Abstract: Teaching Brazilianliterature to foreigners presents a challenge for teachers and students. When reflecting on course and individual class planning, the teacher needs to consider, among other things, the levels of detachment that may exist between students' previous knowledge about literature in general and about the one being taught. Language is also an obstacle when most students cannot read in Portuguese and need translations, sometimes not available, to follow the course. Such limitations are more present in multicultural and multilingual contexts, as in the case of Israel. Based on our classroom experience, in the context of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and the Brazilian Cultural Center in Tel Aviv, and reflections of scholars such as Monteiro (2014), Librandi-Rocha (2014), among others, our main objective is to discuss the extent to which teachers can develop a work capable of both bringing students closer to the literary production that is new to them, and to the language, culture and history that supports it and without which it would not exist. We believe that flexibility is needed from both sides: the teacher must be a mediator attentive to the cultural context of the students, and students should try to get rid of preconceived ideas in relation to the other culture.
Abstract: The literature, given its linguistic and, above all, aesthetic-artistic complexity emerges as a suitable field to explore activities that contribute to languages integration, and so for, to develop the communicative skill as a whole. Not surprisingly, translation, a comprehension - production bound activity, is back into school practice as a tool for learning. The contribution of this text will be to suggest a translation exercise as a strategy for teaching and learning of Portuguese and Spanish languages and literatures, all this based upon “Feia demais”, the story by Nelson Rodrigues. This article also turns to the legal framework proposal Base Nacional Comum Curricular- Ensino Médio, approved by the legal document n° 1.570, published on Diário Oficial da União de 21/12/2017, days before its implementation, a document which has raised the Brazilian educational debate, with the aim of standing up for diverse and multilingual literature teaching. The fact that the proposal does not envisage any strong recommendations for Spanish language teaching in High School curriculum can be considered as an act of kidnapping this foreign language. The complexity of the historical moment demands from the teachers to discuss methodologies in order to take a position in the face of this legislation.
Abstract: Information has increasingly become a crucial re- source for organizations that want to remain competitive in the market. For this reason, analysis and a correct understanding of informational types that are present in these environments become relevant to achieving the highest levels of performance. The aim of this paper is to review the literature of the concepts of organic and archival information within the organi- zational context/business environments. This is still an emerging theoretical field and there- fore is conducive to intense discussions. We point out elements that help to characterize and distinguish these two types of information.
systematize Brazilian knowledge on the subject. The journals consulted were Revista de Administração Contemporânea (RAC); Revista de Administração Contemporânea in electronic format (RAC Eletrônica); Revista Organizações and Sociedade (O & S); Revista de Administração de Empresas (RAE–FGV); Revista de Administração Pública (RAP-FGV); and Revista de Administração da USP (RA-USP). The proceedings of scientific events that were researched were those of ENANPAD (the National Meeting of the National Association of Research and Graduate Studies in Management), in the Organizational Strategy thematic area, and of EEE (Strategy Studies Meeting), both of which are organized by ANPAD. These periodicals, journals and events were chosen for their quality and for their legitimacy among Brazilian academics, as they are all considered to be of a high level in terms of domestic intellectual production.
Most Brazilian physicians, if asked, could probably name a number of the most impor- tant medical journals edited in Brazil. If this question is posed to different specialists and academic MDs they would say that the most read papers are those published in periodi- cals edited by their National Specialty Asso- ciations. There is a common belief that Bra- zilian medical doctors are only able to read papers published in Brazilian journals, mainly due to language limitation. How- ever, this may not be true. Recently, a num- ber of Brazilian scientific journals have sat- isfied the requirements for indexation in SciELO. As a consequence, many of them, previously published in Portuguese, are now published in English (4). Therefore, the prob- lem may not be simply a matter of language, but also the editorial policy for acceptance of a paper that would be more rigorous for a journal indexed in the ISI-Thompson than in the SciELO base only. Also, a small number of Brazilian scientific periodicals, although edited in Brazil, are indexed in international bases such as ISI-Thompson or PubMed, achieving an international pattern of quality. The publication of research in peer-reviewed journals is only an intermediate outcome, satisfying to authors, but not necessarily useful to others. It is not an easy task to measure how useful a published article is to clinicians. It is accepted that busy clinicians must choose carefully what reports of medi- cal research findings to read, and in survey-
While Rachel de Queiroz revolutionized Brazilian female writing, Jorge Amado’s main contribution to Brazilianliterature lies in his incorporation and representation of folk literature, local customs and African culture. At the same time, Amado was also the most influential left- wing writer of his era. Except his debut novel O país do carnaval, in the first phase of his literary career (that is, from the creation of Cacau in 1933 to the publication of Subterrâneos da liberdade in 1954), Amado published more than ten novels, plays, biographies, and travelogues that conform to the principles of social realist aesthetics, and almost every one of them has a distinctive political agenda. In Cacau, Amado already made the following statement/question: "Tentei contar neste livro, com um mínimo de literatura para um máximo de honestidade, a vida dos trabalhadores das fazendas de cacau do sul da Bahia. Será um romance proletário?" (Amado 121) In the 1934 novel Suor, through depicting the lives of many poor tenants and giving about equal attention to each one of these characters, Amado attempted to achieve the goal of “suprimir o personagem, matar o indivíduo” to prove the idea of “o que interessa é o grupo” (Ramos 95). After that, he created an iconic black character in Jubiabá to call for class struggle through raising the racial issue. As for Terra do sem fim, São João dos Ilhéus and Seara Vermelha, they tackled the issues of scramble for land in Brazil, the invasion of foreign capital, and the tragic fate of landless farmers respectively.
In Brazilianliterature, we can say that comparativism began in the 19th century, not coincidently referred to as the century of nationalism. Following independence, writers sought to valorise local colour, supposing that this would be a demonstration of commitment to Brazil and of distancing from the former colonial power. Because of this, one of the most famous poems from the 19th century “Canção do exílio” (“Song of Exile”), by Gonçalves Dias, is, at the same time, an example of nationalism and comparativism, contrasting two countries and emphasising the supposed advantages of Brazil in relation to Portugal: “Our skies have more stars,/ Our meadows more flowers,/Our forests have more life,/Our lives, more loves”. Furthermore, Gonçalves Dias follows the practice of directly citing foreign authors, which was fashionable in Romanticism, using an epigraph by Goethe in this poem.
The second interview is with Márcia Marques de Morais, Assistant Teacher at Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais (PUC Minas), conducted by the organizers of this volume, Vera Lopes da Silva and Clézio Roberto Gonçalves. It is a reflexive chat about the relation between literary reading and teaching, based on Guimarães Rosa, and wandering, also, through names of BrazilianLiterature, prose and poetry, such as Bernardo Carvalho, Chico Buarque, Drummond, Murilo Rubião, Henriqueta Lisboa, Florbela Espanca, and others. The interview deals with questions about the acts of reading, studies through which she is committed to the formation of teachers, orienting them about the literary making not only in its constitution, but
Kular et al. (2008) explored Five key areas: What does ‘employee engagement’ mean?; How can engagement be managed?; What are the consequences of engagement for organisations?; How does engagement relate to other individual characteristics?; How is engagement related to employee voice and representation? Robertson-Smith and Markwick (2009) throw light on what engagement is and reveals that it is an important yet complex challenge, and there remains a great deal of scope for discussing the various approaches. Simpson (2009) discussed that the current state of knowledge about engagement at work through a review of the literature. This review highlighted the four lines of engagement research and focuses on the determinants and consequences of engagement at work. Susi & Jawaharrani (2011) examined some of the literature on Employee engagement, explore work-place culture & work-life balance policies & practices followed in industries in order to promote employee engagement in their organizations to increase their employees’ productivity and retain them. Work- life balance is key driver of employees’ satisfaction.
In the already mentioned Pupilas, in addition to present a model of the country doctor, it is relevant for the plot that the main character has to go to the city to study, and come back to the village invested in a new status. However, and notwithstanding some of the funniest scenes of Portuguese literature in his encounters with the old- fashioned chemist and his wife and daughter, for the main plot I believe he could have studied law instead.
Introduction: Lyme neuroborreliosis designates the neurological involvement of Lyme disease, a multisystem zoonosis caused by spirochaetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, transmitted by Ixodes ticks. It has been recognized as an emergent and under-reported infection, being the most prevalent vector-borne infection in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. We provide an overall description of the clinical features, current diagnostic methods, treatment options and a brief summary of the ongoing controversy. Methods: We performed a literature review using PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar. Selection was based on the availability of the full text and relevance to the subject.
Nevertheless, some barriers and difficulties are identified in the development of shopper marketing projects. In fact, despite retailers’ intentions, the stores are not always presented to shopper as the retailer would like – e.g. products on the shelves appear to be messy (Castro, Morales and Nowlis, 2013). Generalizing, the most common obstacles to shopper marketing encountered in the literature were (Sommer, 2010; Shankar, 2011; Nitzberg 2010; GMA/Deloitte, 2007, 2008; Retail Commission on Shopper Marketing, 2010; Sansolo, 2010; Dellaert et al., 2008):
In this integrative review it was possible to observe the profile of prescription studies that evaluate drug interaction in Brazilian hospitals, adopting the research in medical records without contact with the patient or follow-up of the same. In addition, they use, in particular, Internet databases such as Micromedex®. In addition, they investigate a reduced number of patients/prescriptions which is generally related to the observation period. In this sense, the most used study drawings are retrospective (cohort) and cross-sectional; being performed predominantly in hospitals of medium/ high complexity.
60’s was very exhilarating and exciting. It broke through frozen and congealed ways of interpreting and opened up new possibilities of thinking about literary texts, and in fact about thinking of everything in the world as a literary text. This is very exciting. It gave both, students and professors, something new to do. But at a certain moment, I can’t exactly pinpoint it, the interest in theory took a political turn. By that I mean that it became an article of faith, on the part of some, that the new ways of thinking about language and literature could be translated almost immediately into a program for political action, usually a program that situated itself on the left and involved the subversion of entrenched political and sociological structures. This I think was a big mistake. It is not the case in my view that any form of theory has a political component or has obvious and inevitable political implications. Once the turn to theory became the turn to theory as the turn to politics in theory, too much was demanded of theory. Many people in this country and elsewhere believed that from literary theory could be derived a new form of life that would in the end bring about a new and better and more democratic society. This was a hope or a burden that literary theory could not bear. So, I am just calling, and have been for a long time, for an end to what I think could be an outlandish claim made for theory. Theory is a form of stringent philosophical thinking about topics like language, literature, canon, structure, tradition, history etc. As such, it is a certain kind of activity that merits its own canon, and its own roster of rewards and accomplishments. One does not need to attach to theory a hope that it cannot bear. I have no problem whatsoever with people continuing to do theory, so long as they don’t look to theory for salvation.
Rather like Goethe’s discussion of Weltliteratur, Damrosch’s “elliptical refraction” seeks to balance its two foci: an interest in the national-literature context from which a work is presumed to spring, with a concern for how that work is received in the reader’s present – with the ever- present danger, one might add, that without the assistance of specialist knowledge, the ellipse can easily collapse into a circle, whose sole center is the reader and his present-day utility. The concept of writing that gains in translation is a valuable corrective to the too-easy dismissal of translation as a loss of authenticity, by redirecting attention to the new lives works often live in new languages, embracing an enlarged sense of the meaning and value of a text rather than insisting on a presumed original reading as the sole legitimate one. Again, the student of world literature needs to be careful here: works can only gain in translation by being translated, and the inequities in access to translation play an important if not always acknowledged role in the afterlives of particular texts. The claim that world literature is not a canon, but rather a mode of reading, resonated in the context of the Culture Wars, largely in ceasefire mode by 2003 yet still haunting the memories of most of us active in the field at that time, even if there remains plenty of room to disagree about what mode of reading World Literature might be. The project of constructing a global canon would always have been complex and contentious, but was even more so in the simultaneous ages of multiculturalism and globalization, where a global canon would be required to reflect not only the dominant traditions of major world cultures, but also subversive and subaltern voices within those traditions, while also paying attention to works by US-based ethnic communities linked to those major world culture. By replacing a fixed canon with a mobile and flexible collection of texts built around the reader’s own needs, Damrosch’s model deftly escaped many of the politico-cultural tensions of the era.
Yet this is only part of the story. At Swedish universities, literature is naturally also studied and researched within the language departments: in the departments of English, German, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, and so forth. It is worth noting, however, that Swedish does not exist as a separate philology in the same sense at Swedish universities. Swedish as a language is taught and researched within Nordiska språk (Scandinavian languages) or Svenska (Swedish), but the study of Swedish literature forms part of litteraturvetenskap. Not surprisingly, then, Swedish literature occupies a very strong position within litteraturvetenskap. Overviews of literary history play an important role in the undergraduate curriculum, and in these historical courses international literary history and Swedish literary history are accorded roughly equal space. But the research carried out within the discipline mostly concerns Swedish topics.