ABSTRACT - The complexity of the consumers’ behavior has taken the food industry to a new level of dynamism. Therefore, understanding the factors that inﬂuence this behavior is decisive for the differentiation of products to niche markets and even to adjust the supply according to consumers’ expectancy. This article proposes a conceptual model to identify the factors inﬂuencing beefconsumption in Brazil. The methodological approach was characterized by a systematic review through a synthesis of research related directly to this topic. Therefore, 76 papers published during the 2000-2014 period, including ofﬁcial documents (statistics), full research papers, abstracts, proceedings, and reports, were selected. Four main factors were related to inﬂuences in consumer behavior and/or directly in beefconsumption: sociocultural, economic, health/food, and environmental. Among these dimensions, there was an emphasis on recent publications related to health/food and the environment. The compilation and analysis of these papers enabled the conception of the proposed model and suggests the consideration of four main dimensions in beefconsumption.
Among the attributes mentioned above, some have affected more substantially the Bra- zilian beef distribution system+ Consumers have somehow followed the consumption pat- terns identified in more developed countries, stressing convenience, food safety and health concerns+ Regarding convenience, the time available for cooking has shrunk since most families today have both parents working outside the home+ This fact plus the availability of new electronic machines like microwaves and freezers have driven the demand toward ready-to-eat food+ Likewise, the habits of eating away from home and buying take-out food have spread to a large extent+ There is still another dimension of convenience, not highlighted by Lazzarini-Neto et al+ ~1996!, that reflects on the choice of points of pur- chasing+ Today consumers are more likely to buy in places where they can find a large array of products, since concentrating purchases in a specific store is a great timesaver+ Consequently, supermarkets have surpassed butcher shops as the main point of beef sales in Brazil+
than 70% of the market, in 2013 . Regarding the evolution of beef market in Romania, one could estimate an extension of this market, becoming more attractive for all operators within this sector because the European Union gives a financial support, not negligible. Concerning the total beefconsumption (adult and young cattle) for 2020, one could estimate an increase of consumed meat (215 thousand tons). For 2030 there is predicted a doubling of beef production in comparison with the one in 2010. As beef production increases, one could observe an increase of population’s average consumption, as follows: in 2020, the consumed quantity will be of 10 kg/ capita. In 2030, beefconsumption will be equal to the European average one .
Several studies have been done on beef preferences and attitudes. Grunert (1997) did a cross-cultural study on beef quality perception based on the total food quality model (TFQM ), suggesting that most important product attributes on which consumers base their beef quality evaluation are fat content and colour. Similar study was undertaken in Portugal by Banovi´c et al. (2009a), who concluded that extrinsic product information, namely brand, may actually in- fluence consumers’ evaluations of intrinsic product attributes, as fat content and colour, Chapter 11. Verbeke and Viaene (1999a) have analysed beliefs, attitudes and behaviour towards fresh meat consumption in Belgium, and revealed the importance of safety related meat attributes. Later, Verbeke and Vackier (2004), also analysing the Belgian market, investigated the profiles and effects of consumer involvement in fresh meat, confirming that pleasure, symbolism and risk affect considerably meat involvement. Krystallis and Arvanitoyannis (2006) studied the concept of meat quality from the Greek consumers’ perspective, concluding that meat prefer- ence, in this country, is mainly evaluated based on pleasure derived from taste, which has to be evaluated according to visual quality cues such as colour, leanness, etc. These authors also found different consumer types who evaluate meat quality differently based, namely, on labels and brand name, nutritional value and microbial or chemical safety. Vanhonackeret al. (2007) undertook a market segmentation in Belgium based on consumers’ perceived importance and attitude toward farm animal welfare. These authors identified specific market opportunities for high welfare products associated with compatible marketing strategies.
The progress experienced in meat industrialization and the raise on the social and economic status of the population in the last years concurred to an increase in the consumption of meat products well as in its quality requirement (Madruga et al., 2004; Ramos & Gomide, 2007). Synthetic additives are intentionally added to food during production or processing to improve organoleptic quality and/or to prevent deterioration (Péret-Almeida et al., 2008; Ramalho & Jorge, 2006). Although food additives impart technological advantages to food, a concern about risks associated with their consumption remains, like allergic reactions, carcinogenicity, and behavioral disorders, such as hyperactivity (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária, 1999; Honorato et al., 2013; Zheng & Wang, 2001).
Thus, it was expected an increase in NDFap and dNDF intakes by increasing the level of supplementation, however, this did not occur, probably by restricting the mass of pasture DM. The average intake of NDFap observed in this study was 9.7 g/kg BW, which is lower than that observed by other authors during the dry season (Moraes et al., 2009; Figueiras et al., 2010; Moraes et al., 2010; Lazzarini, 2011), indicating that consumption of the pasture was not optimized.
analysis to determine the equation to estimate dry matter intake in feedlot animals. These authors observed mean intake (% BW) of 2.16 kg for daily weight gain of 1.20 kg. These values demonstrate the quality of the diet formulated with soybean silage, not compromising the performance or consumption of animals. Considering that the requirement of beef cattle weighing 350 kg and gain of 1.0 kg day -1 is 0.849 kg CP and 4.93 kg TND
The growing demand of consumers for convenience, stands out among the main trends in food consumption in the world. In this context is the beef jerky a meat product produced by thermal process that does not require refrigeration at the point of sale, ensuring practicality of use. However, being a food ready for consumption, should ensure its security and one pathogenic bacteria that, once present, can harm the health of consumers is Listeria monocytogenes. The objective of this research was to identify the occurrence of L. monocytogenes in a Beef Jerky production line located in the municipality of Bage, Rio Grande do Sul- Brazil. We evaluated 12 points along the processing line, including the raw materials, surfaces with and without contact with the product as well as the final product, in seven collections. Samples were analyzed in Mini Vidas ® bioMérieux equipment and those that tested positive for L. monocytogenes, were subjected to PCR using the prs gene for gender confirmation and the inlA genes, inlC and inlJ to confirm the species L.
Beef production in less-favoured areas in Portugal is usually extensive, and along with forestry and agriculture is one of the main sources of income and employment. It has also an important role both in a social and environmental context. Portugal is not self-sufficient in beef pro- duction, though the BSE crisis has severely hit beef sales, and it is difficult to envisage consumption making a full recovery in the short to medium term. However, it is possible to see an emergent market for beef produced by Portuguese indigenous breeds from extensive production systems. Beef from indigenous breeds is considered to be a high quality product by producers and consumers, mainly because of the superior taste and structure of the meat resulting from the production methods: differences within breeds, slow growth rate and type of vegetation con- sumed. This product differentiation has allowed the enlargement of small niche markets and has led to an increase in the value of meat with a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO). The specificity of a product linked with a PDO has a fundamental role in the establishment of the strategies for agricultural enterprises and in rural development. Since Portuguese agriculture cannot compete on quantity or production cost with other competitors, differentiation and quality seem to be the alternatives that may stimulate rural activities in LFAs and create a regional added value able to contribute to sustainable development. Extensive animal production systems can be an important component of environ- mental and landscape protection, as well as contribute to the decrease of the human and physical desertification of our rural areas.
The consumption of snail meat goes back to prehistoric times. Different an- cient nations had snails on their menu, but Helices culture as a productive activity was born as a Roman culture. Some of the most economically important edible species are: Helix as- persa (Mtiller), Helixpomatia (Linne), Helix lucorum (Linne), Helix aperta (Born), Eobania vermiculata (Miiller). Together with its taste, snail meat has several advantages over others: quite low lipid rate and calorie values versus rich mineral, essential amino acid and fatty acid content. The composition of snail meat is presented. In addition, the composition of different snail species and the part analyzed (pedal mass and visceral mass) is presented. Also, the differences in composition according to the species (snail meat, horse/chicken meat, beef, swine meat, fish meat) are presented.
This result can be attributed to the greater intake of nitrogen compounds and nutritional attributes (Table 4) by the animals provided with multiple supplements, which might have had a beneficial effect on the ruminal environment, promoting better use of the diet consumed by the supplemented animals and consequently greater weight gain. This result reinforces the importance of supplementing suckling calves so as to complement the intake of nutrients and nutritional attributes and optimize their productive performance, providing greater weights at weaning and reducing the duration of the post-weaning phase, because in tropical regions the consumption of milk and forage is not high enough to allow the calves to express their genetic potential (BARROS et al., 2014; VALENTE et al., 2012).
How a consumer perceives him-or-herself, especially on social media, further explains the attitude-behaviour gap that is prevalent within the fast-fashion consumer. Self-identity appears to be a barrier to changing consumer behaviour. As argued by Bray et al. (2010) shifting self-identity could have a greater impact on consumer behaviour in the industry than their particular attitudes towards the industry. One’s self-identity appears to be heavily influenced by cultural influences, creating a connection between these two themes and its prevalence in the fast-fashion consumer. In addition, a lack of motivation to adjust behaviour was noted as a barrier. Motivation was often connected to responses of neutralization. Participants struggled to understand how their actions could make a great enough impact, as previously noted within consumer’s lack of awareness on the issues. Lacking the necessary or appropriate amount of information, prevents consumers from finding motivation to understand their consumption habits, reconsider their behaviour, and make the relevant changes. Lastly, consumers identified positive feelings associated with donating garments. Donating garments tends to be a reason why consumers justified continual purchasing as it releases the consumer from any guilt they may have felt, whether it be financial guilt or consumption guilt. The participant rarely considers the garment’s life-cycle post-donation. Increasing awareness on other disposable options or providing further information on donations could also assist in increasing motivation within the consumer to change their behaviour.
Trans fat consumption was estimated from dietary recall. Not all foods that go by the same label have the same trans fat content. However, provided the misclassification is nondifferential, this would be expected to produce bias toward the null and could not explain strong and significant findings. Moreover, this study was done during a period of relative stability of trans fat content in foods (1999–2004) prior to more recent efforts to restrict dTFA – a comparative strength of this investigation.
The complexity of the relationship between work (production) and con- sumption and the need to discuss it has been widely acknowledged (Carrier 2006; Carrier and Heyman 1997; Fine 2002; Foster 2008; Narotzky 2005; miller 1987, 1995; Rothstein 2005; Slater 1997; Warde 1992), resulting in a considerable number of contributions that address the theme through diverse lenses and modalities. Contemporary debate is focused in a wide range of questions regarding the “often opaque connection” (Bridge and Smith 2003: 257) between the producers and the consumers of a specific commodity, or how the different stages (production, exchange and consumption) in the social life of things affect those same things, or yet how subjects deal with their multiple social roles (as workers and as consumers) and with their mutual influences and intersections. Even if the papers do not address all the topics mentioned and their multiple nuances, this does not cancel the fact that those topics need to be better explored. The following contributions have appeared to us as particularly useful to do it.
The term "Long Tail" can be defined as: the retailing strategy of selling a large number of different items, which each sell in relatively small quantities instead of selling large quantities of a small number of popular items (Chris Anderson,2004). According to Anderson who wrote a book on it: popular taste is not real but, instead, an "artefact" created by humans in the quest of poorly matching of demand and supply. This actual mismatch actually represents a market inefficiency; so, in the offline environment consumption is not a symptom of quality and willingness to buy but instead a "familiarity, savvy advertising and broad appeal" (Chris Anderson,2004). This hurdle could be overcome by the web. The concept stated before could be referred to deeming wine, in fact, deem that the web is able to reach the true desires of consumer. Unlimited selection is revealing truths about what consumers want and how they want to get. It turns out that the real demand curve is less hit-centric, as individuals gravitate towards niches because they better satisfy narrow interests. So, wine providers have to adapt to this change and, while selling online, they have to create niches. These products will be targeting only a tiny percentage of the society as a whole, nonetheless, they will create a critique masses to be targeted and be able to provide enough revenues to breakeven. The web offers the possibility to reach a sizeable market all around the world in order to sustain a niche. Regarding wine consumption, this means the most sold varieties are going to decrease as a percentage of the earnings and instead a portfolio of varieties –niches- of wine will keep companies profitable.
If we assume that the reference level growth rate is a function of the return on the market portfolio, our model of expected utility yields a SDF which is isomorphic in its pricing implications to the Epstein and Zin (1989, 1991) pricing kernel. A striking feature of the comparison between the Epstein and Zin (1989, 1991) non-expected utility model and our expected utility model with a reference level is that the measures of risk aversion differ while the elasticity of intertemporal substitution remains the same in the two models. We explore in detail this difference in the interpretation of the risk aversion parameter in Garcia, Renault, and Semenov (2002). When we estimate this specification of our model which is observationally equivalent to the Epstein and Zin (1991) specification, we obtain a negative point estimate of the elasticity of intertemporal substitution but not significantly different from zero. Finally, when we allow the reference level growth rate to be determined both by past consumption growth and by the return on the market portfolio, we obtain a SDF which incorporates habit formation in a Epstein-Zin-like SDF. With this specification, we obtain precise and reasonable estimates of the coefficient of relative risk aversion (around 1), of the elasticity of intertemporal substitution (0.86), and of the time discount factor (0.9988).
There is still a paucity of research when it comes to everyday Portuguese coarse red wares which goes beyond basic identification. The usual paper on this topic presents a simple description of form, focused on basic typologies. Discussions about manufacture, decorations, consumption, distribution and what can these objects tell us about cultural, social, economic and even symbolic activities have only recently emerged in the literature (Newstead 2012, Casimiro 2014, Newstead - Casimiro 2015, Newstead - Casimiro forthcoming). Cups and other water related objects are usually included in the category of domestic pottery that people acquired and used abundantly,
The recent implementation of genomic selection in cattle breeding programs has allowed the rate of genetic pro- gress to increase, especially in the dairy industry . Selec- tion based on genetic markers requires a large number of genotyped individuals and thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) scattered throughout the genome . The improvement in accuracy of genomic selection in beef cattle, which often includes data from different breeds and crossbred animals, depends on conservation of link- age disequilibrium, consistency of the linkage phase be- tween QTL (quantitative trait loci) and genetic markers across breeds, and similarity of QTL effects between breeds [3, 4].
Finally, might people consume less of products whose brands become associated with moral violations, such as when people consumed less of Martha Stewart products following her convictions of conspiracy, obstruction of justice, and fraud (Hays, 2004)? Preliminary evidence supports this hypothesis. We gave participants (N = 78; 45 females) a bottle of water to consume while watching a 6-minute documentary clip. Participants randomly received either a water bottle labeled “Wall Street: Water for Powerful People” (which associated the brand with moral violations of greed, abuse of power, and selfishness) or a neutral water bottle labeled “Water: Just H20.” Participants in the “Wall Street Water” moral violation condition drank less (M = 149.49 ml) than did participants in “Water: Just H20” control condition (M = 192.23 ml), t(76) = 2.01, p = .048, providing initial evidence that exposure to a brand associated with moral violations may reduce oral consumption of the product. These findings hint at a broader marketing implication: if exposure to moral violations reduces consumption behavior and evaluations of consumption objects, food and beverage advertisers may want to carefully consider whether their brand can be contaminated by product placements or media portraying moral violations.
The jerked beef is a typical Brazilian product made from beef and is slowly being discovered by consumers nationwide. It is an industrialized meat product, made of salted beef, cured and dried. The desalting operation is a necessary step for preparing the base plates of that ingredient, which can be critical, since it allows the development of pathogenic microorganisms by increasing the water activity. Currently, there isn’t a provision in the legislation nationwide to guide people on the desalting procedure of dried meat. The aim of this work was to study three desalting methods to establish which is the most appropriate and safest. Three treatments were used: desalting at room temperature (DA), desalting chilled (DR) and desalting to room temperature, followed by cooking (DC). The microbiological and physical-chemical analysis were performed at time zero and after 12 and 24hours after desalting. In 24 hours time, DC showed the lowest scores (p <0.05) of mesophilic aerobic viable strict and facultative microrganisms (2.07 ± 0.31 log CFU/g), Staphylococcus aureus (<2.00 ± 0.00 log CFU/g), total coliforms (<3.0 MPN / g), fecal coliforms (<3.0 MPN / g) and absence of Salmonella sp. Regarding physical-chemical analysis, DC treatment showed (p <0.05) lower moisture (58.99 ± 2.10 g/100 g), ash (2.64 ± 0.53 g/100g) and chloride (1,90 ± 0.17 g/100g) contents and higher protein content (26.75 ± 1.90 g/100g). No significant differences were observed in lipids content and water activity. Desalting at room temperature for 24 hours followed by boiling, had a better nutritional profile and is a safe procedure, which may be used in food services for preparing dishes based on jerked beef as an ingredient.