Within the scope of this research, similarities or varying degrees of differences between mineral levels and the regions from which the bee pollens originated can be seen in all the bee pollens. In 3 bee pollens obtained from plants of different origin (colour differences) in the city of Çanakkale, while some mineral values were very close, differences between the Fe (55.333, 168.449), Mn (11.605, 54.628) and Ca (493.998, 954.493) values were interesting. In this study, it was concluded that similarities as well as differences may be present in mineral levels of bee pollens obtained from the same city. These differences or similarities in mineral levels are related to factors such as; flower varieties from which the beepollen was collected, climate conditions, geography, environmental conditions, genetic composition of the plant species, agricultural procedures (fertilization and agricultural spraying) and apicultural processes (Bonhevi & Jorda, 1997; Dagaroglu, 2004; Dinkov & Stratev, 2016; Feas et al., 2012; Harmanescu et al., 2007; Nispet et al., 2013). It has been stated that, mineral levels are related to plant type rather than the soil and geographical situation. It has been expressed that, some of the minerals in beepollen are of nectar origin (Kostic et al., 2015). Turkey has regional (Bursa, Çanakkale etc) Boron reserves. The fact that Boron levels are generally high in beepollen obtained from regions and surrounding areas where Boron reserves are high suggests that soil type is also important. Changes in mineral levels of bee pollens in relation to many factors may cause difficulties regarding a standard product. Table 1. Regional distribution of beepollen samples.
Beepollen production increased during the last years as a response to commercial demand. Apis mellifera L. is the best pollen supplier mainly in tropical countries where entomophilous plant species are dominant. Bee- keepers use pollen traps of different types in order to obtain the pollen loads from bees when coming home to hives. This pollen is humid and has to be dried be- fore commercialization. Then, it may be distributed in vials receiving an identification that comprises, in addi- tion, its botanical origin. This procedure is important to avoid missing the accurate scientific definition of the botanical name, since beekeepers report a lot of common names of plants that were visited by the bees.
At the best knowledge of the authors, no such prediction mod- els exist in the literature. As such, the framework proposed in this paper is novel and not tackled before. Computational intelligence approaches were only applied to pollen in related fields. Some examples are for the identification of pollen texture (Li & Flenley, 1999), the classification of pollen grains (Dhawale, Tidke, & Dudul, 2013), to forecast airbone pollen concentration (Ranzi, Lauriola, Marletto, & Zinoni, 2003). The aim of this work is to develop a model based on neural networks (NN), fuzzy models (FM), and support vector machines (SVM) to predict physicochem- ical composition of a beepollen mixture given their botanical ori- gin and help in an easier labeling of this product.
a food is classified as a “high content food” if it is able to provide over 30% RDI (recommended daily intake) of a certain mineral per serving (100 g), and is classified as a “source food” if it is able to provide at least 15% of RDI per serving (100 g) (Brasil, 2012). In this study, all 5 beepollen samples fell into the “high content food” class and can be used as dietary sources of P by both men and women between 19 and 30 years (Brasil, 2005, 2012). Carpes et al. (2009) have reported P contents in samples collected in Rio Grande do Sul State (Brazil) ranging from 565 and 846 mg/100 g. In a more comprehensive study using beepollen samples from twelve Brazilian States, including Rio Grande do Sul State, Morgano et al. (2012) have observed P contents between 218 and 816 mg/100 g. All samples in this study met the standard for P content (between 80 and 600 mg/100 g) set by the International Honey Comission (IHC) (Campos et al., 2008).
There is a growing demand of natural products in human diet, due to increased consumer perception of natural nutraceuticals in recent years and the possible negative effects of synthetic food additives on human health. Beepollen is a natural food product well known for its high nutritional and medicinal value. Beepollen is an apicultural product which is used for its nutritional value in the human diet. It is made up of natural flower pollen mixed with nectar and bee secretions, and is rich in sugars, proteins, lipids, vitamins and flavonoids (3–5% dry weight) (Tomas-Lorente et al. 1992). Many chemical, biochemical and microbiological studies have been carried out with a wide variety of compounds from pollen, but only recently has the attention focused on a special group, namely the phenolic compounds (Tomas-Lorente et al. 1992; Markham and Campos, 1996; Campos et al. 1997, 2002, 2003; Fatrcová-Šramková et al., 2008, 2010, 2012). Active oxygen free radicals have been implicated as causative agents in conditions such as cancer, atherosclerosis, cerebral and cardiac ischemia, Parkinson’s disease, gastrointestinal disturbances and aging, among others (Ames et al. 1993). Pollen grains have specific characteristics according to the floral species or cultivation methods, but the quality depends on the collection process, cleanness, drying and storage applied by beekeepers with the objective to increase the product shelf-life.
The main difficulty for beepollen applications in modern phytomedicine is related to the wide variation in the flower origin, air temperature and chemical composition of the plant soil, since these oscillations may contribute differently to the properties, biological activity and therapeutic effects of beepollen. Even beepollen from the same plant species harvested in distinct areas will contain differences in their chemical quality (Denisow; Denisow-Pietrzyk, 2016), and extensive research is required before beepollen can be used in therapy, although it can unequivocally be recommended as a valuable dietary supplement. After studying beepollen from Portugal, Morais et al. (2011) and Estevinho et al. (2012) reported that one of the fundamental aspects for the beneficial qualities of beepollen is its botanical and geographical declaration of origin. Generic pollen composition data were previously considered sufficient, but now, the usefulness of specific data is increasingly being acknowledged since several studies indicate appreciable differences among the compositions of beepollen from variable regions.
This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of beepollen (BP) levels on the IgG and IgM titers, weight of lymphoid organs, and on the tibia morphometric measures and mineralization in broilers at 21 and 42 days of age. Four hundred birds were used in an entirely randomized design with four treatments (0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5% of BP feed inclusion) and five replicates. At 21 and 42 days of rearing, blood samples were collected for IgG and IgM analysis, as well as lymphoid organs (bursa, thymus and spleen) and the tibiae. There was no effect (p>0.05) of the BP inclusion on IgG titers, bursa and spleen weights, tibia morphometric measures and mineralization at 21 and 42 days, IgM titer at 42 days or thymus weight at 21 days. However, IgM titers at 21 days and the thymus weight at 42 days linearly increased with BP dietary inclusion. It was concluded that up to 1.5% BP can be included in broiler feeds until 21 days of age to enhance bird immunity.
The beepollen is a natural product with a chemical composition that gives relevant biological properties, confirming its added value as a food product. In this study, for the first time, it was studied the overall physico-chemical characterization and fatty acid profile of pollen samples collected by the Melipona mandacaia (Mandacaia stingless bee) in two regions. Also, it was verified the presence of microorganisms in order to assess their food security, since the samples followed a normal processing either in all steps of pollen harvesting or at storage level. In this last study, the results showed that all samples were free of microbial contamination and only the presence of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms were detected, indicating that pollen manipulation was appropriate.
A full spectrum analysis of the total BP is given in Table 2. On the basis of palynological analysis, most of the samples were found to be heterofloral, due to their different colours and consequently different pollen types. However, in two samples the occurrence of over 80% of Cistus pollen type (samples 4 and 7) characterized them as unifloral. From the economical standpoint, the assessment of a monofloral origin may increase the commercial value of these BPs. In fact, it has been reported that beepollen from Cistus sp. has anabolic and stimulatory effects on bone components in rats in vitro and in vivo [18–20], a potent anti-inflammatory activity , antiallergic action  and high antioxidative and scavenging abilities [22,23].
The beepollen samples were produced and collected, by frontal pollen trap collectors, three times a week from five hives housed at the Lageado Experimental Farm Beekeeping Production Area, UNESP (22°50’30,16”S x 48°25’41,90”W), located in Botucatu, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, characterized by a Cfa climate according to the Köppen climate classification system (Köppen and Geiger 1928) between June 2010 and May 2011. At the end of each harvest, the beepollen in natura taken from collectors was mixed and weighed on an analytical balance to measure the production. Next to prevent microorganisms growth the product was dried out in a controlled temperature oven (40 ºC) for 8 - 12 hours, until the pollen reached a 4% moisture content and then cleaned to remove impurities. After the pollen samples were frozen (-12 ºC) after drying, to preserve the quality until the chemical analysis was performed.
The purpose of this study is to characterize native bee plants regarding their capacity to extract and accumulate trace elements from the soil and its consequences to the sanity of the produced pollen. The trace elements Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn were analyzed in soil, plants and beepollen from Teresina region (PI), Brazil, by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Considering the studied plant species, Cu and Pb metals presented in the highest levels in the roots of B. platypetala with 47.35 and 32.71 μg.mL -1 and
BÁRBARA, M.; MACHADO, C.; SODRÉ, G.; DIAS, L.; ESTEVINHO, L.; CARVALHO, C. A. Microbiological assessment, nutritional characterization and phenolic compounds of beepollen from Mellipona mandacaia Smith, 1983. Molecules, v. 20, n. 12, p. 12525-12544, 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules200712525. BASHIR, M. E. H.; LUI, J. H.; PALNIVELU, R.; NACLERIO, R. M.; PREUSS, D. Pollen lipidomics: lipid profiling exposes a notable diversity in 22 allergenic pollen and potential biomarkers of the allergic immune response. PLoS One, v. 8, n. 2, p. e57566, 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0057566. PMid:23469025. BRASIL. Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento. Instrução Normativa nº 3, de 19 de janeiro de 2001. Regulamentos técnicos de identidade e qualidade, de apitoxina, de cera de abelha, de geléia real, de geléia real liofilizada, de pólen apícola, de própolis, de extrato de própolis. Diário Oficial [da] República Federativa do Brasil, Brasília, DF. 2001.
Quantification of fructose and glucose were per- formed by the Normal-Phase Liquid Chromatography method. Approximately 2.5 grams of dried beepollen were mixed with 30 mL of water at 40 ˚C, and the solu- tion was heated for 15 min in a water bath at 60 ˚C. The mixture was continuously swirled while 2 mL of each Carrez solution were added. The solution was then cooled at room temperature, and transferred to a 50 mL volumetric glassware; additional deionized water was used to complete the volumetric glassware. Finally, filtration by a 0.45 μm membrane was used before HPLC injection (Burgner & Feinberg, 1992; Martins, Morgano, Vicente, Baggio, & Rodriguez-Amaya, 2011). The HPLC mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and water (85:5 v/v) a 1 ml/min flowrate. The HPLC system was equipped with two Shimadzu (LC-20AT) pumps, Shimadzu (SIL-20A Autosampler) autosampler; Shimadzu (IR-10AXL) Refractive Index detector, and a normal phase column (Luna NH 2. 250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm,
ABSTRACT. It was evaluated the effects of beepollen (BP) on the doe and kits productivity and on the carcass and organs of the rabbits. Twenty White New Zealand does and their kits were used in a randomized block design, with four treatments and five blocks, in a factorial arrangement 2 x 2 with two supplementation levels for the doe and for the kits after the weaning. BP supplementation for the does did not influence (p > 0.05) the doe and kit productivity during the lactation, except by the kits
SCREENING OF THE ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF BEEPOLLEN PRODUCED IN THE SOUTHERN REGION OF BRAZIL. The contents of total phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of beepollen ethanolic extract were determined and compared to those of commercial antioxidants. Beepollen extract from the state of Rio Grande do Sul presented antioxidant activity statistically equal to that of α-tocopherol and higher than those of BHT and BHA. A statistically significant correlation was observed between the antioxidant activity and the total phenolics and total flavonoids contents of beepollen extracts. HPLC technique made the identification of high contents of rutin and myricetin possible, which may partially explain the high antioxidant activity of Brazilian beepollen.
Honey-bee collected pollen can be considered as a potential source of energy for human consumption. Pollen contains nutritional compounds like carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, lipids, vitamins, minerals and traces of micronutrients (SERRA BONVEHÍ & ESCOLÁ JORDÁ, 1997). In addition, pollen contains significant amounts of polyphenolic substances, mainly flavonoids (ALMEIDA- MURADIAN et al., 2005). These phenolic compounds are essential for the plants physiology due to its contribution in the morphology (form and structure). The polyphenols are involved in plants growth and reproduction; they also supply resistance against pathogens by the action of the phytoalexins and protection against plagues increasing the astringency of the plant as a food, becoming indigestible to predators. The polyphenols constitute one of the most numerous metabolic groups of plants and are integral part of people and animals diet (COOK & SAMMAN, 1996).
The difﬁ culty in identifying the botanical afﬁ nity of a pollen grain is linked to the knowledge of the regional fl ora (Borges et al. 2006), likewise the acetolysis use, affecting the structure of some grains and making identiﬁ cation a difﬁ cult process. There are also pollen grains from different plant families with similar morphology, like the 3-colp(or)ate and microreticulate pollen, very common among the Angiosperms.
Take into consideration those informations, some techniques were used in order to avoid the fungi growth, such as freeze-drying and pasteurization of beepollen at 65°C for 2 hours, besides working in aseptic condition (under flow laminar cabinet), also an increase on preservatives concentration to 0.1% and 0.4% for thyme oil and methylparaben, respectively since 0.02% of preservatives was not efficient and allowed fungi growth. Using 0.1% of thyme oils and 0.4% of methylparaben, we observed decrease in the fungal growth in the case of the formulations based on beepollen and thyme essential oil or mixture of essential oils during the storage and the stability assays except the formulations based on beepollen (G8) and mixture of essential oils (Thymus zygis zygis essential oil and T. capitatus essential oil), this could be explained by reactions that may have occurred between the compounds of the two essential oils, leading to a reduction in the concentration of the active principles, which are responsible for their antifungal activities. Still, it was not possible to assess exactly the mechanism that led to the registered results. Whereas, no contamination occurred in the case of formulations based on beepollen and methylparaben, or mixture of methylparaben and thyme essential oils, which explained by the potential activity of methylparaben. In addition, none of the formulations that contained beepollen and were exposed to light presented contaminated by fungi compared to those stored on dark. The light may probably inhibit fungi growth since literature reported that light affect either positively or negatively fungal growth by inducing or inhibiting their sexual development depending on the species, some Aspergillus species may be inhibited by light such as Aspergillus orizae (Murthyet al., 2015). This hypothesis should be considered for possible future research in order to understand clearly what was observed throughout this work.
Samburá is the botanical pollen nectar agglutinated by salivary secretions of bees. Stingless beepollen samples were collected in three periods of the year in Monsenhor Gil town, PI, Brazil, for extraction of volatile constituents by diferent techniques, analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the palynological analysis used to identify the dominant pollen. Among the volatile compounds identiied, kaur-16-ene, methyl and ethyl hexadecanoate, methyl linoleate and heneicosane were identiied more frequently in the studied parameters: period of sample collection and extraction techniques used. The palynological analysis identiied the pollen of Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. as the dominant pollen in all samples studied.
Due to the decreased number of analyzed samples, it cannot be accurately concluded on the specific floral contribution in the vitamins content but it is kwon that a species can contribute with more than one vitamin. A study with mono-floral analysis could be more accurate. In addition, the differences of blooming, meteorological factors and soil quality may interfere in the percentage of vitamins found in the beepollen. Further studies on such relationship are necessary, manly in the same season and place to confirm these results.