took part seriously and were not influenced by prior participation in any Internet experiments. The data of seven participants were excluded from analysis because these participants were not Germans. The remaining 19 male and 21 female participants were between 18 and 50 years old (M = 27.4, SD = 6.71). Participants were randomly assigned to one of the two experimental conditions. No gender or age effects were expected, nor were any observed. Thus, gender and age were omitted from later analyses. As an incentive, all participants were included in a lottery that offered a 100 Euro (90 $US) prize.
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U ok w dis? Analysing language attitudes towards internet english

U ok w dis? Analysing language attitudes towards internet english

There are many diferent attitudes towards internet language among scholars and, especially, educators. On the one hand, some advocate that the excessive use of slang, acronyms and abbreviations will impoverish the language and create illiterate students that will, consequently, grow into an illiterate new generation. The BBC presenter John Humphrys argued that “our written language may end up as a series of ridiculous emoticons and everchanging [sic] abbreviations” (2007). It is interesting to highlight that this point of view also implies that users of this language are mainly children and teenagers, already setting an attitude towards the users of the deviant internet language. On the other hand, some point out that “distinguishing between language change and language decline is very tricky business” (Baron, 161:2008) and the internet is merely creating a new linguistic revolution worth studying, as many others before it. For example, abbreviations and acronyms are not a new development in languages; they were not created exclusively by the internet. Back on 1942, the lexicographer Eric Partridge published a Dictionary of Abbreviations, used mainly during the Second World War by armies to communicate faster (Crystal 5:2011). It includes abbreviations with omission of letters and even with deviant spellings. This was seen as an improvement, since increased the speed of writing and it was a necessary feature of language given the circumstances, that is, this deviations served for a concrete purpose. Following the same reasoning, the current deviation of written language caused by and for the internet may be seen as an improvement covering a necessity.
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BAR, Braz. Adm. Rev.  vol.8 número2

BAR, Braz. Adm. Rev. vol.8 número2

Innovative dynamism and access to new knowledge are often considered important triggers of organizational change (Weick & Quinn, 1999). Powell et al. (1996) noted the importance of inter-firm interfaces, particularly close and strong connections, in transferring tacit knowledge. In fact, the strong ties perspective (Krackhardt, 1992; Uzzi, 1996) postulates that frequent interaction, intimacy, trust and reciprocity facilitate the flow of information and knowledge resources among firms and may be better suited for the change implementation process. Park (1996), using a resource-based view, stressed that the transfer of tacit knowledge from other organizations is critical for building a competitive advantage. Brown and Duguid (1991), Porter (1987), Powell et al. (1996) and Ibarra (1993), among, others, have shown that interconnectedness plays a critical role in organizational innovation processes, adoption and diffusion. According to Park (1996, p. 799) “the open-ended, relational features of networks, therefore, greatly enhance the ability to transmit and learn new knowledge and skills for an innovation”. Astley and Fombrun (1983) have noted how technological innovations were carried out mainly by a complex and wide range of inter-firm networks in the telecommunication industry. Shan et al. (1994) found that the number of ties between start-ups and established firms is positively related to their innovative output in the biotechnology industry. Hence, it seems reasonable to suggest that organizational change is fuelled by access to new opportunities and resources, namely knowledge resources, that feed innovations that are likely to be more abundant in denser networks.
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