humidity, since the activities of the antagonist may be also increased by high hu midity (5). However, ou r results su ggest th at low temperatures are determinant for non recommending Trichoderma applications for control of whitemold on common beans in the Zona da Mata region and other Brazilian regions where beans are cultivated as fall-winter crop, since this condition favor more the pathogen than the antagonist. Further studies in these regions could focus the biological control with antagonists more adapted to moderate temperatures, as Conyothirium minitans Campbell (14).
Approximately 35% of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) harvested in the State of Minas Gerais are produced in sprinkler irrigated areas during fall-winter period. One of the most important diseases affecting dry beans in these areas is whitemold caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary. This fungus can infect up to 408 plant species, including tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), and many weeds (Boland & Hall, 1994). Sclerotinia sclerotiorum survives from year to year by means of sclerotia on plant debris or in the soil where they remain alive and infective for three years or longer (Schwartz et al., 1989). Transporting infected plant debris, seed, or soil containing sclerotia to uninfested
(Corujinha). Gene expression was investigated at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 5 days after inoculation. The isolate UFLA 03 caused no significant difference in the relative expression of any gene examined, and was inefficient in discriminating among the genotypes. For the isolate UFLA 116, all of the genes were differentially expressed, as they were associated with resistance to whitemold, and the expressions increased until the third day after inoculation. The 50/5 line was not significantly different from the Corujinha line for all of the genes analyzed. However, this line had a resistance level that was similar to that of Cornell 605, according to the straw test. Therefore, the incorporation of PvPGIP genes can increase the resistance of lines derived from recurrent selection. Key words: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum; Polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein; Endopolygalacturonase; qPCR
In the present study a large MCG was found, composed by 146 isolates and widely distributed across the sampled areas (Fig. 1). This MCG is likely to be older than the others, since the there was no difference in terms of aggressiveness, a surrogate used to estimate fitness. It is interesting to note that there is a North to South gradient in terms of MCG diversity. The higher the latitude, the higher the MCG diversity (Fig. 1). In the northeastern region, fewer fields were sampled, which may have contributed to smaller number of MCGs. Nevertheless, the MCG diversity seems to follow the gradient of common bean production in Brazil. The two largest common bean producer states, Paraná and MG, are located in the southern and southeastern regions, respectively. In the northeast, common bean areas expanded recently, especially in western Bahia state, but this area is much smaller than Paraná and Minas Gerais. In addition, for most part of the northeast environmental conditions are not favorable to whitemold epidemics. In the central region, common bean competes with other crops, mainly soybean and maize, and fewer common bean crops are planted each year compared to southern and southeastern regions. Finally, MCG diversity is higher in areas where common beans are more intensively cultivated because of higher seed trade, which facilitates the introduction of new pathogen genotypes and possibly MCGs.
The lines Jalo EEP 558 and Small White were used as the parents. The cultivar Jalo EEP 558 is semiprostrate, plant type III, with indeterminate growth, grain of intermediate brightness, trade group Manteigão, 100-grain weight of 30-40 g, medium cycle, and adapted to the Southeastern Brazil. It is moderately resistant to whitemold as determined by the straw test and oxalic acid. The cultivar Small White is of Mesoamerican origin, has whitebeans, is plant type IV, has long internodes, and is prostrate. In field trials, it has not shown resistance to whitemold. Although the Small White is not adapted to Brazilian conditions, it is one of the few genotypes that are compatible with Jalo, which is of Andean origin.
using marker assisted selection to assist in the process of recovering individuals with higher frequency of the recurrent genotype. However the SCAR Phs is not efficient in marker-assisted selection in common beans for whitemold physiological resistance adapted in the tropical. This result disagrees with Miklas (2007) who was successful in backcrossing resistance from G122 into susceptible Pinto bean using Phs SCAR for temperate conditions. As mentioned before the QTL from G122 did not express in the present conditions due to its interaction by environments, although it expressed large effect in temperate conditions.
Whitemold, also known as Sclerotinia stem rot, is a damaging disease of worldwide importance for several crops including soybean, canola, cotton, beans, potato and sunflower (Boland and Hall 1994). Symptoms of the disease include water-soaked stem lesions that acquire light brown coloration resulting in the appearance of dense white mycelium - hence the name "whitemold". Severely infected plants may wilt and die prematurely (Peltier et al. 2012). In Brazil, soybean yield losses due to whitemold may reach 70%, and the epidemics have been more commonly reported at high elevation regions (> 600m) where cooler conditions favors the disease (Meyer et al. 2014; Lehner et al. 2016; Meyer et al. 2016). The disease is endemic to approximately 23% (7.7 millions hectares) of soybean production area in Brazil (Meyer et al. 2016). In the United States, losses due to whitemold from 1996 through 2009 were estimated to increase from 10 to 560 million U$ , ranking the disease as the second most important for soybean (Peltier et al. 2012). In addition to causing yield loss, whitemold affects seed germination and soybean quality by reducing oil and protein concentrations in grains (Hoffman et al. 1998; Danielson et al. 2004).
Evaluation of plant architecture in a recurrent se- lection program for whitemold is of great importance since upright architecture, porous canopies, and resis- tance to lodging have much greater capacity for avoiding whitemold disease (Miklas et al., 2013). These traits pro- vide for unfavorable conditions for development of the pathogen. Lodged beans create denser and more com- pact canopies which result in cooler and more humid microclimates favorable to the pathogen. In addition, plant organs in contact with the ground are vulnerable to mycelia infections emanating from colonized senes- cent blossoms and leaf litter on the soil surface (Kolk- man and Kelly, 2002; Kolkman and Kelly, 2003; Miklas et al., 2013). Physiological resistance in combination with disease avoidance traits did not require fungicide ap- plication to protect yield potential under moderate and heavy disease pressure (Miklas et al., 2013).
It is important to consider the entire Symposium not only Socrates’ view because it is relevant to our understanding of the different aspects of love, say, personal love. In Phaedrus, we learn that the non-white horse pursues pleasure. In other words, it enjoys beauty, a person, and Socrates does not refer to a person as composite. Socrates loves beauty as well as justice, fairness, the sunset, and knowledge; here we do not refer to, for example, fairness in terms of its composite. Furthermore, Eryximachos reminds us about the balance between heavenly love and common love, indicating that the whole person should be taken as the object of love. Socrates insists that the object of love is the entire person, and this view is supported by Exupéry who states that what is essential is not visible. Thus, Socrates denies reducing a person to composite. Although I sympathize with Vlastos’ remark because the love of beauty and goodness seems suspicious, Socrates does not intend to express an ambiguous view. Price argues: “To infer that what I really love is not a person, but a complex of repeatable qualities and irrepeatable relations, seems a category-mistake: we must not confuse the object of emotion with its grounds – whether these are its reasons, citable by the subject, or its causes, perhaps hidden from him(.)” 45 A lover’s relation to an object can be shown in
AbStRACt: This paper evaluates the effects of the period of intercropping of hyacinth beans (Dolichos lab-lab) and jack beans (Canavalia ensiformis) on coffee (Coffea arabica) growth and productivity. The treatments were the two legume species combined in a factorial design with four intercropping periods (30, 60, 90 e 120 days after planting). The control treatment consisted of plots with coffee sole crop. The experiment was carried out for two years at Rio Pomba, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The biomass of legumes and the growth and yield of coffee shrubs was quantified in each year. There was a positive linear accumulation of the legume dry matter as intercropping period increased. On the first year, jack beans (2.65 t ha -1 )
O ornamento, assunto inicial desta investigação e um antónimo de white space se o assumirmos imediatamente como liso em contraste com o preenchimento (ausência dele), fez emergir várias reflecções tais como o debruçar sobre a sua necessidade e o que ele realmente significa. Verificou-se que a sua presença tende a relacionar-se frequentemente com várias conotações negativas, tais como o efémero, a sobreposição do autor, irracionalidade económica ligadas à saúde, tempo e dinheiro, onde as políticas regentes tendem a ser as mais desiguais e autoritárias consoante ele estiver mais presente, e até a atividade na deturpação do “bom gosto” e consequente poluição visual é muitas vezes postas em causa. Tentando perceber o que ele realmente significa, fisicamente podemos o entender pela presença do desnecessário ou aquilo que não faça parte, diretamente, com a ação. No entanto Alice Twemlow baralha um pouco esta perceção ao enquadrar o ornamento na possibilidade de também ele ser uma questão mental. Sobre isto, se compreendermos a argumentação de um projeto como uma forma de justificação, a interrogação de Alice parece resolvida. Mas se assumirmos essa mesma argumentação como também ela uma forma de ornamentar a noção que temos de um determinado projeto, isso vai certamente criar vários pontos de conflito no entendimento final. Isto significaria que para excluir o ornamento não só implicaria a ausência total da intervenção individual, remetendo todo o trabalho para um modus comunitário semelhante ao referido por Tshichold, mas também obrigava a exclusão absoluta de premeditação e consciência no trabalho, afastando desde logo qualquer resultado digno da assunção como “design”, a menos que por um acaso de escala semelhante ao de vencer o Euromilhões. Com isto apercebe-se que embora ele possa ter, essencialmente, conotações negativas, será apesar de tudo, necessário e inevitável.
To determine the detection limit of the tenderometer, a sample of whitebeans was thermally processed for 4 h in the oil bath at 110 °C. One hundred g of this sample was measured in the tenderometer unit, giving a value of 20.2 × 10 3 kg/m 2 . Also 100 g of the same sample was pureed and then measured in the tenderometer, giving a value of 0 kg/m 2 . This procedure proved that with very soft whole samples a residual value could still be mea- sured by the equipment and that the value obtained did not correspond to the detection limit of the unit. In relation to the texturometer this study was not done, because there was no doubt that the values measured were very far from the detection limit of the equipment. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using the software STATA program version 3.0 (STATA, 1990). Both two-step and one-step nonlinear regressions (Ar- abshahi and Lund, 1985) were performed, and a regres- sion analysis of the residuals was also carried out (Box et al., 1978).
a staple than rice and beans? The wides- pread appeal of beans and pumpkin and the close relations between corn and do- mestic creations will transform this set of products and popular familiarity into a springboard for related food solutions, in varying combinations and present in large portions of a territory. However, admitting to this also means renouncing the Treaty of Tordesillas, or, more recently, the borders in South American nations, and accepting that the locro, taken as an example here, suggests more of the continuity of this im- mense territory, rather than its discontinui- ty. The study of our culinary arts, however, is heavily taxed by “nationalism,” blurring the image of the forest where one sees the tree. Exchanges between precolonial peo- ples are part of an obscure subject in our history and anthropology. Moreover, diffe- rent food paths based on similar raw mate- rials show that the analysis on the culinary must consider the cultures and history of dish formation, rather than just focusing on the simple study of agriculture as a uni- versalizing force and commodity producer. Besides the locro, others could be ad- ded here to help “measure” the distan- ce which a popular dish may cover throu- ghout the colonial period, at which time the importance of recipe books is little or nonexistent. We all know that the cous- cous, whether from semolina or steamed, arrives in Brazil in the Captaincy of São Vi- cente in the 17 th century. There, semolina
O relato do rio centra-se já na expedição Serpa Pinto ao Niassa em 1889, que resultaria no recontro de Mupassa, ocorrido em 8 de Novembro desse ano e que acabaria por desencadear o Ultimatum. O Chire segue atentamente os acontecimentos e vai exprimindo o ponto de vista africano sobre o homem branco. Tal como Mbewe e Lorenzo, põe em causa a acção de Livingstone e dos seus seguido- res. Porém, mais do que as outras personagens, o rio desmantela os vários topoi em que se baseia o discurso do colonizador. Neste ponto, Landeg White é muito hábil e trabalha os temas com mestria, de forma mais metafórica do que na primeira parte do romance, o que terá sido motivado pelo crescendo do seu próprio processo imagina- tivo. É muito interessante.
The BM187 marker was mapped in LG 6, in which only 1 QTL for resistance to whitemold was previously identified, WM6.1 B60,R31 , first identified in the RIL Benton/NY6020-4 population (Miklas et al., 2003) and then in the RIL Raven/I9365-31 population (Soule et al., 2011). This same marker, according to Blair et al. (2006), flanks QTLs for days to flowering, plant height, plant width, and number of seeds per plant and for the V gene for flower color. In this study, the BM187 marker identified the most significant QTL for the effect of reducing resistance to whitemold. The QTL showed high heritability (85.87%); however, it was located far from the marker (43.84 cM).
Pastor-Cavada et al. (2013) evaluated whole corn and rice with legumes in extrused produts and found mineral availability of iron ranging from 6.4 to 16.3% and 10 to 16.3% for zinc. Hemalatha et al. (2007) found a bioavailability of zinc value of 52.5% and 10.2% for Fe in French beans; these values are higher than those found in the current study. Sandberg (2002) stated that the presence of phytic acid, polyphenols, and dietary fiber in these food sources exert antagonistic effects on the absorption of calcium, iron, and zinc, which could explain the low availability of those minerals. The nutritional composition of beans can vary widely due to varietal differences and environmental conditions of production, but the grains of the aforementioned cultivars were subjected to the same plantation conditions, which guarantee equal treatment in cultivation. Variations in the micronutrient content of grains can be attributed to a number of factors: plant characteristics, such as plant age, maturity, species, variety, cultivar, and diet; environmental features, such as climate, soil, rainfall, and season; and processing factors, such as storage time, temperature, method of preservation, and preparation of food. Therefore, it can be said that the grains analyzed in this study had similar characteristics.
The present study uses bean price series in the wholesale market, in which the spatial arbitrage, which is the factor leading to regional markets’ integration, occurs at this stage of the marketing process. The trading activities of beans in the wholesale market are more concentrated in specific localities, the squares, which are generally in the producing areas. Accordingly, it is advisable to use time series of prices in these markets, because the data state prices that are usually obtained by state secretaries, obtained by averaging the prices in several municipalities (MATTOS et al., 2010).
In Korea, skin tests revealed that the highest positive rate was for house dust mite antigen in patients with respiratory and allergic diseases, with rates ranging from 69 to 93% 6-10) . As such, house dust mite antigens play a major role in allergic diseases, yet studies on pollen antigens have been insufficient 11,12) . However, since pollens such as ragweed allergen and mold are recently emerging as the cause of allergic diseases in children, the number of patients suffering from seasonal allergic rhinitis and allergic conjunctivitis is increasing 13-16) . Increased pollen has been shown in domestic environments, and studies have revealed a signiicant association between pollen concen- tration and the occurrence of allergic diseases in children 17) . Air pollen is closely related to weather, especially temperature, and recent reports have indicated that changes of pollen and allergenicity are related to global warming 18) .
Este artigo focaliza o primeiro estudo do volume três, White on white, de György Ligeti, e tem como objetivo explorar os parâmetros responsáveis pela organização da forma bem como abordar as possibilidades de confluências de princípios composicionais utilizados neste estudo com outras obras. Esta investigação representa uma abordagem inicial e pretende ser aprofundada em um segundo momento desta pesquisa.