Living art is not only that which exists in museums and other collections, but also that which exists in society. It is indicative of culture, of the aesthetic receptivity of culture in society on the intellectual and emotional level, and how we essentially see ourselves. Culture is, according to Brian Eno (NACCCE Report, 1999, p. 41), ‘where we live our shared mental lives. We need a way of understanding this habit, of treating it with the respect and care it deserves”. In their pre‐adolescent years children form basic attitudes about different experiences, including art, but it must not be forgotten that in Portuguese society, it is the school that is the institution officially responsible for teaching children about art. In the UK it is also the most likely place that children will encounter an art education, due to necessity for schools to provide a ‘broad and balanced curriculum’ (Claddingbowl, 2014). However, some problems can arise because art teachers are not the only intermediaries in these artistic experiences. The values which operate throughout much of society influence the child through visual forms both at home and in the environment in which they live. This formative process commences at a very early age, and in this way they form artistic concepts, which might be quite different from those they will find at school, in museums and galleries and in daily life. Students need to be illuminated and educated visually, in order for them to be able to understand their world. Stokes (2002, p. 10) states that “The use and interpretation of images is a specific languagein the sense that images are used to communicate messages that must be decoded in order to have meaning”, highlighting the essentiality of the skills involved with visual literacy in a fast changing world for today’s young people. Their emotions, their feelings, their ideas begin to be shaped in the early years and the school is a privileged and safe environment for discussion and critical reflection on prejudices and stereotypes, therefore it is the ideal place to educate for positive attitudes and behaviours. Fig. 1 shows how UK children aged seven and eight years have portrayed themselves in a natural and free way. Although this drawing is done during school time where every child wears a school uniform, most children have chosen to portray themselves in their own out‐of‐school attire. These fits with the findings of the research project Creative Connections as, when interviewed, primary aged children did not see school as a place where their personal identity was truly valued.
2D gesture recognition is usually associated to traditional computer vision technologies, which is still facing several challenges in the field of interactive multimedia (Freeman 98). Freeman defends that video games require a very fast response time which is not only highly dependable on the recognition algorithms but also on the hardware's speed (capture rate and image processing), in order to avoid delay between real and virtual actions. Though, state of the art cameras and processors already provide very acceptable capture and processing frame rates, the required conditions to create interfaces with short response times. Another challenge pointed out by Freeman, is the disambiguation of gestures: "Computer vision algorithms should be reliable, work for different people, and work against unpredictable backgrounds". Kang et al (Kang 2004) address this challenge with a system that combines gesture spotting and gesture recognition to separate unintentional movements from meaningful movements. While the system proved high reliability when applied to the game Quake II 4 , we believe that vision-based gesture recognition systems still don't apply for games that require high levels of accuracy.
The intention here is not to mitigate the dimension of the history of the representation of the body. Notice how it has shown us that different views of the world produce different ways of representing and acting with and on the body. There are bodies that are inscribed and dictated from ideals consumed and constituted by societies, because “like any other reality in the world, the body is socially constructed” (Barbosa, Matos & Costa, 2011, p. 32). From the senses built for the body, it is essential to retain, as Tucherman (1999) reminds us, the Pythagorean influence in what is called the Western way of being, that is, something that produced a difference with the non-Western things, and affirmed a logic of thought for our cultural experience, that is, it was related to the use of images of geometry to represent or symbolize nature, founding a conception of the world, leading us to think of the Cosmos, for example, as a dome, in a spherical way. Therefore, the reading of nature from geometry is either the picture or the imaginary, where the mention of the body is always the statement of the desire for form (Tucherman, 1999). Resuming to the Platonic aesthetics, we feel the resonances of Pythagorean thought: model and copy should coincide, art should be the servant of truth, copy physical objects, reproducing them faithfully, art should imitate the ideal beauty of absolute forms, inapprehensible, captured only by the intellect of the one who comes closest to the essences or ideas, a search for the model to guarantee the ideal beauty (Flores, M., 2007), that is, the form as the premise of the beauty. Geometric shapes, measurement techniques portraying the body’s traces, always precisely, through art and from thought and mathematical language for representation.
That’s the reason why, in our job with the school, the coping of the nihilism pass to be seminal educational question. Our militancy is for a pedagogical practice that affirms the fabrication of new aesthet- ic, whose potency face the capture forms of bodies sensibilities, forms based in sensibility damping, accompanied of offering images and signs caricatured, stereotyped and docilizing. So, we affirm an educa- tional policy that involves and affective education, a practice that, sur- passing the contentment and disciplinary escolarizacion, be respon- sible of violate the semiotic cliches in which the bodies are involved, to secretary unsuspected affects, virulent to become, potent enough to promote a learning of new senses, instigating, reviving of the forces. It would be about an education of artistic nature; affective not only be- cause of be affectionate and sweet, but for implicates expansion exer- cise of the sensibility in direction to a multiplicity of senses and capa- bilities of be affected. Indeed, is about a battle that doesn´t end in some interventions and not even founds guarantee in a final state of subjec- tive formation. The work of enlarge the sensibilities is an educational practice vacillating, realized as bet in the production of difference. By those experimental actions, we believed to operate a form of inclusion of these students in the universe of richness aesthetic and affective of the artistic language, which as customarily taken only to art galleries elitist; beyond that, we are promoting also a delicate scraping of the se- miotics impregnations shock absorbers of the sensitivities of the bod- ies. We emphasize that interventions of character aesthetical-political like that must be present in all educational levels and modalities, not only been thinked as specifics to the education of youth old peoples, or to the regular teaching, for example.
So why is musical behavior universal? What could be its adaptive value? And just what is music anyway? Like speech, it is not one identifiable cognitive capacity but is constituted of multiple separate components. Pitch recognition varies from “tone deaf” to “perfect” and influences abilities for musical memory, discrimination of melodies, awareness of changing harmony, and even the ability to keep time. Other components of music include perception of contour or melody, phrasing, pulse, meter, and rhythm, along with sensitivities to timbre and the dynamics of tempo and auditory volume. Often disregarded are additional important abilities to synchronize and take turns. Individuals vary in endowment of these various features and individual cultures’ musics vary in the importance given to a particular feature. Music is both “passive” and “active”: it is both recognized and produced.
Acrostic is a special phenomenon of the modern Chinese language. It is a combination of lexical and syntactical that across “vocabulary” and “grammar” categories. The morphemes can be combined and can also be separated by various form changes depending on its development. Acrostic is always been a crucial part in teaching Chinese language to foreigners and less developed than other parts of the teaching. This study used quantitative method to analyze the problems associated with the acrostic in teaching Chinese to foreigners. Source of the data was learners’ exercise and assignment. The discussion in this article was viewed from the perspective of the outside-oriented teaching, grouped into 3 main sections. The irst was in terms of the usability characteristics to the acrostic developments in the acrostic grammar study. The second, based on the results of the questionnaire regarding the use of acrostic, research analyzed students’ main mistakes and their causes. The third was to observe the condition of teaching acrostic. This research is expected to help teachers and learners of Mandarin understand and overcome the dificulties in learning acrostic.
In a true dialogue, words are used and understood differently by differ- ent interlocutors. ‘Learning’ or ‘knowledge’ for Meno or for Protagoras do not mean the same as they do for Socrates in his better moments, when he is not ironically using words as his interlocutors would use them. Socrates spends much of the so-called ‘early’ dialogues in disabusing his interlocu- tors from their understanding of the words in question, more often than not without success. Thus, in any dialogue, words may have different meanings for different speakers at different times. Words cannot be interpreted with- out much attention being given to the subtle and not so subtle changes of meaning undergone by them over time and across speakers. (I plead guilty of not doing it here, in the interest of brevity.) And Socrates is a master of double-talk, meaning one thing by a crucial term, but letting his interlocutor be misled into his own common-sensical understanding of that same term. Witness, e.g., his use of ‘learning’ vis-à-vis Meno.
child learn how to doubt? If the teaching is incorrect – that is, does not represent reality coherently – we acquire an inadequate “knowledge”. If reality proves us wrong, we understand the concept of doubt. Adapting one of Wittgenstein’s examples, in several cases we say that the earth is spherical. Is the Earth mathematically spherical? It is not. Can I be certain of it? I cannot, for I have not verified it with my own eyes. Could I trust my eyes even if I did? But I believe it, for I have been told that measurements were made and even that the earth was found to be flattened around the poles. Then, what makes it fine for six year old kids to grasp the concept of earth as being perfectly spherical, and not be fine for a fifteen year old one to do so in a physics test? We can say that it is the context, opting for a contextualist perspective. Or, we can say that in one case, it is adequate to do so, in the sense that for a six year old it is more important to understand the concept of earth as having a round shape than the fact that the distance in a straight line between the mass center of earth and the last layer of its atmosphere varies from point to point.
Additionally, as described by Llewellyn (1936), the gold rush of the 19 th century attracted many British immigrants, but the Boer Wars 3 initiated the first real language contact. These wars provoked the sending of 300,000 British soldiers. These English soldiers were taught Afrikaans words and phrases for a better understanding of their enemies. Consequently, borrowings from Afrikaans are abundant. An important group consists of geographical names, such as towns: Bloemfontein ,Johannesburg, Kaapstad, Utrecht, Potchefstroom, Kroonstad, Midrand, Stellenbosch, Welkom, Witbank, Krugersdorp and Rustenburg, amongst others.
from the Qing dynasty (1644-1911) sold for $575,000; a glass cabinet by Damien Hirst displaying a collection of surgical instruments – from a large series of similar pieces – fetched $2.5 million. In May 2012, Sotheby’s (New York) sold Edward Munch’s The Scream (1895) for the highest price realised by any work of art at auction, $120 million. The average observer might be shocked by these figures. Are people spending money on artworks following the same principles they would apply to the acquisition of bonds? They cannot be. And if they are, maybe they are not aware that art is not actually a good investment, contrary to popular belief. It will not appreciate, at least not as fast or as much as inexperienced collectors might think. There are huge transaction costs (e.g. auction house commissions, insurance and storage, value added tax and capital gains tax when the work is sold) and most works will never resell for as much as their original price. The figures presented earlier seem to contradict this claim. One naturally assumes that the works mentioned, if they were resold, originally must have been bought for a much lower price. That is true, but the number of really profitable resales is surprisingly low. However, because the transactions involve impressive sums, those are the ones that make the news and that skew the true picture. Inexpensive art will definitely not accrue value and only a small percentage of expensive art will. Sketched out like this, the problem elicits two questions. First, how has the misconception that art is a good investment become so popular? Second, if art is not a good investment, as many economists have demonstrated, why do people continue to buy art justifying their decision with the investment argument? The two questions are connected. Given that in the answer to these questions some points will inevitably intertwine, I choose to address the issue in a joint reply.
Norton’s (Norton Peirce, 1995; Norton, 2000; 2001; 2013) works on the changing identities of five immigrant women living in Canada and learning ESL was based on poststructuralist views of language and identity, mainly the works of Bourdieu (1977, 1991) Wenger (1998) and Anderson (1991). Thus, the author views identity as complex, contradictory and as constructed through language. Data collection happened for two years and by means of diaries produced by the five participants, interviews and questionnaires, and the analysis was done in an interpretative way. Norton presents her results while telling the stories and experiences of the five participants: first Eva (from Poland) and Mai (from Vietnam), who were the youngest and single participants; and then Katarina (from Poland), Martina (from the former Czechoslovakia) and Felicia (from Peru), who were older and married with children. The results revealed the women’s ambivalent desire to learn and practice English; primarily because they felt they did not belong to the Anglophone social networks with which they had contact and to the communities to which they aspired. As a consequence, they did not practice English outside school as much as they would like, despite the fact that all of them wished to transfer the skills they developed in class to other contexts. Results also showed that the women’s anxiety was higher in real time situations which focused on oral skills rather than literacy, essentially because in those cases they had fewer possibilities to retain the locus of control (NORTON PEIRCE, SWAIN & HART, 2003; apud NORTON, 2000) over the rate of the flow of information. In general, results showed that the five participants felt inferior and uncomfortable speaking when they were marginalized, mostly when talking to people with more symbolic or material power, with whom they wished to interact, and sometimes resorted to practices of non-participation in class, as a way to resist such positions of marginality.
Breck, Eric J., John D. Burger, Lisa Ferro, Lynette Hirschman, David House, Marc Light & Inderjeet Mani. “How to evaluate your question answering system every day … and still get real work done”. In Maria Gavriladou, George Carayannis, Stella Markantonatou, Stelios Piperidis and Gregory Stainhaouer (eds.), Proceedings of the
were made using a dilatometer in a temperature range of 25e 400 C. The results obtained for the glasses with terbium, europium, dysprosium and cerium are shown in Fig. 2 . Usually two glasses are considered compatible when the difference between their thermal expansion coefficients is less than 0.5 10 6 K 1  . The thermal expansion coefficients obtained, were 10.05 10 6 K 1 , 10.20 10 6 K 1 , 9.92 10 6 K 1 and 10.03 10 6 K 1 so the differences are less than 0.5 10 6 K 1 . These results showed that all the glasses with lanthanides were compatible with each other, and also compatible with the glass without the addition of the rare earth oxide, this one having a thermal expansion coefficient of 10.41 10 6 K 1 . Tests were made fusing several glasses together to check their compatibility. An example is shown in Fig. 3 .
The deep learning technique uses a model inspired in the human brain [Gup13, GBC16] for processing information: artificial neural networks. They allow the computer to have massive parallelism, distributed computation and inherent contextual information pro- cessing [JMM96] while dealing with data inputs. Among the classifications for artificial neu- ral networks there are Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) and Feed-forward Neural Network (FNN). They are named after the way they process information through their nodes, with a series of mathematical operations among them. A standard neural network (NN) consists of many simple, connected nodes called neurons, each producing a sequence of activations [Sch15], which are responses to the input they receive. The neurons have weight, defin- ing the importance of the data they process, and they are separated in a given number of layers. In the case of feed-forward network the input is received by the network and pro- cessed, transforming it into an output, with no recurrent process or need to understand the information from the previous node [Fin06]. Figure 2.9 shows an example of a feed-forward network architecture. Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) are a feed-forward network with a specific layer for convolving filters that are applied to local features [Kim14]. They are most used in the processing of images [KSH12], but the NLP field has used for text processing as well [KGB14, Kim14].
(2003: 1), “has developed in many directions and with considerable vigour in the last 10 to 15 years”. It is marked by shifts from functional to communicative approaches, and “the origins lie partly within theory and practice of language teaching, and partly in response to the recognition of the social and political significance of language teaching”. Modern foreign languages in the English national curriculum in Portugal, quoting APPI Newsletter (2/2000: 9-10), “sets out two sorts of requirements: knowledge, skills and understanding - what has to be taught in MFL during the key stage (readers’ foreign languages), and breadth of study” (abridged from The National Curriculum in England – “Programme of Study: Modern Foreign Languages”, Department for Education and Employment). In this line, English has been offered a key role in university curricula so as to foster students’ linguistic and cultural diversity, to meet their practical needs and interact as engaged citizens “within the newly emergent social political structures” both in a European and global dimension, not to mention the need for “both diversity and ease of communication through the widespread use of English” in wide- ranging discourse communities.