Avocado oil

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Characteristics of the oil of different varieties of avocado grown in Brazil and a new methodology for extra-virgin avocado oil extraction

Characteristics of the oil of different varieties of avocado grown in Brazil and a new methodology for extra-virgin avocado oil extraction

Currently, avocado is a fruit that has been cultivated in many parts of the world, especially tropical countries. Avocado fruits are existed in different shape, size, color, depending on their variety. Avocado fruit can be consumed directly as a high energy food source because of its content of lipids that are significantly higher than those in other fruits. Besides, avocado fruit is also a good source of oil (Quinones-Islas et al., 2013). Avocado oil has been reported to lower cholesterol level (Moreno et al., 2003), maintain skin elasticity (Athar and Nasir, 2005) and reduce the coronary heart risk (Berasategi et al., 2012). Avocado oil is also widely used in the food industry, cosmetics and health products because of its unique characteristics and functions (Swisher, 1988), especially because of its high content of unsaturated fatty acid. Unsaturated fatty acids include monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), approximately 71%, which is dominated by oleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) which is amounted to 13% of the total fat (Lu et al., 2009). Avocado oil content is highly correlated to fruit dry matter content (Lee et al., 1983; Tango et al., 2004). As fruit mature, the percentage of dry matter increases, as does the oil content; however, there is cultivar-to-cultivar variation in this relationship. Percentage of dry matter content has become the predominant maturity index for avocado harvesting, but it must be cultivar-specific (Bower and Cutting, 1988; Hofman et al., 2002; Lee et al., 1983). California, Australia, and Brazil also use percentage of dry matter content as an indirect measure to determine oil content, and hence maturity, for different cultivars (Lee and Coggins, 1982; Woolf et al., 2004).
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Diversification and reduction of loss of food: a business plan for production of avocado oil in Kenya for the Chinese market

Diversification and reduction of loss of food: a business plan for production of avocado oil in Kenya for the Chinese market

In 2018, the main players in the manufacturing and exporting avocado oils are Olivado, La Durangan, Rolande and Crofts. Olivado has a avocado oil factory located in Muranga which is the leading avocado production county in Kenya. Olivado is both trader and input supplier in the value chain (RSA 2015). The main importers of those oil are Germany, USA, and France. Traditional suppliers of the China market are Olivado, New Zealand brand, while La Durangan, Roland are French brand, and Crofts do OEM for a Taiwan company, which represents the main competitors. La Durangan is a strong competitor in the Chinese market. The sales of total avocado oil has increased over the years all over the world because of stronger awareness of healthy lifestyle and the advertising of benefits of avocado. The competition assessment of avocado oil in China was carried out by the quantitative method.
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Obtenção e estudos de estabilidade de Biohidrogeis de galactomanana aditivado com emulsão de óleo de abacate / Obtaining and stability studies of galactomannan biohydrogeals with an avocado oil emulsion

Obtenção e estudos de estabilidade de Biohidrogeis de galactomanana aditivado com emulsão de óleo de abacate / Obtaining and stability studies of galactomannan biohydrogeals with an avocado oil emulsion

The cosmetic industry has invested heavily in research aimed at incorporating natural products with the purpose of replacing synthetic materials. Aiming at this purpose, the use of biohydrogeals derived from natural polymers present several benefits that make this gel an excellent choice for incorporation in cosmetics, such as: property of entumecer in water and biological fluids, making its characteristics wide in the application of natural products in cosmetics. Galactomanana is an example of natural polymer that can be used in the production of biohydrogeals. Depending on the application, natural biohydrogeals offer advantages over synthetic agents, including increased hydrophilicity and increased porosity. The use of emulsions is beneficial as they are able to increase the bioavailability of bioactive lipophilic substances without leaving the skin feeling oily. Avocado oil has a high nutritional value due to the volume of vitamins, proteins, fibers and minerals present in the fruit. High levels of bioactive phytochemical compounds such as vitamin E, carotenoids sterols, phenolic compounds and an antioxidant potential. Due to its characteristics and its vast low cost production the oil becomes an excellent choice to replace synthetic products. In this work, a galactomannan biohydrogel, obtained from Delonix regia, containing an avocado oil emulsion, was developed. The product obtained was subjected to stability and antioxidant tests.
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Influence of temperature and time during malaxation on fatty acid profile and oxidation of centrifuged avocado oil

Influence of temperature and time during malaxation on fatty acid profile and oxidation of centrifuged avocado oil

From the results discussed above, we can confirm that the highest proportion of oil was extracted with the treatments that included malaxation at 50 °C for 120 min. However, the treatments whose malaxation conditions were 50 °C for 30 and 60 min had equivalent yields, lower but not statistically different (p ≥ 0.05). The use of shorter malaxation times would be an improvement for the process since it would speed up extraction. However, the treatments with 30 and 60 min malaxation were also equivalent to those treatments in which the lowest proportion of oil was recovered (p ≥ 0.05). Moreover, the treatments with higher extraction percentages preserved high proportions of monounsaturated FA (oleic and palmitoleic) (p ≤ 0.05), the smallest proportions of linoleic acid and, in the case of the treatment at 40 °C for 120 min, of linolenic acid (p ≤ 0.05). Although there were small proportions of ω-6:ω-3 FA, there were no statistical differences in the nutritional quality index of the oils studied (p ≥ 0.05), which were within a narrow range of values and, overall, were low and equivalent to those reported in other studies (Massafera et al., 2010). For this reason, we consider the proportion of linoleic acid, relative to that of linolenic acid, is favorable for health in all the cases analyzed regardless of the malaxation temperature used. The oxidative effect on the normalized FA profile, measured as the proportion of linoleic acid to palmitic acid, was a more marked reduction with increased malaxation times (p ≥ 0.05), but not with the tested temperatures. However, the coefficients of absorption in the ultraviolet region (K 232 and K 270 ) indicated that the oxidation level of avocado virgin oil remained low. Thus, the 120 min malaxation time improved oil extraction yields from Mexican Hass avocados and using temperatures of 40 or 50 °C equally contribute to an adequate nutritional profile. Table 5. Nutritional and oxidative parameters in cold extracted avocado oil (Persea americana var. Hass) using different malaxation times and temperatures.
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PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND RHEOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF AVOCADO OILS

PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND RHEOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF AVOCADO OILS

Avocado oil is rich in bioactive compounds, which can improve human health by acting as an antioxidant. It may be extracted from different varieties of avocado, such as Margarida and Hass varieties, each of them with particular characteristics. Aiming to evaluate the differences between them, avocado fruits and pulps from these were analyzed according to their physicochemical characteristics. After extracted, the oils had their bioactive characteristics studied and rheological behavior determined through a rotational rheometer. They were then compared to commercial avocado oil. The fruits of Margarida variety had greater size, higher weight (664.51 g), and higher pulp yield (72.19%) than Hass variety, which showed higher lipid content (65.29 g/100 g dry basis). The commercial oil showed less primary oxidative degradation, whereas Margarida variety had a lower level of secondary degradation products as well as a higher content of bioactive compounds, such as phytosterols (999.60 mg/kg) and tocopherols (36.73 mg/kg). The rheological behaviors of both oils were appropriately described through Newton model, with R 2 > 0.999 for all temperatures. By
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Influence of different cultivars on oil quality and chemical characteristics of avocado fruit

Influence of different cultivars on oil quality and chemical characteristics of avocado fruit

The avocado oil, which is similar in composition to olive oil, is highly digestible and consists mainly of unsaturated fatty acids, predominantly oleic acid (Gómez-López, 1998, 1999), which contributes to the consistency and the special taste of the fruit (Sinyinda & Gramshaw, 1998). The avocado oil content is used as a parameter to evaluate the maturation stage of the fruit for harvest purposes (Donadio, 1995). For this reason, the lipid fraction of the avocado fruit has been studied by several authors, focusing on the composition of its fatty acids (Bora et al., 2001; Frega et al., 1990; Freitas et al., 1993; Martinez Nieto et al., 1988; Ratovohery  et  al., 1988; Soares  et  al., 1991; Southwell  et  al., 1990). Gómez-López (2002) characterized the Collinson and Barker cultivars in terms of their high oil content (112.3 to 188.0 g/kg of pulp). Although several authors (Bora et al., 2001; Brasil, 1971; Gómez-López, 2002; Lozano et al., 1993; Martinez Nieto et al., 1988; Medina, 1980; Morton, 1987; Turatti & Canto, 1985) have studied the chemical composition of avocado pulp, only a few of them reported the oil and moisture content of the avocado pulp of the Fortuna (Brasil, 1971; Medina, 1980), Collinson (Brasil, 1971; Medina, 1980; Morton, 1987; Gómez- López, 2002) and Barker (Medina, 1980; Turatti & Canto, 1985; Gómez-López, 2002) cultivars. Moreover, all of these researchers studied the same compositional characteristics, such as proteins, fibers, ash, and carbohydrates of the avocado pulp of the Fortuna, Collinson, and Barker cultivars, and in their evaluation of lipid quality, only a very few fatty acids were reported. These studies focused on the pulp, while the seeds, which account for 100 to 300 g/kg of the fruit (Bora et al., 2001) and the peel, 50 to 220 g/kg (Freitas et al., 1993), have not been studied in detail in terms of their fatty acid profile.
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The outlook for US oil dependence

The outlook for US oil dependence

The potential monopoly power of an oil cartel depends on its market share and the elasticities of oil supply and demand, while the economic vulnerability of oil-consuming states[r]

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PECTIN DEGRADATION IN RIPENING AND WOUNDED FRUITS

PECTIN DEGRADATION IN RIPENING AND WOUNDED FRUITS

The effect of degalactosylation on the physical properties of pectins is not known. β - Galactosidases/exo-galactanases from avocado (de Veau et al., 1993) and muskmelon (Ranwala et al., 1992) fruits were shown to induce mol mass downshifts in isolated pectin fractions, presumably via hydrolysis of pectic galactans. In the latter study, treatment of an EDTA-soluble pectin with a high-saline extractable &-galactosidase resulted in mol mass downshifts far in excess of those noted during muskmelon ripening. Scrutiny of the gel filtration profiles, however, reveals no evidence for monomers, the expected product of β - galactosidase/exo-galactanase action (Carey et al., 1995; Ross et al., 1993). Since the enzymes used by Ranwala et al. (1992) were only partially purified, the participation of enzymes other than & -galactosidases in the pectin mol mass downshifts in ripening muskmelon fruit cannot be discounted. In support of this view, Hadfield et al. (1998) reported that expression of melon cDNA clones with high homology to PG clones from other fruits coincided with the onset of pectin mol mass downshifts and with the accumulation of pectin-degrading activity.
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Interactions between zooplankton and crude oil: toxic effects and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

Interactions between zooplankton and crude oil: toxic effects and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

We conducted ship-based crude oil exposure experiments to investigate the effects of crude oil on survival and bioaccumulation of PAHs in mesozooplankton from the northern Gulf of Mexico. Natural mesozooplankton assemblages (community-based ap- proach) were incubated onboard with natural seawater, which contained emulsified crude oil at a concentration between 10– 100 m l L 21 (Table 1). Each experiment consisted of three replicates at each crude oil concentration (‘‘experimental bottles’’) and three control treatments (no crude oil added, ‘‘control bottles’’). Water for these incubations was collected from Niskin bottles from the deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM, surface waters during this cruise) and transferred directly into acid-washed 1 L polycarbonate bottles with silicon tubing using a 3-step filling procedure to ensure homogeneity between replicates. Sea water samples (4 L) from the DCM were filtered through pre-incinerated GF/F filters and frozen (-20 uC) for further analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as the background level. Aliquots from the zooplankton concentrate sample were added to the experimental and control bottles. Two additional aliquots were preserved in 4% buffered formaldehyde for later analysis of the initial copepod composition and concentration. After adding emulsified oil to the corresponding experimental bottles, bottles were incubated on deck in a large transparent acrylic container mounted to a plankton wheel with open-circuit seawater from 5-m depth running through it, thus providing exposure to sunlight and in situ temperature. The water temperature during the incubations was 25.5uC. After 16 hours of incubation, the contents of each bottle were gently screened through a submerged 150 m m mesh sieve to collect the zooplankton. Zooplankton were then rinsed 2 times with FSW, concentrated and placed in a beaker with 220 ml FSW. One aliquot with at least 20 individuals was placed in Petri dishes filled with 0.2 m m filtered seawater and then, checked for swimming activity and survival after 5 min. After 1 hour of being removed from the crude oil, we checked the copepods again for signs of recovery. One aliquot (20 ml) for the zooplankton concentrate was preserved in 4% buffered formaldehyde for later analysis of the final copepod species composition and abundance. The remaining sample was filtered again using a 150 m m mesh sieve and thoroughly rinsed with surface seawater using a pressure hose to minimize oil droplets that could potentially be attached to the copepods. Then, the rinsed copepod samples were filtered onto pre-combusted (450uC, 6 h) glass-fiber filters (GF/F) and frozen (220uC) until further hydrocarbon analysis. For the estimation of abundance and species composition of natural mesozooplankton assemblages, one aliquot of at least 100 organisms from each sample was examined under a stereomicroscope.
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J. Braz. Chem. Soc.  vol.28 número2

J. Braz. Chem. Soc. vol.28 número2

The proximate composition, mineral contents and fatty acid composition of different parts (peel, pulp and seeds) of seven tropical fruits were evaluated. Beyond that, this study aims to evaluate the effect of drying processing on peels. Pulp and peel showed highest moisture values (65.7-93.3%), while the seed ranged from 5.8 to 67.2%. The drying processing of peels decreased moisture values (2.3-18.7%). Furthermore, drying processing did not affect ash contents, total crude protein, lipids and fiber values and fatty acid composition for avocado, pineapple, banana, papaya, passion fruit, watermelon and melon. A wide range of mineral contents was noted in different parts of fruit and calcium and potassium were found in larger quantities (25.4 to 4808 mg per 100 g). The fruits exhibited essential fatty acids as omega-6 and omega-3 with the largest contents observed in the peels and seeds (31.4 to 1970 mg per 100 g).
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Braz. J. Chem. Eng.  vol.22 número1

Braz. J. Chem. Eng. vol.22 número1

Abstract - Surface-active bio-oil (SABO) solutions, prepared from vacuum pyrolysis bio-oil with a phenol- to-levoglucosan mass ratio of 4.8, was compared to pine-oil (PO) as foaming agent in the process of flotation of sulfured copper minerals. With the aid of 2 3 factorial designs, regression models were obtained for % Cu in flotation concentrate (L Cu ) and % Cu recovery (R), as functions of foaming agent-to-Cu mineral, collector-to-

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PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF A CI ENGINE OPERATED ON VEGETABLE OILS AS ALTERNATIVE FUELS

PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF A CI ENGINE OPERATED ON VEGETABLE OILS AS ALTERNATIVE FUELS

The present energy scenario has stimulated active research interest in non- petroleum, renewable and non-polluting fuels. The world reserves of primary energy and raw materials are obviously limited. The enormous growth of the global population, increased technical development and standards of living in industrial nations has led to this intricate situation in the field of energy supply and demand. The prices of crude oil keep rising and fluctuating on a daily basis. This necessitates developing and commercialising bio-origin fossil fuel alternatives. This may well be the main reason behind the growing awareness of and interest in unconventional bio-energy sources and fuels in various developing countries which are striving to offset the oil monopoly. There have been many attempts to use vegetable oils in diesel engines. Many researchers have reported encouraging engine performance with short-term usage, but have faced degraded engine performance after prolonged operation with vegetable oils. The reported problems include fuel filter clogging, deposit build-up in the combustion chamber, injector coking, piston ring sticking and lubrication oil thickening, all of which necessitate overhauling the engine and changing some parts (Lin et al., 2006; Khan et al., 2006; Altan et al., 2001; Kumar Reddy, 2000). The cumulative operation hours before overhaul is needed are shorter for vegetable oils than for diesel. One major obstacle in using vegetable oils is their high viscosity, which causes clogging of fuel lines, filters and injectors. In order to reduce the viscosity of vegetable oils, three methods have been found to be effective: transesterification, mixing with a lighter oil (blending) and pre-heating.
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Chromatographic analysis and comparison of chemical composition of the samples between olive oils in Europe and some chinese oils

Chromatographic analysis and comparison of chemical composition of the samples between olive oils in Europe and some chinese oils

It is easy to see that the data points obtained in Figure 13 are not grouped by the regions proposed above, they seem rather randomly distributed than grouped by geographical proximity, even the two samples that were more separated geographically from the rest of the set (S-13 andS15, from Cataluña) were quite mingled among the others. By observing this scores plot, it could lead us to believe that between these two countries the geographical location of production has little to do with the fatty acids’ proportion in the olive oil. The lack of clarity and the lower percentage of variance explained by the first two PCs might be due to the fact that measurements often contain variables that may be irrelevant to the property under investigation, producing just noise to the model.
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Analysis of the efficiency of wind turbine gearboxes using the temperature variable

Analysis of the efficiency of wind turbine gearboxes using the temperature variable

oil types: (A) active power curves as a function of wind speed; (B) oil temperature inside gearboxes as a. 536[r]

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Energy efficiency and sustainable growth in the industrial sector, evidence of European Union countries, Nonlinear ARDL approach

Energy efficiency and sustainable growth in the industrial sector, evidence of European Union countries, Nonlinear ARDL approach

 Electricity generated by oil source (OIL) –This variable represents electricity generated by the oil, to understand how this source influences the energy efficiency of the i[r]

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Rev. LatinoAm. Enfermagem  vol.20 número2

Rev. LatinoAm. Enfermagem vol.20 número2

In relation to prior history of allergies: eight (44.4%) of the patients reported some prior event of reaction at the time of the pre-anesthetic consultation (E1, E2, E5, E7, E11, E13, E14, E17). The reported sources of allergic reactions included rubber gloves (E1, E2, E5), balloons (E2, E5), citric fruits (E13), avocado (E2), American ambrosia (E14), and shellish (E7). The source was not reported in one of the studies (E11), and in another study (E17), the patient had already been diagnosed with a latex allergy through a laboratory test and underwent a latex free surgery, but the reaction occurred due to exposure to the transplanted organ.
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Determining an Efficient Solvent Extraction Parameters for
Re-Refining of Waste Lubricating Oils

Determining an Efficient Solvent Extraction Parameters for Re-Refining of Waste Lubricating Oils

parameters difference depend on the sludge removal in percent from waste lubricating oil and the polymer found normally in waste oils additives, Concluded that as difference in the solubility parameters increase, the solvent capability increases to remove the impurities and additives from the waste lubricating oil [13]. In the experimental work effective parameters of solvent extraction has been studied i.e. solvent type, solvent to oil ratio and temperature of extraction, based on the experimental results of oil losses and sludge removal aim to know about different in solubility among oil and solvent that decreases in the light of well-known hypothesis of Elias that oil decreases due to increases in miscibility of solvent in oil, as a result oil losses decreases experimentally determined at various extraction conditions [14].
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Túlio Henrique Leite de ANDRADE1 , Leonardo Augusto Fonseca PASCDAL1, Terezinha Domiciano Dantas MARTONS1 , José Humberto Vilar SOLVA1 , Jordanio Fernandes da SOLVA1, Pedro Henrique WATANABE

Túlio Henrique Leite de ANDRADE1 , Leonardo Augusto Fonseca PASCDAL1, Terezinha Domiciano Dantas MARTONS1 , José Humberto Vilar SOLVA1 , Jordanio Fernandes da SOLVA1, Pedro Henrique WATANABE

Dn the other hand, the modulation of fatty acid profile of meat could increase oxidation and lipid peroxidation, thus reducing the shelf life of meat. The TBARS value quantifies the content of malondialdehyde, a secondary product of the decomposition of unsaturated fatty acid hydroperoxides (Ayala et al., 2014), which are formed during the oxidation process; therefore, vegetable oils tend to result in higher values because they present a greater number of unsaturations in their structures. Although higher levels of TBARS were observed in meat under 12 days of refrigeration, similar values between rabbit meat fed diet with animal fat, soybean oil and sunflower oil may be related to the presence of tocopherols which antioxidant effect resulted in the protection of polyunsaturated fatty acids present in these vegetable oils (Grilo et al., 2014).
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Fuel Pellets Production from Biodiesel Waste

Fuel Pellets Production from Biodiesel Waste

yield per acre will be increased from 0.48 ton/hectare to 0.56 ton/hectare. Crude palm oil production left large amount of palm fiber and shell as waste. To increase their value, palm fiber and shell were selected to be raw materials of Pelletized fuel. Despite most wastes from palm oil production are currently used, i.e. palm shell is sold to be fuel in other industries or used as raw material for briquettes, empty palm fruit brunch is used for mushroom production, and palm fiber is used as fuel for electricity and steam production in factories; a lot of palm fiber is still left as waste because its bulky particles which are difficult for transportation (Chavalparit, 2006). Palm fiber is a possible raw material to be pelletized to be used in industrial furnace. There were a lot of researches reported that biowaste such as bean pod, cereal husk, cotton waste, wheat straw, etc.; can be pelletized to be utilized as good fuel (Fasina, 2008; Ryu et al., 2008; Holt et al., 2006; Mani et al., 2006). Bergstorm et al. (2008) reported that raw material particles and temperature affect pelletized fuel characteristics. Ohman et al. (2004) concluded that ash quantity is an index for quality of pelletized fuel. Good pelletized fuel should contain small amount of ash and raw material should not consist of wood.
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The Olive Oil Tourism as a Development Factor in Rural Areas

The Olive Oil Tourism as a Development Factor in Rural Areas

The Baena Denomination of Origin has 19 olive oil mills producing extra-virgin olive oil that can be visited by the tourists. Indeed, the different olive oil mills and the Denomination of Origin management are articulating different initiatives for the visitors, letting them obtain knowledge from all the olive oil production process. In addition olive oil tasting is taking place as well as the “marriage” of olive oil with food. In this Denomination there are five museums which reflect the ancient heritage of this form of agricultural production. The Denomination of Origin conducts research projects centered on the olive grove and olive oil. Also, the tourist can find, together with the olive oil tasting, beautiful landscapes within a prestigious and renowned National Park.
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