ABSTRACT - Two experiments were performed for the purpose of determining the nutritional value and assess the performance and carcasstraits in pigs fed on canola meal (Brassica napus). Experiment I consisted of a total digestibility trial conducted with 14 castrated commercial crossbred male pigs with 60.69 ± 4.26 kg initial live weight. The treatments consisted of a control diet based on maize and soybean meal and another diet containing canola meal (control + 25% canola meal). Each pig was an experimental unit, totalling seven experimental units per diet. The digestible energy and the metabolizable energy of canola meal used was 2,999 and 2,730 kcal.kg -1 , respectively. These values were used to formulate the diets of the performance experiment.
Probiotic effects on growth performance, carcasstraits, blood parameters, cecal microbiota, and immune response of broilers were studied. Two hundred one-day-old male chickens were allocated to one of ﬁ ve treatments (four replicates of 10 birds per treatment): control, and the same control diet supplemented with 0.005%, 0.01%, 0.015% and 0.02% probiotics. Probiotics in feed at 0.01% or higher levels of supplementation improved body weight gain (+12%) and feed conversion rate (-5%) compared with the control. There were no effects on carcasstraits, but the relative weights of drumsticks and wings showed increasing and decreasing linear responses, respectively, to probiotic supplementation level. Blood plasma glucose and albumin contents linearly increased (from 167.1 to 200.5 mg dl -1 , and from 1.70 to 3.25 g dl -1 ) with increasing probiotic supplementation. Triglycerides and cholesterol contents were lower in probiotic supplemented treatments (average contents 71.3 and 125.3 mg dl -1
ABSTRACT:The present study aimed to compare two different methods (RR-BLUP and Bayesian LASSO) and also to determine which method provides more accurate results for genomic selection in a pig line considering two boar taint traits, concentration of androstenone (andro) and concentration of skatole (ska) and two carcasstraits,backfat thickness (fat) and loin depth (loin). A total of 622 boars from the same farm were genotyped for 2,500 SNPsselected, non informative markers with minor allele frequency (MAF) <0.05 and call rate < 0.95 at least. The estimated genomic breeding values (GEBVs) and their accuracy based on Jack-knife cross-validation were calculated in both methods using the R software (packages rrBLUP and BLR). The Bayesian LASSO method reached values of accuracy respectively equal to 0.65, 0.58 and 0.33 forandro, ska and loin,andheritabilities equal to 0.46, 0.26 and 0.08.RR-BLUP accuracy was equal to 0.61 and heritability equal to 0.32 for fat. The genetic correlations estimates between the four traits were computed by the correlations between the GEBVs vectors.These estimates were 0.24, 0.03 respectively between andro and ska, and fat and loin. Due to the fact that the Bayesian LASSO has been more accurate for three traits when compared with RR-BLUP, it was possible to conclude that the genomic selection of the animals could be made with higher accuracy using thismethod.
ABSTRACT - The objective of this work was to evaluate average daily gain (ADG) and carcasstraits in Nellore and Red Norte steers, finished in feedlots and to evaluate performance predictions by using the systems BR-CORTE, CNCPS 5.0 and NRC (2000). It was used 41 steers: 19 Nelore animals with initial body weight of 361 ± 31 kg and 22 Red Norte animals with initial body weight of 367 ± 30 kg. Adaptation period lasted 28 days. Animal performance evaluation was composed of three 28 day period, totaling 84 days. At the end of each period, animals were weighed after a 16-hour feeding fast. Average gain weight of Red Norte steers was greater than Nellore breed animals (1.43 vs. 1.81 kg/day, respectively). Red Norte animals also presented greater loin eye area (75.41 cm 2 vs. 68.67 cm 2 ). It was not observed any differences on subcutaneous fat thickness
ABSTRACT - The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlated responses to selection for growth in feed efﬁciency and carcasstraits of Nellore animals. A total of 121 animals of the Nellore control (NeC) and selection herds were subjected to performance testing and classiﬁed regarding residual feed intake (RFI). Sixty-seven of these animals were selected and ﬁnished until reaching 4 mm of subcutaneous fat thickness between the 12th and 13th ribs. The animals were slaughtered at a mean age of 541 days and mean live weight of 423 kg for NeS and of 363 kg for NeC, and carcasstraits were measured. Animals in NeS presented higher initial and slaughter weights, dry matter intake, hot and cold carcass weight, weight of retail cuts, and carcass yield than NeC animals for the same slaughter age and feedlot time. No signiﬁcant differences in RFI were observed between herds, showing that the weight gain from selection for growth did not cause changes in the energy efﬁciency of the animals.
weight gain, feed conversion, dry matter intake, carcasstraits and quality of castrated male cattle meat in confinement. Forty Nellore steers were used, with an average age of 26 months and initial average weight of 423.4±2.7kg, in a randomized block experimental design with four treatments and ten replications. The diet was fixed with the ratio of forage to concentrate dry matter of 75.3:24.7. A Linear positive effect observed was the inclusion of Ractopamine on daily weight gain and linear negative effect on feed conversion, highlighting the improvements with the increasing inclusion of Ractopamine hydrochloride. In relation to carcasstraits, the linear effect was negative for fat thickness and no differences were found regarding the hot carcass weight; carcass yield; area, width and depth of rib eye area of the Longissimus dorsi muscle, and noble courts. In relation to dry matter intake, the comparison of the treatments demonstrated that Ractopamine didn’t influence negatively, which highlights its positive effect on the animal performance. The use of Ractopamine improves performance and decreases de amount of superficial fat in male nellore carcass in confinement.
The phenotypic data was obtained from the Pig Breeding Farm of the Department of Animal Science, Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV), MG, Brazil. A three-generation resource population was created and managed as described by Band et al., 2005a, Band et al., 2005b. Briefly, two local breed Piau grandsires were crossed with 18 grand dams from a commercial line composed of Large White, Landrace and Pietrain breeds, to produce the F1 generation from which 11 F1 sires and 54 F1 dams were selected. These F1 individuals were crossed to produce the F2 population, of which 345 animals were phenotyped for several meat quality and carcasstraits.
The loin eye area (LEA) was not influenced by the finishing system. This measure is used as an indicator of carcass composition because there is a positive correlation between LEA and edible portion (RODRIGUES et al., 2001). REZENDE et al. (2012) evaluating Holstein cattle slaughtered at 395 kg, also found no difference in eating plans in growing and finishing for the loin eye area, obtaining average values of 51.46cm². DUCKETT, et al., (2013), found superiority for all quantitative carcasstraits who compared finishing systems (feedlot x pasture). However, the amount of the concentrate used was 82% of the diet. Therefore the supplementation on pasture can be an alternative to create of Holstein calves.
This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of different linseed oil levels (0.0, 3.3, 6.6, or 9.9%) in iso-energy diets fed during the period of 21 to 56 days of age on the performance, carcasstraits, and body composition of broilers. A total of 1,600 broilers were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design consisting of four treatments with eight replicates of 40 birds per experimental unit. In the period of 21-42 days of age, weight gain increased, feed and calorie conversion ratios quadratically improved, and feed and metabolizable energy intakes linearly increased as dietary linseed oil level increased. Considering the entire experimental period, dietary linseed oil linearly increased weight gain and feed and energy intakes, and feed and calorie conversion ratios in a quadratic manner. On days 42 and 56, abdominal fat percentage and carcass yield were quadratically influenced by dietary linseed oil. Total body fat content at 56 days of age was quadratically influenced by dietary linseed levels.
ABSTRACT - With the purpose of evaluating the changes and the degree of heterosis on performance and carcasstraits of ﬁsh from the diallel crossing between Pacu and Tambaqui, four genetic groups were generated through hormonal induction: pacu, tambaqui, tambacu and paqui. For 196 days, 400 juveniles of each genetic group were stocked in a pond divided into four parts of equal size, one for each group. At the end of this period, when the ﬁsh weighed on average 1024 g (±115.52 g), 20 specimens of each genetic group were sampled, weighed, measured: head length; standard length; body height; and width; and also processed resulting in following body yield: viscera; carcass; head; ﬁllet; rib; residue and skin yields. There was positive heterosis for body weight, viscera and skin yield and head measures and negative heterosis for carcass and ﬁlet yield and body width, indicating that the hybrids have better performance on weight gain, but are inferior in relation to the carcass conformation.
No significant differences were observed between treatments for carcass component weights (Table 2), except for liver and kidneys that were heavier in the supplemented group (p=0.0954). Although liver and kidneys are not carcass components, they have an aggregated economic interest for sale because can be consumed by lower income families in developing countries such as Brazil (Tonetto et al., 2004). Carcass dressing percentage averaged 40% across treatments and was lower than those reported by Alves et al. (2003), which varied from 45 to 50%. However, these authors used heavier animals (14.5 – 16.5 kg carcass weight). Comparison of carcasstraits should taking into account breed, sex, age, weight and nutrition of the animals in order to avoid inadequate conclusions. Sousa (2003) used Santa Inês sheep similar in weight and age to those in the present trial but a different feeding system (confined animals fed corn and sunflower silage). Carcass fatness (fat and ether extract of the 12 th rib) was higher in Souza (2003) study, due
ABSTRACT - This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different levels of synbiotic (Syn) on the growth performance, carcasstraits, and serum parameters of Japanese quails. A total of 1,500 (750 male and 750 female) Japanese quails were assigned to ﬁve treatments, including the control (basal diet) and basal diets with the addition of 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4% Syn according to a completely randomized design. Each treatment in the male and female experiment groups consisted of ﬁve replicates, with 30 chicks for each replicate. The addition of Syn had no effect on body weight (BW), while the BW of female quails was higher than that of male quails at day 42. The addition of Syn reduced feed intake (FI) and improved the feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P<0.000). The daily body weight gain and FI were signiﬁcantly higher in female than in male quails and Syn also improved the FCR in the overall experiment. The effect of the addition of Syn on carcass parameters (except for abdominal fat) was not determined. The addition of Syn decreased abdominal fat weight and percentage when compared with the control group. Male quails were found to have higher carcass yield, wing, neck, and other percentages than female quails. However, female quails were found to have higher breast, breast skin, abdominal fat, and visceral organ percentages. The addition of 0.1% Syn to quail ration reduced serum aspartate aminotransferase, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), total protien (TP), and albumin (ALB) levels at day 42 of the trial. The addition of Syn decreased the serum total cholesterol level. Gender was found to have an effect in that female quails were found to have higher total cholesterol, HDL, TP, and ALB levels than male quails. In both genders, the addition of Syn improved the BWG, FC, and FCR in the overall experiment, reduced abdominal fat, decreased the total cholesterol levels, improved the HDL levels, and increased the TP and ALB levels at day 42. The addition of 0.3 and/or 0.4% synbiotic has a positive effect on quails by improving performance and enhancing some serum lipids and protein parameters.
After 82 days on experiment, lambs were weighed (slaughter body weight – SBW) and slaughtered after a 24 hour fast. Soon after bleeding, skin was removed and weighed. Viscera were also removed and thoracic (TCO – lung, heart and trachea) and abdominal cavity organs (ACO – liver and kidneys) weighed followed by measurement of hot carcass weight (HCW). Carcasstraits were evaluated using the system proposed by Müller (1987) and Osório et al. (1998). Fat was measured subjectively on a 0.25 point increasing scale varying from score 1 (no visible subcutaneous fat on the carcass) to score 5 (high fatness – obese – carcass surface covered with subcutaneous fat). Carcass length (distance between base of the tail and base of the neck) was measured with a metric tape.
Data from growth performance and carcasstraits were analyzed by analysis of variance procedures appropriate for a randomized complete block design using GLM procedures of SAS INSTITUTE (2000). The regression analysis were used to determine the effect of inclusion of sunflower in the diet. The statistical model included treatment and replication. Final BW and hot carcass weight data were included as covariates in the analysis for all carcass measures.
This study evaluated the effects of dietary non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) and 1α-hydroxycholecalciferol (1α-OH-D 3 ) on the growth performance, bone mineralization, and carcasstraits of 1- to 21-day-old broiler chickens. On the day of hatch, 600 male Ross 308 chicks were weighed and randomly assigned to 12 treatments, with five cages of 10 birds each. A 6 × 2 factorial arrangement was applied, consisting of 0.20%, 0.25%, 0.30%, 0.35%, 0.40%, or 0.45% NPP and 0 or 5 μg/kg of 1α-OH-D 3 . The basal diet contained 0.52% calcium (Ca) and was not supplemented with vitamin D 3 . Dietary NPP levels significantly affected growth performance and tibia mineralization (except width) of broilers; by contrast, meat yield and organ relative weight were not influenced by NPP. The inclusion of 1α-OH-D 3 improved growth performance, tibia mineralization, and carcass and breast yield, whereas it decreased the relative weights of the liver, heart, and kidney. A significant interaction between NPP and 1α-OH-D 3 was observed for body weight gain (BWG), feed efficiency (FE), mortality, serum Ca and P levels, tibia breaking- strength, ash weight, and Ca content, as well as breast yield and heart relative weight. These results suggest that broilers fed with 5 μg of 1α-OH-D 3 per kg of diet obtain optimal growth performance and tibia mineralization when dietary NPP level was 0.30% and the analyzed Ca to NPP ratio was 1.97.
The main meat quality traits sought by consumers are tenderness, color, and juiciness. Meat texture is highly valued and, in general, good quality meat is perceived as tender, although other factors, such as cohesiveness, viscosity, elasticity, gumminess, chewiness, juiciness, brittleness and adhesiveness also determine texture. Color is also a valuable trait when deciding to buy the product and while consuming it (Gaya & Ferraz, 2006). Juiciness is also important during meat consumption. Although these are not the only valuable traits, they are the determining factors when deciding to buy and continue to consume meat (Duarte et al., 2010). Therefore, meat traits that determine consumer market acceptance, i.e., tenderness, color and juiciness were evaluated. Tenderness is determined by shear force, color by lightness, redness, and yellowness, and juiciness by water holding capacity. Meat pH change after slaughter also greatly influences Table 1 - Number of observations (N), mean (M) and standard deviation (SD) of weight loss after fasting (Wlf), hot
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In Brazil, for the purpose of genetic evaluation, ultrasound measurement of LMA and subcutaneous fat thickness in Nellore cattle raised on pasture should be carried out at 18 months of age (post-yearling) since, at this age, the animals present medium to high variability in these traits (Araújo, 2003). However, the number of animals in the herd is significantly higher at one year of age compared with subsequent ages, when the animals are already selected based on other criteria, such as weaning and yearling weights. In this respect, studies on the additive genetic variation in ultrasound-measured carcasstraits of Zebu animals at young ages are scarce (Yokoo et al., 2008, 2010).
(2001) found a significant correlation (p < 0.01) between LEA and drip (r = 0.22) and cooking loss (r = 0.15). Since LEA is a predictor of meat yield, the lack of a significant difference (p = 0.300) for this trait between the NN and NI MYF5 genotypes investigated in our study suggests that the NN and NI genotypes do not influence protein deposition in muscle and, consequently, meat yield. We also found no statistical differences between the NN and NI genotypes (Table 2) in respect to carcasstraits, so these genotypes may act through variation in the quality of muscle protein, which may show greater denaturation followed by a lower water-holding capacity even under similar pH conditions, as was the case of our study. The lower water-holding ca- pacity of the NI genotype seems to be due to some kind of mechanism associated or linked with the allelic Insertion variant, although because we did not determine sarcomere length or other similar measurements more work is needed to confirm this hypothesis.
ABSTRACT: Zebu cattle fed high concentrate diets may present inconsistent performance due to the occurrence of metabolic disorders, like acidosis. The isolated use of ionophores and virginiamycin in high grain diets can improve animal performance and reduce the incidence of such disorders, but recent studies suggested that their combination may have an additive effect. Thus, 72 Nellore steers, 389 ± 15 kg initial body weight (BW), were confined and fed for 79 days to evaluate the combination of virginiamycin and salinomycin on performance and carcasstraits. Animals were allocated to a randomized complete block design by BW, in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments, with two concentrate levels (73 and 91 %) and two virginiamycin levels (0 and 15 mg kg –1 ), and salinomycin (13 mg kg –1 ) included in all diets. The interaction