Capacity of the maturation

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Control of oocyte maturation

Control of oocyte maturation

The final process of oocyte maturation consists of the acquisition of the capacity to be fertilized and is characterized by several changes including the resumption of meiosis (Paynton and Bachvarova, 1990; Eppig, 1991). In vivo oocyte maturation coincides with differentiation of the pre-ovulatory follicle which includes changes in the oocyte and the CCs. The changes in the oocyte occur sequentially and synchronously under the stimulus of the LH, through its action on the GCs (Cran and Moor, 1990; Sathananthan, 1994). During oocyte maturation in preparation for fertilization and subsequent embryo development, changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm occur. As meiosis proceeds chromosomes segregate and organelles reorganize in the cytoplasm, transcription ceases, the stored mRNA is partially used, and the pattern of protein phosphorylation changes (Ponderato et al., 2001; Ferreira et al., 2009).
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Maturation of somatic embryos

Maturation of somatic embryos

During repetitive embryogenesis the new somatic embryos are formed from others and some species keep this embryogenic competence for many years (PINTO et al., 2008). Embryogenic competence was observed, for example, in Quercus suber (HERNÀNDEZ et al., 2003), Vitis rupestris (MARTINELLI et al., 2001), Ocotea odorifera (SANTA-CATARINA et al., 2001), Ocotea catharinensis (MOURA-COSTA et al., 1993) and Aspidosperma polyneuron (RIBAS et al., 2000). Litz et al. (1995) and Tulecke et al. (1995) reported that the embryogenic capacity could be maintained in Mangifera indica and Juglans regia through repetitive embryogenesis for more than 5 and 9 years, respectively. After the evaluation period (90 days), the cultures remained in WPM culture medium supplemented with 1 g l -1 hydrolyzed ca-
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Fresh and matured lamb meat quality fed with sunflower seeds and vitamin E

Fresh and matured lamb meat quality fed with sunflower seeds and vitamin E

Diet supplementation with sunflower seeds and vitamin E did not influence meat quality traits (pH, temperature and color) at 45 minutes and 24 hours after slaughtering, while the drop in pH observed in the Longissimus dorsi muscle was as expected for lamb meat during the rigor mortis process. The addition of vitamin E to the diet did not affect pH, lightness, redness, cooking loss and shear force; however, it affected yellowness and water holding capacity of lamb meat. Sunflower seeds supplemented in the diet affected only water retention capacity of lamb meat, while all other studied parameters (pH, color, cooking loss and shear force) were not significantly changed, excepting yellowness. Maturation time influenced the parameters pH, color and shear force. Lamb meat that matured for 7 days displayed the lowest shear force.
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The Impact of the Expansion of the Bolsa Familia Program on the Time Allocation of Youths And Their Parents Lia Chitolina Miguel Nathan Foguel Naercio Menezes-Filho

The Impact of the Expansion of the Bolsa Familia Program on the Time Allocation of Youths And Their Parents Lia Chitolina Miguel Nathan Foguel Naercio Menezes-Filho

As the multinomial model is non-linear, the marginal effect of the treatment in a DID model is not the marginal impact of the interaction between time and treatment, but the difference of the cross-differences, as described by Puhani (2012). The results of Table 7 (in terms of marginal effects) show that the BVJ has a significant effect on the probability studying and working at the same time, but not on the other outcome variables. The estimated marginal effects mean that the probability of a youngster studying and working increases by 4.2 percentage points with the BVJ, compared with a baseline of 30% in the control group in 2006. The estimated coefficients for the categories ‘studying only’ and ‘working only’ were negative but not statistically significant. It seems, therefore, that treated adolescents do not quit their jobs to study because of the program, but do both activities at the same time. This raises questions about the long run impacts of the program, since the quality of the night classes is notoriously low in Brazil.
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Modeling of Two-Stage Solidification: Part II Computational Verification of the Model

Modeling of Two-Stage Solidification: Part II Computational Verification of the Model

As we have already mentioned, the first stage is identical for both eutectic transformation modes. When the temperature drops below liquidus temperature, dendritic grains nucleate and grow. Computed solute distribution corresponding to this stage, for two macroscopic elements has been presented in Figure 1. It can be seen that diffusion layers of neighboring grains overlap in various time steps, depending on their mutual position. The contact of layers causes a decrease in growth velocity of envelopes. Thus, in these areas where solute diffusion layers do not overlap, envelopes are close to a sphere, whereas in the opposite situation, envelope segments are similar to Voronoi diagram. This reflects the two growth types introduced in the growth algorithm of dendritic envelopes.
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Distributions of grain parameters on the surface of aircraft engine turbine blades

Distributions of grain parameters on the surface of aircraft engine turbine blades

The results of calculations of the areas of non-planar grain surfaces and the grain areas on the projection plane for correct and incorrect macrostructures are presented as distributions with a logarithmic width of classes in Figs. 6 and 7, respectively. 7. Parameters of the grain size distributions in 3D and 2D spaces are presented in Table 1. A supplementary evaluation of the grain size consists of a calculation of the shape and elongation coefficients. The results of the calculations are presented as distributions these values in Figures 8, 9, 10 and 11, respectively, while statistical parameters are shown in Tables 2 and 3.
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Analytical Determining Of The Steinmetz Equivalent Diagram Elements Of Single-Phase Transformer

Analytical Determining Of The Steinmetz Equivalent Diagram Elements Of Single-Phase Transformer

This model, preached by any teacher of electrical engineering to his students on the various levels, was given like postulate. This article proposes an analytical justification to the equivalent diagram elements of single-phase transformer current, particularly to those of the central branch. The article is organized in three main sections. Section II begins by the calculation of active power consumed in a parallelepiped electromagnetic domain subjected to a variable flow. The result is applied to a shell form single-phase transformer. With open load test, the power consumption linked to the leakage inductance and resistance of the transformer winding is neglected in front of the consumption of the central branch [11]. But it is not the case for a loaded transformer. The methods to determine resistances of the reels are indisputable. This article gives the expressions of the elements of the central branch in the model of Steinmetz starting from the powers and their site. It studies also the variation relation of the iron resistance and the iron reactance compared to the computed values with 220 V. Section 2 is dedicated to this calculation. Discussions and a comparison of results are described in Section 3. The final section is devoted to the article conclusion.
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Effect of heat treatment parameters on the properties of low-alloy cast steel with microadditions of vanadium

Effect of heat treatment parameters on the properties of low-alloy cast steel with microadditions of vanadium

This article examines the effect of prolonged time of holding at the temperature of 620 0 C on the processes of secondary phase precipitation and mechanical properties of low-alloy cast steel with an addition of vanadium subjected to two variants of heat treatment, i.e. U:1150 0 C+H:950 0 C+O:620 0 C and H:950 0 C+O:620 0 C. To determine an impact of the applied heat treatment operations, testing of mechanical properties and microstructural examinations of the cast steel with 0,21 and 0,27%C were carried out.
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Influence Of Industry Environment Adaptation To The Improved Performance Of Islamic Financial Institutions

Influence Of Industry Environment Adaptation To The Improved Performance Of Islamic Financial Institutions

companies of any kind, including the banking industry is not enough to just rely on internal resources and capabilities they have and implement business functions are single fighter. The success gained competitive advantage depends on the ability of companies in perceived value to customers who exceed that offered by competitors. For an industry that includes the banking industry in the creation of value to the customer and achieving superior performance must be able to anticipate and adapt to changes in the type and intensity of competitive forces in the industrial environment. Increasing the strength of competition in the industrial environment both of Rivalry Among Existing sellers and new entrants will result in price competition and tighter margins obtained which will ultimately affect the performance of the company. Especially against the banking industry, including Islamic banking, competitive landscape facing now not only fellow Islamic banking in the country, but because the growth is very promising, also has attracted foreign banks to plunge also in the Islamic banking industry both full-pledged islamic banking and foreign commercial banks which have business units islamic window. Influential forces affecting the competitive environment on the performance of Islamic banking in particular through the introduction of new entrants of foreign banks into Islamic banking industry is evidenced by the results of research conducted by Hassan et. al. 2013). The results of research by using econometric models and using 14 samples from 24 countries who have foreign Islamic banks and Islamic banks with domestic observation period financial statements (financial statements) of the 149 Islamic banks domestic and foreign Islamic banks during 1996 to 2010 concluded that: In general, foreign Islamic banks as new competitors enjoy more Linggi performance in the form of net profit margin in 7 countries of the 24 countries sampled, but instead get the net profit margin is very low in 5 other countries. Another finding is the rate of returns (in the form of ROE and ROA) plays an important role in the decisions of foreign Islamic banks to entry into the market of Islamic banking in the country, macroeconomic conditions only act as a supporting role, considered tax policy plays a role in the decision-hostile entry decision and the presence of foreign Islamic banks, the financial crisis did not significantly affect the entry decision. Meanwhile, the analysis of the influence of foreign Islamic bank entry on the performance of the domestic Islamic banks, among others, show the profitability of the domestic Islamic
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Influence of tungsten and titanium on the structure of chromium cast iron

Influence of tungsten and titanium on the structure of chromium cast iron

During cooling, the crystallisation of cast iron deviates from the equilibrium state. This means that the austenite gets supersaturated with carbon and chromium, which greatly reduces the temperature of its transformation. Under these conditions, it is possible to obtain at room temperature the matrix of austenitic or austenitic-pearlitic character, as shown by respective microstructures. Total content of the carbide phase can be determined from F. Maratray’s [2] formula, namely:

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The Existence Of Leading Islands Securing And The Border Areas Unitary State Of Indonesia An Analysis In Law Perspective

The Existence Of Leading Islands Securing And The Border Areas Unitary State Of Indonesia An Analysis In Law Perspective

Based on the objectives to be achieved and problems that have been formulated, the method used is juridical- sociological. The juridical approach is intended to explore and study the legislation as a basis for a research, while the sociological approach is intended to explore the factors and impacts incurred from the occurrence of border-area dispute and solution by the government. The specifications of this research are normative law called also as doctrinal research. A site was chosen by researcher to conduct a research is a government agency that includes the Navy (Department of Hydro-Oceanographic) related to the sea boundaries of the Republic of Indonesia and neighboring countries, local governments, especially in the leading islands border to the Republic of Indonesia related to culture, security, politics and thinking about the area/island they occupy, as a part of the Unitary of the Republic of Indonesia. The population is all research objects to be researched. In this research, the population is Navy and the relevant agencies involved in the security of sea area. The samples were chosen to be a material of research is the bearer of the security function in marine areas through the random system and interviews with relevant parties, such as Bakorkamla and community.
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Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental

Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental

Losses on peanut crop are not frequently diagnosed in Brazil and, therefore, there are no pre-set standards or recommended levels regarding losses that can be used by farmers as acceptable for harvesting peanuts. Besides the need for more research, attention should be paid to the adjustments of the machines and the characteristics of the product harvested by machine, which may influence the increased losses. It was aimed in this study to evaluate the possible effect of two soil water contents and three plant populations regarding losses in the peanut mechanized digging and operational performance of the tractor- digger-inverter.
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DETERMINAÇÃO DA DIFUSIVIDADE TÉRMICA DA POLPA DE MAMÃO EM FUNÇÃO DO ESTÁDIO DE MATURAÇÃO

DETERMINAÇÃO DA DIFUSIVIDADE TÉRMICA DA POLPA DE MAMÃO EM FUNÇÃO DO ESTÁDIO DE MATURAÇÃO

The fruits were provided by a commercial orchard (Caliman Agrícola S. A.), situated in the north of Espírito Santo state (longitude 39°51’ W and latitude 19°15’ S), Brazil. A total of fifteen papaya fruits, cv. Golden, were used. Fruits were harvested regarding to get a homogeneous group with the same stage of maturity. The skin color of fruit was yellow covering less than 15% of the surface of the skin with the rest of green and the external part of the pulp, about 50 %, showed red color. The seeds were mostly mature black. This stage was identified as stage I of maturity. Samples were divided into five groups of three fruits each. Each group was analyzed along five followed days and identified as stage II, III, IV and V, respectively (Folegatti and Matsuura, 2002). The work was performed in the Laboratory of Physics, at the Science and Technology Center, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro.
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Determinants and Consequences of   the Website Perceived Value

Determinants and Consequences of the Website Perceived Value

Finally, this study suffers from a number of limitations. First, our sample was composed of university students. It is possible that their perceptions of e-loyalty and site value are different from other populations because they are younger and have less experience as consumers. For that, it is relevant to test the model with a real population of buyers via Internet. Second, in our study, the measurement of the perceived value was restricted to the consumer context, and dealt only with Holbrook’s (1994) “self-oriented” dimensions of value. The social dimension of value, referred to by Holbrook (1994) as the “other oriented” dimension remains unexplored. In both online and off-line retail service experiences; this element of value is likely to be a significant factor in shaping perceptions of the consumption experience. Future researches are encouraged to extend this work to incorporate this added dimension that includes status, ethics, esteem and spirituality in order to capture Holbrook’s full typology.
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Bioremoval Capacity Of Phenol By Green Micro-Algal And Fungal Species Isolated From Dry Environment

Bioremoval Capacity Of Phenol By Green Micro-Algal And Fungal Species Isolated From Dry Environment

Over the last century, increasing population growth and industrialization, with the consequent release of pollutants, have resulted in the deterioration of various ecosystems on which human life relies on [1]. Phenol and phenolic compounds are widely distributed as environmental pollutants due to their common presence in the effluents of several industrial processes, including oil refineries, ceramic plants, coal conversion process, phenolic resins, pharmaceutical and food industries [2]. Due to the toxicity and frequent release in nature, they represent a serious ecological problem. Phenols can be removed from the environment and industrial effluents by physicochemical methods such as ozonation, activated carbon, adsorption, chemical oxidation, Fenton's reagent, and UV or hydrogen peroxide [3]. However, some of the aforementioned methods are restricted because of their complexity and high cost, production of hazardous end- products [3]. Biodegradation represent a better alternative method for phenol cleaning because organism-based method usually lead to mineralization of the starting pollutants to simpler compounds like CO 2 , H 2 O, NO 3 and other inorganic
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Investigating The Use Of Mobile Computing In Zimbabwe Polytechnics Case Of A Polytechnic In Zimbabwe

Investigating The Use Of Mobile Computing In Zimbabwe Polytechnics Case Of A Polytechnic In Zimbabwe

). This shows that there has been upgrading and improvement in mobile computing device characteristics since Zimm erman’s research up to now. Dahlstrom (2012), a senior research analyst at EDUCAUSE, in his article titled ―Executive Summary: Student Mobile Computing Practices—lessons learned from Qatar‖ says that students find Mobile technology convenient and engaging and institutions need to invest more in mobile device use and support. In Qatar the Education City conducted a survey jointly with ECAR (Every Child a Reader) of United Kingdom (UK) on student mobile computing technology and the results were not only relevant to their student’s experiences but also speaks to the global revolution of mobile technology in the academic environment. The findings revealed that, for students, technology plays an important role in productivity and communication, students want technology integrated into their academic experience and students want to better utilise mobile technology in their learning environments doing such things as creating content for course assignments, accessing course related material and pushing the limits of mobile device productivity. Kim et al (2006) identified the benefits of using mobile wireless phones as freedom of location and time, increasing speed in teaching and learning, enabling one-to-one learning based on individual educational histories or test results, better communication opportunities and better collaboration in group discussions. They also identified the specific benefits of using Personal Data Assistants in m-learning as mobility, information management capacity, beaming capability, ability to work in many places and replacement of pen and paper. A UK essays website argued that the major challenge for educators and trainers is how to develop learning materials for delivery on
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General Considerations about Matrimonial Regime under the Provisions of the New Romanian Civil Code

General Considerations about Matrimonial Regime under the Provisions of the New Romanian Civil Code

In the past 50 years Romanian experts have equated the notion of property relations between spouses with the notion of matrimonial regime. The Romanian contemporary doctrine regarding the notions of matrimonial regimes and property relations between spouses is more nuanced than in the past, claiming that the two notions are closely linked, but not identical. Thus, the matrimonial regime should designate a system of legal rules that govern the property consequences of marriage, but not of any consequences (there are some pecuniary reports that are not of interest for the matrimonial regimes for example the obligation of maintenance between spouses, as well as those have in relation to other people: children, relatives, etc.). Consequence: matrimonial regime is part of the rules that systematize the "patrimonial relations between spouses”, relationships which are the subject matter of more disciplines: property right of the family, inheritance law etc.. . As such, the concept of matrimonial regime may be perceived in a narrow sense, as it may also have wider significance. In a narrow sense –the sense preferred by the author - the matrimonial regime is a set of legal rules governing the relations between spouses regarding the pecuniary rights and obligations of conjugal life and the relations concerning their management . In a wider sense, the matrimonial regimes (Vasilescu, 2003) also refer to the pecuniary relations between spouses and third parties, whether they are people completely foreign from marriage or people with specific legal ties to it (Vasilescu, 2003).
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Insulin impairs the maturation of chondrocytes in vitro

Insulin impairs the maturation of chondrocytes in vitro

Alkaline phosphatase activity. At 4ºC, cells were rinsed in PBS, extracted with 0.5% Triton X-100 (Sigma) in 0.5 M Tris- HCl, pH 8.0, mechanically homogenized, sonicated for 30 s, and centrifuged for 5 min at 4ºC at 13,000 g, and 5-, 10- and 15-µl aliquots of the supernatant were used for spectrophotometric enzyme assay (Biobrás, São Paulo, SP, Brazil). The alkaline phos- phatase activity was determined as the amount of p-nitrophenol released from the substrate p-nitrophenyl phosphate on the basis of absorbance at 405 nm in a micro- plate reader (Model 450, BioRad, Hercules, CA, USA) and activity is reported per minute per mg protein. Protein was determined by the micro-BCA assay (Pierce Chemical, Rockford, IL, USA) in the working range 25- 2000 µg/ml of BSA at 560 nm.
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Winning the Oil Lottery: The Impact of Natural Resource Extraction on Growth Tiago Cavalcanti Daniel Da Mata Frederik Toscani

Winning the Oil Lottery: The Impact of Natural Resource Extraction on Growth Tiago Cavalcanti Daniel Da Mata Frederik Toscani

It is worth pointing out that the whole of Brazil went through a process of moving towards a higher share of services, a lower share of agriculture, more urbanization, and less informality. In our sample of municipalities in which drilling occurred, the share of services workers stood slightly below 0.1 in 1940 and had risen to over 0.3 in 2000, for example. Discovering oil accentuated this trend in a quantitatively important manner. The increase in the share of services workers we estimated translates to roughly half a standard deviation of the distribution in the sample in 2000. Similarly, the estimated 37 percent increase in the size of services firms corresponds to a quarter of the standard deviation of the distribution in 2000. The mean size was 9 workers, implying on average 3-4 additional workers per firm due to oil discoveries. Skilled wages are estimated to be about 20 percent higher in discovery MCAs. This corresponds to 150 Real per month, or one national minimum wage in 2000. In terms of low skilled wages we did not find any effect. Looking at the distribution we find that the average low skilled formal services sector wage in 2000 in our sample was above the national minimum wage. Given the very low income an informal subsistence farmer could expect, the opportunity to work at or above the legal minimum wage was a sufficient incentive to move to the urban agglomeration and enter the formal workforce.
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Prostate Cancer: A State of The Heart

Prostate Cancer: A State of The Heart

Prof Alberto Briganti’s presentation began with the case of a 57-year-old male diagnosed with a 4 + 3 bilateral extended prostate cancer. The patient displayed some CV risk factors, including diabetes and obesity. Following staging, the patient appeared to have no systemic disease in the bone or in the abdomen and pelvis; however, a prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan showed a suspicious area of minimal extracapsular extension at the right apex. Prostate-speciic antigen (PSA) levels were 21.6 ng/mL, indicating that he was a high-risk patient. He consequently underwent bilateral extended pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND). The inal pathological report revealed that the patient had a Gleason score of 8, 2/21 positive lymph nodes, and a positive surgical margin, with complete recovery of urinary continence at 4 weeks after surgery. Post-surgery evaluation showed that the patient had a PSA of 0.07 ng/mL, had no spontaneous erections, and did not require a protective pad at 40 days.
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