ABSTRACT: Roasted coffee is subject to loss of quality due to aging, and the intensity of these losses is influenced by packaging. The objective in this study was to evaluate the possible losses in the sensory quality of a specialty roasted coffee, stored in beans for 150 days in different packages and storage temperatures. The experiment was carried out in the Coffee Classification and Industrialization Laboratories of IFSULDEMINAS Campus Muzambinho. The coffee was roasted and after 48 hours it was packed in three different packages and kept stored at room temperature and refrigerated at 18ºC ± 1ºC for 150 days, with evaluations every 50 days, starting from zero time. The experimental design used was entirely randomized with 3 repetitions. Sensory evaluation was performed by three Q-Grader judges, according to the SCAA protocol. The data were evaluated using the SISVAR software, and when significance between treatments was detected, the regression and Scott-Knott tests were applied at the 5% probability level. The packaging used for storage did not interfere in the quality of the coffee. There was an interaction between temperature and storage time for the sensory attribute “body”. The quality decreased linearly with the storage time, from 86 to 80 points, to 84 days of storage.
Colour loss of green vegetables, such as green beans during frozen storage, is mainly attributed to the fading of the vivid green to an olive brown colour, due to chlo- rophyll’s pheophytisation, by the replacement of chloro- phyll magnesium by hydrogen (Dietrich, Boogs, Nutting, & Weinstein, 1960; Heaton, Lencki, & Mar- agoni, 1996; Schwartz & Von Elbe, 1983). Colour has been shown to be stable at low temperatures (e.g. T < 18 C). At this temperature metal–chlorophyll compounds, such as cupric–chlorophyll, retain a vivid green colour (e.g. the same eﬀect is obtained with zinc complexes, such as the bright green colour of canned peas).
SOUZA, E.P.; PERINO, F.H.B.; MOSCATO, B.S.; FREITAS, P.G.N.; BLUMER, S.; CARDOSO, A.I.I.; BONINI, C.S.B.; BONINI NETO, A. Extract of propolis in control of Penicillium sp. and in the quality of cauliflower seeds. Brazilian Journal of Biosystems Engineering, v.11, n.2, p.135-141, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.18011/bioeng2017v11n2p135-141 STONE, L. F.; FERREIRA, E. P. de B.; DIDONET, A. D.; HEINEMANN, A. B.; OLIVEIRA, J. P. de. Correlation between common bean yield under organic production and soil attributes. Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental, v.17, n.1, p.19-25, 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1415-43662013000100003 TAKANO, H.K.; BRAZ, G.B.P.; JUNIOR, R.S.O.; CONSTANTIN, J.; RIOS, F.A.; GHENO, E.A.; BIFFE, D.F.; FRANCHINI, L.H.M. Reduction of phytotoxicity by herbicides applied in common beans with the use of fungicides. Revista Agrarian, v.8, n.27, p.12-22, 2015. TOLEDO, M.Z.; FONSECA, N.R.; CÉSAR, M.L.; SORATTO, R.P.; CAVARIANI, C.; CRUSCIOL, C.A.C. Physiological quality and storage of bean seeds as affected by late side dressing nitrogen. Pesquisa Agropecuária Tropical, v.39, n.2, p.124-133, 2009. VANZOLINI, S.; TORRES, R.M.; PANIZZI, R.C. Effects of size, density and fungicidal treatment on peanut seed quality. Revista Ceres, v.47, n.274, p.603-612, 2000.
Home storage is the final step of the frozen foods distribution chain, and little is known on how it affects the products quality. The present research describes frozen green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) quality retention profile during the recommended ‘star marking’ system dates, at the storage temperatures of þ 5, 2 6, 2 12 and 2 18 8C (along 1, 4, 14 and 60 days, respectively). The quality profile was assessed by a simulation system. Simulations were set by a response surface methodology to access the effect of different packaging materials (thermal conductivities and thickness), surface heat transfer coefficient, and refrigerator dynamics (effect of refrigeration cycles at the different storage temperatures) on the average retentions of Ascorbic Acid, total vitamin C, colour and flavour.
The seeds used were obtained from the Study of Lineages and Cultivars Bean, conducted in Lages, in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The geographic coordinates of Lages are 27° 52’ 30” South latitude and 50° 18’ 20” West longitude. After harvesting, the beans were stored for different periods under different conditions. A factorial design of 2 × 5 × 6 with three replications was used. The bean genotypes used were IPR Uirapuru (black) and IPR Juriti (carioca). They were submitted to five periods of storage of 0, 45, 120, 240, and 360 days after harvest; the zero day of storage refers to cooking the grain immediately after harvest. The storage conditions were the following: i) transparent and semi-permeable plastic package in uncontrolled ambient ; ii) transparent and semi-permeable plastic package in a dry chamber; iii) transparent and semi- permeable plastic package in the freezer; iv) kraft paper package in uncontrolled ambient ; v) kraft paper package in a dry chamber, and vi) kraft paper package in the freezer.
Colour loss at high storage temperatures (e.g. T > 12 C) has been related to chlorophyll’s phe- ophytisation. Pheophytisation is enhanced by the in- crease in H þ concentration, in which the center magnesium of chlorophylls is replaced by hydrogen, forming pheophytine. Pheophytine gives an olive-brown colour to green beans. Colour is, nevertheless, stable at low temperatures (e.g. T < 18 C). A possible expla- nation is the increase in concentration of metal ions, such as copper and zinc, which compete with H þ for the center magnesium, forming metal–chlorophyll com- pounds that retain a vivid bright green colour.
Pastor-Cavada et al. (2013) evaluated whole corn and rice with legumes in extrused produts and found mineral availability of iron ranging from 6.4 to 16.3% and 10 to 16.3% for zinc. Hemalatha et al. (2007) found a bioavailability of zinc value of 52.5% and 10.2% for Fe in French beans; these values are higher than those found in the current study. Sandberg (2002) stated that the presence of phytic acid, polyphenols, and dietary fiber in these food sources exert antagonistic effects on the absorption of calcium, iron, and zinc, which could explain the low availability of those minerals. The nutritional composition of beans can vary widely due to varietal differences and environmental conditions of production, but the grains of the aforementioned cultivars were subjected to the same plantation conditions, which guarantee equal treatment in cultivation. Variations in the micronutrient content of grains can be attributed to a number of factors: plant characteristics, such as plant age, maturity, species, variety, cultivar, and diet; environmental features, such as climate, soil, rainfall, and season; and processing factors, such as storage time, temperature, method of preservation, and preparation of food. Therefore, it can be said that the grains analyzed in this study had similar characteristics.
The knowledge of the adsorption hygroscopic equilibrium in coffee is pertinent for the adequacy of its storage, thus ensuring the quality of the product to the end consumer. The present study aimed to determine the adsorption isotherms of Arabica coffee (Acauã Novo cultivar) beans at the temperatures of 30 ºC, 40 ºC, 50 ºC and 60 ºC, as well as the integral adsorption isosteric heat. The equilibrium moisture contents were obtained by the gravimetric static method, using water activities between 0.10 and 0.83 (decimal). From the obtained data, several mathematical models were fitted to represent the adsorption isotherms. The statistical criteria for selecting the best model were the coefficient of determination, estimated mean standard error, relative mean error and distribution of residues. The Peleg model was the one that best represented the adsorption isotherms of the Arabica coffee beans under the studied conditions. The isotherms showed a sigmoidal type II shape. For a constant water activity, an increase in the temperature promotes a decrease in the equilibrium moisture content of Arabica coffee beans. In a moisture content range between 0.0191 and 0.2534 (dry base), the isosteric heat values ranged from 4,042.19 kJ kg -1 to
Além da beleza e da sensualidade das personagens femininas, a atmosfera de conquista vendida pela Chilli Beans é fartamente alimentada pelo teor erótico que permeia suas peças publicitárias. Essa erotização, que se expressa em práticas, papéis e comportamentos sexuais, leva ao mito traduzido pelo elogio ao sexo expresso de modos bem distintos, que vão da exposição sensual de belos corpos (Figura 2D) até chamadas provocantes, como: E se colocar pimenta? (Figura 2C). Entre as práticas sexuais retratadas, além do conhecido jogo de sedução entre homem e mulher, destacam-se performances de strip-tease (Figura 2A), convites para o sexo a três (Figura 2E) e para a masturbação (Figura 2F). Os papéis sexuais femininos compreendem da ninfeta (Figura 2G) à prostituta (Figura 2H). Já a figura masculina ganha corpo no cafajeste saliente e tarimbado (Figura 2I), no senhor inseguro diante da jovem ninfeta (Figura 2G) e no pós-adolescente que acabou de descobrir o sexo (Figura 2F). Os comportamentos, por fim, oscilam entre a incitação à traição (Figura 2J) e o falso moralismo, que disfarça desejos reprimidos (Figura 3A).
The model correctly estimated the crop cycle length as well as the dates of phenological stages (Table 2). The simulated and the observed dates coincided satisfactorily. The flowering was estimated as 54 days after sowing (DAS), the onset of the first pod as 61 DAS and the physiological maturity as 96 DAS. Other studies had already proved the ability of this model in simulating the phenology of other cultivars of beans, corroborating our findings (MEIRELES et al., 2002; OLIVEIRA et al., 2012).
Diante desse cenário, enaltecer o turismo em Portugal, com destaque para a cidade de Lisboa, faz-se importante, pois pensar nos turistas é focar em um público-alvo em expansão. No caso específico do nosso projeto, Go Beans: Descubra Lisboa, a eleição destes como o consumidor final, deu-se ao fato de que é mais fácil manter um produto enquanto uma novidade por mais tempo, quando nos focamos em um público- alvo rotativo. Além disso, o turismo possui um forte apelo comercial, pois viajar e/ou conhecer um lugar novo, cria memórias e deixa saudade (função simbólica) 19 .
It was not possible to select common bean cultivars with a simultaneous high grain yield, regression coefficient equal to 1 unit (broad adaptability), and regression deviation equal to zero (high stability), which is considered ideal according to the criteria described by Eberhart and Russell (1966). Similarly, Oliveira et al. (2006) and Domingues et al. (2013) observed that this method was not efficient at selecting common bean cultivars with stability for grain yield. These results are not consistent with those previously reported by Burrato et al. (2007), Faria et al. (2009), and Barili et al. (2015a,b) using this methodology for common beans. This is justified because the Eberhart and Russell (1966) method is only efficient at identifying ideal cultivars when the data are adjusted to the linear model, i.e., with lower deviation values and regression coefficients close or equal to 1 ( β 1i = 1 and σ di 2 = 0), which was not observed in the present study or in those by Oliveira et al. (2006) and Domingues et al. (2013).
In an age of mobile technology energy storage has become an extremely important issue as the energy sources such as fossil fuels and natural gas are not infinitely available and even if they were, their combustion or end products are not environment friendly. Exploring sustainable clean energy sources and environmental technology to satisfy the world’s growing demand are emerging as one of the foremost challenges for this century [1-2]. One of the alternatives among renewable energy resources is to use hydrogen gas (H 2 ) as a new energy carrier, once it is
On the other hand, the BitTorrent protocol has made a big agitation on the file sharing community, and is nowadays one of the most used protocol in Internet. The advantages of this protocol are well know, particularly in terms of supporting distributed storage and efficient transfer of large files. The possibility to download (and upload) a file from several locations simultaneously allows excellent transfer speeds and the replicas allow for good availability.
Another important feature is the way dashcams record video. In almost all cases, dashcams use either a micro SD card or some form of local storage to house data. And at first glance that may not seem like the best idea, especially when considering how big some video files can be and the growing image quality in dash cameras. However video isn’t saved in "trips" that could sometimes last hours, they are saved in clips of, usually 2 or 3 minutes, but that can go up to 10 (according to user preference). When the storage is full, instead of not recording new footage, the oldest clips are deleted (as long as they aren’t specifically marked to be saved) and replaced with new footage, thus making the somewhat limited space of an SD card virtually "limitless".
ABSTRACT - Sudangrass stands out for being tolerant to drought and saline stress. However, studies on production of seeds and post-harvest technologies are insuficient considering both the demand and potential of this crop. This study aimed to monitor physiological quality of sudangrass seeds stored under different environmental conditions for a period of 18 months. Sudangrass seeds were stored under four conditions (natural environment, dry chamber, frost free, freezer). Physiological quality was assessed before storage and then every semester until 18 months by germination and vigor tests. Variance tests were applied for statistical analysis and means were compared as a 4 x 4 factorial. Storage environments were compared by the Tukey test (p ≤ 0.05) and storage time by regression analysis. Speed and percentage of seedling emergence are reduced after 15-month storage of sudangrass seeds whereas seed germination, seedling development and seed weight are preserved until 18 months. Storing seeds under natural environment decrease vigor faster than conservation in dry chamber, frost free and freezer, although seedling growth is higher in that condition compared to the others.
Seed storage under controlled environmental conditions represents one of the most important lines of research to be applied on short-lived forest species as Handroanthus. The present research aimed to identify the most suitable seed storage conditions and longevity behavior of Handroanthus umbellatus seeds subject to the following storage treatments: packaging permeable paper bags under a no-controlled laboratory temperature and humidity (control) and multiwall semipermeable bag at temperatures of -18 ºC, 1 ºC and 25 ºC. Seeds were dried to 6.3% of water content. Stored seeds were evaluated every three months until 24 months for water content, germination percentage and vigor utilizing first counting test. Seeds of T. umbellata are orthodox, with low longevity under natural conditions, once they remain viable for less than 5 months. The best conditions of seed preservation of these species were obtained by storage at -18° C in multiwall bags. Under these conditions physiological seed quality remains unchanged for a 24-month period.
During the last decades, severe structural changes have been introduced to the distribution and transmission networks due to the challenges imposed by the increase in energy demand, the need of electrification and/or interconnection of new areas, the need of a better integration of the growing share of renewable energy sources (RES), and other technical requirements of the networks, as well as environmental policies or proposals related to the decarbonization. Nowadays, with the accelerated growth, the technical maturity achieved and the diverse technological offer, energy storage systems (ESS) have attracted the attention of electric power systems and have positioned themselves as a technological solution that can offer both technical, economic, and environmental benefit ,. ESS can convert, through an external interface, electrical energy into a form of storable energy to convert it back into electrical energy and deliver it to distribution or transmission systems when necessary or economically interesting.