Black Women

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Representação de mulheres negras: cinema, ethos e identidades.         Representation of black women: movies, ethos and identities

Representação de mulheres negras: cinema, ethos e identidades. Representation of black women: movies, ethos and identities

Utilizing the concepts of ethos and self-ima- ge, as they are understood in Studies of Language field, and the concepts of otherness and identity, as they are discussed under the Cultural Studies perspective, this text aims at being a contribution to the reflection and understanding of some social threads to which we have been subjected. Specifically speaking, in this case, having as a starting point the analysis of the documentary feature Cinderelas, Wolves and a Prince Charming, by filmmaker Joel Zito, it is our intention to problematize the images that the common sen- se builds on black women. Two black women’s speeches, who work as prostitutes in Pelourinho (Salvador -Bahia), form the corpus of our analysis.
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A raça e o gênero enquanto fatores determinantes da violência doméstica contra a mulher negra / Race and gender as determining factors of domestic violence against black women

A raça e o gênero enquanto fatores determinantes da violência doméstica contra a mulher negra / Race and gender as determining factors of domestic violence against black women

Braz. J. of Develop., Curitiba, v. 6, n. 7, p. 49225-49234, jul. 2020 . ISSN 2525-8761 causes of violence against female blackness in its private sphere. To this end, it began by briefly studying race, as well as the origins and impacts of racism, and then analyzing the genesis of the phenomenon of domination / submission based on gender. Based on this study, an interrelation between gender and race was established as factors of violence against black women in the family, and reflected on the role of the Maria da Penha Law as a legislative mechanism in the fight against domestic violence. The work presented here is the result of a research of deductive methodology, with a qualitative approach and with a descriptive and explanatory character, where an essentially bibliographic procedure was used. As a result, it was concluded that “being a woman” and “being black” is part of a profile of people who have historically suffered obstacles to their social development and who, for this reason, continue to be subjected to domestic violence.
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Mulheres negras quilombolas: tecendo movimentos de resistência nos espaços educativos/ Kilomboles black women: making movements of resistance in educational areas

Mulheres negras quilombolas: tecendo movimentos de resistência nos espaços educativos/ Kilomboles black women: making movements of resistance in educational areas

This article aims to understand the successful teaching practices developed by Black educators in the Pau Ferrado Quilombola Communities, in the municipality of Lagoa dos Gatos, Gloria Goita and Onze Negras in Cabo de Santo Agostinho, located in Pernambuco. We adopt as theoretical approach the Latin American Black Feminism that starts from two movements: social and epistemic. The first comes from black women who have historically had their ways of being, thinking, and producing knowledge silenced and subordinated by Eurocentric rationality, but have also fought and contended for the affirmation of their differences. The second, concerns the entry of black women into the academic space, especially considering that the academy is the place, par excellence, where white rationality is completed. Therefore, the entrance of black women, as well as of epistemologies considered peripheral blackens the academic space while gradually breaking the Eurocentric dictates, affirming the black woman not only as an epistemic subject, but that the academy is also a place this woman can and should occupy. The results indicate that the resistance movements that educators have been developing contribute to the strengthening of the black identity of the students. In this sense, the educational spaces have been constituted as a place of affirmation of the ways of being, thinking and producing knowledge of these communities.
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Race, ethnicity, sexuality, and blood in contemporary black women´s speculative fiction

Race, ethnicity, sexuality, and blood in contemporary black women´s speculative fiction

disturbing, for it implies disruptions of the taboo of pedophilia and, less shocking for contemporary readers, interracial sex and homosexuality. For humans, she looks like a child but the fact that she is fifty-three somehow gives her an adult consciousness, which dismisses an accusation of child abuse that might otherwise be committed by her symbionts. On the other hand, Shori is really considered a child by the Ina people, as she will only be mature enough to procreate when she is about seventy years old. For them, her sexual relations with her symbionts is more like a play, a recreation, in a way that the childhood symbols that society commonly seeks to preserve (sexual purity, innocence) are not threatened by humans. In this way, the fact that Shori’s black body is pubescent may also be read as a comment on the sexual abuses suffered by black women’s bodies throughout the history of slavery and discrimination.
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Narrativas e ativismos de mulheres negras na comunidade quilombola urbana / Narratives and activisms of black women in the urban quilombola community

Narrativas e ativismos de mulheres negras na comunidade quilombola urbana / Narratives and activisms of black women in the urban quilombola community

Os moradores do quilombo urbano Chácara das Rosas enfrentam adversidades, mas lutam pelo pertencimento ao local e para preservar seus valores, suas tradições, costumes, cren[r]

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Saude soc.  vol.25 número3

Saude soc. vol.25 número3

In this study, the black women reported constant “strength” exercises while engaging in the struggle of everyday life or in political battles to face differ- ent contexts of vulnerabilities. It conirms Hooks (2006) statements about how black women assume the role of a strong warrior, under the strong moral demand of focusing on the overcoming of adversi- ties at any cost, regardless of personal satisfactions, an uneven burden on them. Occupied with basic survival and with the care of those who depend on them, this sociocultural context, speciic of their condition, can lead them to not leaving enough space, to not allowing themselves or to not inding opportunities for love or satisfactory experiences of conjugal, maternal ties, among others. “Love is for white people’s, or men’s, that have more possi- bilities of being fragile precisely because they are socially privileged.” (Prestes, 2013, p. 156).
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Texto contexto  enferm.  vol.21 número3 en v21n3a26

Texto contexto enferm. vol.21 número3 en v21n3a26

prevalence of UI surgery in the United States in a population of ethnic-racial diversity. Race was classiied as white, black, Asian, Eskimo or other. Hispanic ethnicity was not speciied. Asian and Eskimo women were included in “others” due to the low numbers in these categories. The authors found that white women had an overall rate of surgery for stress UI almost ive times higher than that of black women (11.6/10,000 vs. 2.6/10,000). There were also racial differences in the rates of complications associated with the surgery for UI (20.6 % for black and 9.7% for white women), with infection being almost twice as common among black women (14.2% vs. 8.0%). The authors af- irmed that the high number of white women who underwent surgery for stress UI may be due to the greater prevalence of this type of UI among white women. They also afirmed that the racial differences in incontinence surgery rates may be inluenced by numerous factors including socio- economic status, access to and use of the healthcare system, the report of the patient and variations in general attitudes to undergoing surgery or not regarding elective procedures.
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Ilha Desterro  vol.70 número1

Ilha Desterro vol.70 número1

that his daughter is having an illegitimate child; then by her own son Basil, who, now as an adult, gets in trouble with the law, runs away, and makes Mattie lose the house she put on bail for him. It is in the Brewster community that she eventually goes for shelter. here, she becomes a source of strength and spiritual guidance for many women in distress. hese and other characters from Sula and he Women of Brewster Place, acclaimed novels by the authors Morrison and Naylor, respectively, stand out as examples of diferent perspectives on motherhood, thereby confronting simplistic, reductive notions concerning this typical role in women’s lives. By providing more complex, variegated, well-rounded depictions of black women’s experience, these novels assist thus in the deconstruction of many controlling images, in particular, the matriarch.
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The mammy, the matriarch, the Jezebel: beyond controlling images of black female subjects in Their eyes were watching god, Sula, and The women of Brewster Place

The mammy, the matriarch, the Jezebel: beyond controlling images of black female subjects in Their eyes were watching god, Sula, and The women of Brewster Place

those black bonds women who worked indoors were unlikely to be overweight because their food stuffs were severely rationed. They were more likely to be light as dark because household jobs were frequently assigned to mixed-race women. They were unlikely to be old because nineteenth-century black women just did not live very long; fewer than 10 percent of black women lived beyond their fiftieth birthday. (44) As mentioned before, stereotypes are used by the entertainment industry because they reflect people’s beliefs (Lemons 103). Probably, at some point, in order to promote slavery, there was the need to change the image of house slaves. They would represent the extreme opposite of Jezebels, whose unrestrained sexuality could not be acceptable in a white household, for she would be a threat to white women. In this sense, the Mammy image started to be advertised as “broad shoulders, strong arms, and firmly planted large feet to support a wide stance” women (Morgan 87).
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Ilha Desterro  número67

Ilha Desterro número67

In the decade of success of this music genre, singers such as Bessie Smith, Gertrude “Ma” Rainey, Sippie Wallace, Alberta Hunter, and Ida Cox created a musical repertoire that voiced a proto-feminist and social consciousness, proving that protest could also be oral. hese singers became icons for other working -class black women for raising their voices against social injustices, portraying sexual taboosincluding homosexualityand breaking with the limits of social conventions. In order to avoid scandal and subversion, the recording companies exercised very rigid control over the songs that were recorded. To counteract this censorship, singers usually employed a metaphorical language charged with symbolism. Although the heyday of Classic Blues was relatively brief (the decline started with the 1929 economic crash), its cultural legacy, as I argue in this essay, has been truly signiicant. Despite the richness of Classic Blues and its sociocultural relevance, however, music historiansmainly malehave either ignored the contribution of the above-mentioned singers, or have only made cursory references to them. 6
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Rev. direito GV  vol.11 número2

Rev. direito GV vol.11 número2

At the core of implementing the CTOPA in the mid-1990s, it was government’s responsibility to ensure that women could exercise their rights within the overall trans- formation of the health system and the development of comprehensive maternal, child and women’s (MCW) health-care services as a policy priority of the new gov- ernment. This required a significant redistribution of available resources and struc- tures from a past in which health service delivery was sparse and race-dependent, and where black women in rural, high density urban and peri-urban areas and infor- mal settlements had been particularly disadvantaged. Equity in access to services required the urgent restructuring of the health system as a primary health care sys- tem with MCW health care as a key component of the package. An MCW health directorate was established in the Department of Health to coordinate and facili- tate the reorganization of MCW health services (HEALTH SYSTEMS TRUST, 1995, p. 181-182). The development of policies focused on institutional transformation and reallocation of resources to deliver effective services, including reproductive health services. The NGO sector weighed in to assist as major national and transnational repro- ductive health, providing assistance with policy development, training and values clarification. The RRA, which had led the advocacy for the CTOPA, now shifted to supporting implementation. Generally, in the early years ‘the nurses and doctors who provided abortions were well-supported and well-regarded’ for respecting women’s rights (HODES, 2013).
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Rev. bras. epidemiol.  vol.16 número4

Rev. bras. epidemiol. vol.16 número4

Prenatal care consists of practices considered to be efective for the reduction of adverse perinatal outcomes. However, studies have demonstrated inequities in pregnant women’s access to prena- tal care, with worse outcomes among those with lower socioeconomic status. he objective of this study is to evaluate access to and utilization of prenatal services in the Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS – Uniied Health System) in the city of Rio de Janeiro and to verify its association with the characteristics of pregnant women and health services. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2007-2008, using interviews and the analysis of prenatal care cards of 2.353 pregnant women attending low risk pre- natal care services of the SUS. A descriptive analysis of the reasons mentioned by women for the late start of prenatal care and hierarchi- cal logistic regression for the identiication of the factors associated with prenatal care use were performed. he absence of a diagno- sis of pregnancy and poor access to services were the reasons most often reported for the late start of prenatal care. Earlier access was found among white pregnant women, who had a higher level of education, were primipa- rous and lived with a partner. he late start of prenatal care was the factor most associated with the inadequate number of consultations, also observed in pregnant adolescents. Black women had a lower level of adequacy of tests performed as well as a lower overall adequacy of prenatal care, considering the Programa de Humanização do Pré-Natal e Nascimento (PHPN – Prenatal and Delivery Humanization Program) recommendations. Strategies for the identiication of pregnant women at a higher reproductive risk, reduction in organizational barriers to services and increase in access to family planning and early diagnosis of preg- nancy should be prioritized.
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Cad. Saúde Pública  vol.33 suppl.1 csp 33 s1 e00110516

Cad. Saúde Pública vol.33 suppl.1 csp 33 s1 e00110516

Despite these limitations, this study provides important new evidence for racial disparities in perceived lifetime discrimination that vary by gender in both Brazil and the United States. We have shown broad cross-national similarity in patterning, with greater likelihood of perceiving discrimina- tion for Blacks in both societies, and a rise in the likelihood at higher levels of education that creates even greater racial gaps among the socioeconomically-advantaged. However, we also find important differences, such as the resilient and striking disadvantage of Black men in the U.S. at both high and low levels of education, as compared with the stronger findings for disadvantage among Brazilians of color, particularly men, at higher levels of education. These findings may be somewhat unexpected, given the particularly materially disadvantaged position of Black women in both societies, but it is important to recognize that gender differences within race groups may hold particular significance in intergroup relations in the U.S. and Brazil. It is also possible that measures of lifetime discrimination better capture experiences more salient for men 19 , suggesting the need for further research using
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Rev. esc. enferm. USP  vol.48 número especial

Rev. esc. enferm. USP vol.48 número especial

Objecive: To explore beliefs, values and pracices related to the use of medicinal plants among low-income black families. Method: The research method was eth- nography and the paricipant observaion process was done in a low-income com- munity in the peripheral area of the City of São Paulo. Twenty black women were interviewed. Results: Two cultural sub- themes, I do use medicines that I learned to make with my mother and with religious praciioners to care for diseases and Home medicines are to treat problems that are not serious, and the cultural theme I do use home medicines to treat simple dise- ases because I always have them at my disposal, they are free and I don’t need a medical prescripion represent beliefs, va- lues, and pracices related to the use of medicinal plants among low-income black families. Conclusion: The development of such pracices, which can hide ethnic and social vulnerability, reveals the resilience of low-income black women in the process of confroning problems during the health- illness process.
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Phytobia (Diptera: Agromyzidae) from Brazil: new species, new record and a key to the Neotropical species

Phytobia (Diptera: Agromyzidae) from Brazil: new species, new record and a key to the Neotropical species

Color. Frons mat black, more brownish at base; fron- to-orbital plate shining black; upper dark orbit touching ovt and ivt; ocellar triangle mat black; lunule silvery; face black with grey pollinose; clypeus mat black; gena dark brown; scape and pedicel brown; first flagellomere brown, light brown apically; arista and palpus brown; proboscis light brown; label- lum light brown, with yellow setae; scutum dark brown, grey pollinose, light yellow before scutellum (Fig. 32); scutellum light yellow, with sub-basal lateral brown spot; postpronotum light yellow, brown on basal half; notopleuron light yellow; anepimeron brown; anepisternum dark brown, yellow poste- riorly; katepimeron, katepisternum, and meron dark brown; haltere entirely yellow; calypters light yellow with margin and fringe black; wing clear, yellow at base; legs brown with all knees yellow; pulvilli yellow; abdomen yellow, tergites 3–6 with median brown stripe and two brown spots laterally; terminalia brown.
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Redescription of Japanagromyza inferna Spencer, first recorded from Brazil, and a key to the Neotropical species of Japanagromyza Sasakawa (Diptera, Agromyzidae)

Redescription of Japanagromyza inferna Spencer, first recorded from Brazil, and a key to the Neotropical species of Japanagromyza Sasakawa (Diptera, Agromyzidae)

Redescription. Male. (Fig. 2) - Body length: 2.5–2.6 mm. Wings length: 2.4mm. Color. Frons black dull, paler brownish at orbits level; face dark; fronto-orbital plate and ocellar triangle shining black; lunule gray pollinose; antenna black with apex of pedicel and base of postpedicel brown; arista black; palpus black; proboscis brown with labellum paler yellow with long yellow setae; thorax black with greenish relec- tions; halters yellow, brown at base; calypters and fringe yellow; legs black with cop- pery relections; pulvilli white; abdomen black with coppery relections.
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SYSTEMATICS, MORPHOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY New Species of Tomoplagia Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Capitula of Asteraceae in Brazil

SYSTEMATICS, MORPHOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY New Species of Tomoplagia Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Capitula of Asteraceae in Brazil

in cell cell r 1 , and on elongate basal spot in cell cu 1 bordering middle of vein A 1 +Cu 2 and well separated from posterior margin. ABDOMEN: Male tergite 5 with pair of elongate sublateral black spots on basal half to two-thirds; other tergites entirely orange. Tergite 5 1.8-2.4 times longer than tergite 4. Lateral surstylus with bulge-like dorsal lobe with tuft of 5-8 strong, ventrally or posteroventrally projecting setae. Medial surstylus with both prensisetae well developed, the medial one shorter and stouter. Glans with apical sclerite distally flattened and twisted to form spiral. Female tergite 6 usually with pair of small sublateral black spots near midlength, sometimes dotlike or absent; other tergites entirely orange. Oviscape 0.8-0.9 mm long, 1.1-1.2 times longer than width at base. Aculeus (Fig. 3G) about 1.4 mm long, slender, with nearly straight sides; tip elongate, slender, gradually tapered, in ventral view lateral margin very slightly concave to straight, extreme apex blunt.
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Por que Black Mirror dá muito o que pensar?

Por que Black Mirror dá muito o que pensar?

• White Christmas — Lançado no período de Natal, esse episódio especial é composto por três estórias interconectadas narradas por dois homens isolados em um local remoto gelado. As narrativas refletem sobre a humanidade de como tratamos as pessoas — físicas ou digitais. Se essa época do ano normalmente é dedicada a isso, Black Mirror honra a tradição por meio de suas lentes amplificadas pela distopia tecnológica. Uma das questões centrais desse episódio gira em torno de um dispositivo digital conectado nos olhos de todas as pessoas, que ao mesmo tempo em que permite ver pelos olhos de outro indivíduo, também possibilita bloquear totalmente outros seres, tanto no mundo on-line quanto físico, inclusive visualmente. Como desenvolver um relacionamento sem a possibilidade de retomar um diálogo? A segunda questão levantada na trama é a discussão sobre a ética de se clonar consciências digitalmente para, então, escravizá-las, investigá-las ou puni-las — uma consciência clonada é um ser autoconsciente? Ou apenas um sistema computacional? Finalmente, outra provocação que emerge é a relativização e manipulação do tempo em simulações digitais de forma acentuadamente desproporcional em relação ao mundo físico.
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Black esophagus - case report

Black esophagus - case report

Сли ка 2. Ма кро скоп ски из глед спо ја јед ња ка и же лу ца по сле фик си­ ра ња у фор ма ли ну (а); исти пре па рат исе чен уз ду жно и по преч но (b) Figure 2. Closer macroscopic view of the fixed esophagogastric junc­ tion with demarcation black discoloration of the esophageal mucosa (a); longitudinal and cross­section of the same specimen (b) Сли ка 1. Ма кро скоп ски из глед уз ду жно отво ре ног јед ња ка то ком об дук ци је, пре се че ног не по сред но из над же лу ца
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