Central Region of Rio Grande do Sul

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Clinical, pathological and epidemiological aspects of outbreaks of bluetongue disease in sheep in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul

Clinical, pathological and epidemiological aspects of outbreaks of bluetongue disease in sheep in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul

This article describes the clinical, pathological and epidemiological aspects of 17 outbre- aks of bluetongue (BT) disease in sheep occurring between December 2014 and July 2015 in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul state (RS), southern Brazil. Affected farms were visi- ted for clinical examination, necropsy, sample collection and epidemiological investigation. The outbreaks were seasonal and occurred during the summer and autumn. A total of 180 sheep (20.4%) out of 884 in 17 small herds were affected. All ages of Texel and mixed breed sheep were affected. However, lambs (younger than one year) had higher morbidity than adult sheep. The most frequent clinical signs were anorexia, lethargy, loss of body condition, facial swelling mainly involving the lips, and greenish seromucous or mucous nasal dischar- ge. Pulmonary lesions characterized by edema were the most prevalent findings; however, erosive and ulcerative lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract, as well as cardiac, skeletal muscle and esophageal striated muscle necrosis, and hemorrhage in the pulmonary artery were also frequent. The bluetongue virus (BTV) genome was detected by RT-PCR in blood and tissue samples (spleen and lungs) of 21 animals from 17 outbreaks. The virus involved in the outbreak 3 was subsequently isolated and shown to belong to serotype 17, for the first time reported in Brazil. In summary, our data support the BTV genotype 17 as the etiological agent of the outbreaks and indicate that the central region of RS is an area at risk for BT in sheep, a disease previously not recognized in the region.
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Anthelminthic resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep to monepantel treatment in central region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

Anthelminthic resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep to monepantel treatment in central region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

Farms and animals. This study was conducted at four farms lo- cated in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul. Farm 1 is located in the county of São Pedro do Sul ( 29° 41’ 14,88’’S, 54° 26’ 34,06’’ W), farm 2 in the county of São Gabriel (29°59’12.5”S 54°25’47.6”W) and farms 3 and 4 in the county of São Martinho da Serra (29° 32’ 03.0”S, 53°51’24.04”W). The flocks were selected based on loca- tion and previous consent by farmers. All farms perform the bree- ding of cattle, horses, and sheep in an extensive raising system. The flock at farm 1 is composed of about 70 Texel- Ile de France cross breeding; at farm 2, the flock is composed of 300 Corriedale ani- mals; farm 3 perform the breading of 1000 Texel and Suffolk sheep and at farm 4 the flock is composed of 250 Texel and Texel-Crioula cross breeding. All farms make the control of gastrointestinal pa- rasites based on the result of efficacy tests witch are perform, at least, once a year. Results obtained through previous efficacy tests show that different anthelminthic compounds, such as ivermectin, doramectin, moxidectin, nitroxinil, disophenol, levamisole, alben- dazole, fenbendazole, and closantel are no longer effective for the control of the gastrointestinal nematodes on all these flocks, been the genera Haemonchus, Cooperia, and Trichostrongylus the most resistant to treatment with this drugs. Because of these resistance problems faced by all the farms, all of them already had a historic of monepantel (Zolvix ® ) use prior the study start.
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Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in the western-central region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: multiresistant tick

Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in the western-central region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: multiresistant tick

Other factors, such as climatic conditions, especially relative humidity and temperature, influence the level of cattle infestation by ticks. Temperatures below 14 °C and greater than 40 °C impair the development of R. (B.) microplus eggs (CORSON et al., 2004; SUTHERST; BOURNE, 2006). The western-central region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, has a mean annual temperature of 19 °C and mean annual rainfall of between 1400-1800 mm (BECKER et al., 2012). Severe changes occur, depending on the season, as can be seen from the mean maximum and minimum temperatures (Figure 3). The climatic conditions are often within the development threshold of R. (B.) microplus. Consequently, there is a need to use chemical treatment during specific periods, combining anti-parasite treatment with environmental factors, in order to reduce the possibility of development of ticks and environmental infestation.
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Diversity and abundance of the benthic macrofauna in lotic environments from the central region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

Diversity and abundance of the benthic macrofauna in lotic environments from the central region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

The benthic fauna plays an important role in the trophic web and the nutrient flow of limnetic environments. This work aimed to study the diversity and abundance of the benthic invertebrates in four watercourses in the central region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Sampling was done seasonally at each site, with a long-handled net at the margins (banks) and streambed, from November 2001 through September 2002. Margalef richness, Shannon diversity and Pielou evenness indices were applied to the data analysis. A total of 58 families and three other major taxa (Hirudinea, Oligochaeta and Copepoda) of invertebrates were identified. The highest values of diversity and abundance were recorded at the margins of the rivers, in the same pattern found in other tropical and subtropical regions. This is the first inventory of benthic invertebrates from central region of Rio Grande do Sul, which will be important for future studies of the diversity and conservation of this fauna, because human alterations of the environment have already begun.
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SUL, BRASIL PERFORMANCE OF THE Pinus echinata AT THE CENTRAL REGION OF RIO GRANDE DO SUL

SUL, BRASIL PERFORMANCE OF THE Pinus echinata AT THE CENTRAL REGION OF RIO GRANDE DO SUL

Conforme dados da Tabela 4, percebe-se que o Pinus echinata apresenta um diâmetro médio superior ao do Pinus taeda e P. elliottii, porém deve-se considerar que o povoamento tem o menor número de árvores em relação aos demais plantios. Com relação ao volume e incremento médio anual constata-se que o Pinus echinata apresentou um valor superior ao Pinus taeda, mas inferior ao Pinus elliottii. Deve-se novamente destacar que essas populações apresentam densidades diferentes, decorrentes do espaçamento de plantio. Por isso, tal comparação serve apenas como um indicador do potencial de crescimento e produção da espécie, não devendo esse resultado ser extrapolado diretamente para idades maiores. Trata-se de resultados pioneiros com a espécie em plantio comercial no estado do Rio Grande do Sul que, para fins de quantificação da produção volumétrica, o povoamento deve ser acompanhado até o corte final.
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A prospective study on Aeromonas in outpatients with diarrhea in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul State

A prospective study on Aeromonas in outpatients with diarrhea in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul State

The diarrheal disease of infectious origin is considered a great epidemic, being registered 1.8 to 2.5 million deaths annually, representing 20% of all deaths among children in developing countries (9). Several microorganisms may be responsible for these infections, Aeromonas spp. is one of the notorious causative agent of diarrhea, as well as extraintestinal infections such as cellulitis, wound infections, sepsis, urinary tract infections, among others (6, 13, 14, 17, 18). The gastroenteritis caused by Aeromonas spp. vary from acute watery diarrhea, dysentery-like and bloody to chronic diarrhea, affecting mainly children and elderly, being the severity of the disease directly related to virulence factors of the strain and the immune status of the patient (4, 5, 18). Belonging to the family Aeromonadacea, Aeromonas spp. are widely distributed in nature, especially in aquatic environment (9), and are transmitted to humans mainly by water and food contaminated with the bacteria. In Brazil there are few studies on Aeromonas
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LITTER AND NUTRIENT INPUT IN SEASONAL FOREST IN THE CENTRAL REGION OF RIO GRANDE DO SUL STATE

LITTER AND NUTRIENT INPUT IN SEASONAL FOREST IN THE CENTRAL REGION OF RIO GRANDE DO SUL STATE

A Floresta Estacional Decidual é um ecossistema do bioma Mata Atlântica, observada em grandes altitudes e baixas temperaturas. Caracteriza-se por marcante sazonalidade pluviométrica, cuja estação seca é a mais prolongada (VELOSO; GOES FILHO, 1982). Essa tipologia florestal é conhecida por apresentar perda superior a 50% das folhas do estrato superior durante o período de inverno. No Rio Grande do Sul, ocupa uma área de 11.762,4 km², que representa 4,2% da superfície do estado e 23,8% da área total coberta com florestas naturais (RIO GRANDE DO SUL, 2002). Além disso, é considerada uma das formações florestais mais importantes do estado, pela sua localização geográfica, área ocupada e histórico cultural (KÖNIG et al., 2002).
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APORTE DE SERAPILHEIRA E NUTRIENTES EM UMA FLORESTA ESTACIONAL DECIDUAL NA REGIÃO CENTRAL DO RIO GRANDE DO SUL LITTER AND NUTRIENT INPUT IN SEASONAL FOREST IN THE CENTRAL REGION OF RIO GRANDE DO SUL STATE Mauro Valdir Schumacher1 Denise Andréia Szymczak2

APORTE DE SERAPILHEIRA E NUTRIENTES EM UMA FLORESTA ESTACIONAL DECIDUAL NA REGIÃO CENTRAL DO RIO GRANDE DO SUL LITTER AND NUTRIENT INPUT IN SEASONAL FOREST IN THE CENTRAL REGION OF RIO GRANDE DO SUL STATE Mauro Valdir Schumacher1 Denise Andréia Szymczak2

A Floresta Estacional Decidual é um ecossistema do bioma Mata Atlântica, observada em grandes altitudes e baixas temperaturas. Caracteriza-se por marcante sazonalidade pluviométrica, cuja estação seca é a mais prolongada (VELOSO; GOES FILHO, 1982). Essa tipologia florestal é conhecida por apresentar perda superior a 50% das folhas do estrato superior durante o período de inverno. No Rio Grande do Sul, ocupa uma área de 11.762,4 km², que representa 4,2% da superfície do estado e 23,8% da área total coberta com florestas naturais (RIO GRANDE DO SUL, 2002). Além disso, é considerada uma das formações florestais mais importantes do estado, pela sua localização geográfica, área ocupada e histórico cultural (KÖNIG et al., 2002).
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Sensitization study of dogs with atopic dermatitis in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul

Sensitization study of dogs with atopic dermatitis in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul

According to several authors, the relevance of a positive reaction to house mites is well demonstrated. Interestingly, our study showed at least 40% positivity for pollen of C. dactylon, in dogs tested with IDT and ELISA. In Brazil, this grass is associated with allergic reactions in humans and the sensitization can occur isolated or combined with other perennial allergens, such as house dust mites (genus Dermatophagoides) and animal epithelium or arthropod proteins (Taketomi et al. 2006). Human allergologists emphasize that in the Southern Brazilian state that it is very important that the C. dactylon be added to the allergic test, in order to address the specific immunotherapy in positive patients (Rosário Filho, 2012).
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Doenças de psittaciformes na região central do Rio Grande do Sul

Doenças de psittaciformes na região central do Rio Grande do Sul

This thesis aimed to study the diseases of Psittaciformes diagnosed at the Center for Studies and Research in Wild Animals of the Federal University of Santa Maria (NEPAS / UFSM). For the preparation of this paper, the records of the 495 necropsies of wild animals carried out from January 2013 to December 2016 were examined, in addition to the results of the investigation of the Salmonella spp. presence carried out in clinical care to two psittacids breeders. The main macroscopic alterations observed at necropsies were grouped by systems, analyzed through a descriptive meta-analysis, where it was verified that the digestive system presented the highest number of alterations (29.4%), followed by the respiratory system (18.6 %), cardiovascular (14.6%), musculoskeletal (12.6%) and presence of parasites or fungi (8.4%). In an expressive number of cases (16.5%) it was not possible to identify the lesions due to the advanced stage of decomposition of the cadavers, or because they were macroscopic alterations that would not lead the animal to death. During the study period, two cases of greater relevance appeared, for which the investigation of the causa mortis was sequenced, with the accomplishment of histopathological and molecular tests that resulted in two reports: the first report in Brazil of the clade C avipoxvirus presence and another, the first report in Brazil of the herpesvirus of the Psittacidae type 3, both in captive Psittaciformes. Thus, this study resulted in four scientific studies: (1) Descriptive meta-analysis of the pathological alterations of wild birds and mammals diagnosed in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul: 495 cases; (2) Identification and phylogenetic analysis of clade C avipoxvirus in a fowlpox outbreak in exotic Psittaciformes in Southern Brazil; (3) Psittacid herpesvirus 3 infection in rose-ringed parakeets (Psittacula krameri) in Southern Brazil and (4) Investigation of Salmonella spp. in exotic and native Psittaciformes kept in captivity in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul. This work will contribute with clinical and pathologists veterinarians in the diagnosis of diseases present in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul.
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DESEMPENHO TÉRMICO EM EDIFÍCIOS DE ESCRITÓRIO NA
REGIÃO CENTRAL DO RIO GRANDE DO SUL

DESEMPENHO TÉRMICO EM EDIFÍCIOS DE ESCRITÓRIO NA REGIÃO CENTRAL DO RIO GRANDE DO SUL

This study seeks to detect the thermal performance in Office buildings as they add to a significant quantity of energy consumption in this country. Researches have revealed that 40 % of the final electricity consumption in office buildings is linked to the climate conditioning systems. Within this context there is no existence of projecting rules which establish minimum standards of thermal-electric performance in comparison to regional climatic conditions, considering the thermal variation experienced throughout the year. Thus, the present study aims to diagnose and compare the current condition of thermal performance in different types of office buildings located in six towns belonging to the central region of Rio Grande do Sul, which are included in bioclimatic zone two of Brasil. For such analysis a list of existing office buildings with at least five floors was made, in the towns of Cruz Alta, Ijuí, Lajeado, Santa Cruz do Sul, Santa Maria and Venâncio Aires. A sample of 36 buildings was selected. Following, the architecture designs and the construction information were analyzed, the buildings were sorted in five categories, according to criteria of floors number, width/depth relation of building and opaque/transparent closing area relation. For each category a representative building was selected, to which a better detail process of the construction system was made as well as internal and external temperature data for a period of thirteen days in summer and winter were recorded. The thermal performance of the buildings was assessed according to their capacity of absorption of the external thermal wave, related to its thermal inertia, opening areas and use standards of internal rooms. There was a great influence of solar radiation on the results, increased mainly by the influence on the thermal behavior of the orientation buildings of the monitored rooms, the opening area, the kind of glass and the color of opaque closings. It was noticed the necessity, for the climate of the studied region, of solar radiation control systems, so that the project decisions for the benefit of thermal conditions in summer do not cause loss in wintertime or vice-versa.
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Medicamentos judicializados na região central do estado do Rio Grande do Sul

Medicamentos judicializados na região central do estado do Rio Grande do Sul

Brazilian society experiences a substantial increase in the consumption of drugs and conflicts involving access to these therapeutic resources. In the judicial sphere, processes directed towards access to medicines and pharmaceutical inputs are called drug legalization. Actions involving this issue have been growing at exponential proportions throughout Brazil, especially in Rio Grande do Sul. This leads to numerous consequences to the Unified Health System (SUS) highlighting the impact on the public health budget. From this assumption, the present study aims to investigate the judicialized drugs that remained stored without use, after completion of judicial determination, generating waste of public money. Adding to this, will seek to outline the profile of this stock with emphasis on drugs that are not part of the SUS lists, comparing them to the options that are available in the public health system. This research follows the cross-sectional design and was based on RAME 030 reports filed with the Pharmaceutical Assistance sector of a Regional Health of Rio Grande do Sul. Results demonstrated that 889 drugs were judicialized and remained stored in the Central Region of Rio Grande do Sul. Majority (73.23%) are medicines "Outside of SUS Lists". From a sampling (in descending frequency analysis) were selected 45 drugs "Out of the SUS lists" that were judicialized and remained stocked in, at least, ten of the 31 cities surveyed. Judicialized these drugs, 91.11% had alternatives with identical or similar SUS anatomical, therapeutic and chemical properties. From this, it follows that it is imperative to establish strategies for continuing education to professionals and health managers about products available in SUS and how to access them. Finally, considering the political and public resources, it becomes necessary to adopt rational criteria and a careful analysis of the legalization of drugs. This refers to interinstitutional and multidisciplinary conduct in order to establish effective channels of communication between health and justice.
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Doenças em gatos de abrigos na região central do Rio Grande do Sul

Doenças em gatos de abrigos na região central do Rio Grande do Sul

Oral affections are common problems in feline medicine around the world and may be associated to different causes, such as infectious agents. There are only a few studies reporting the chief oral diseases and the results for retroviruses tests in sheltered cats in Brazil, especially in the South region. Thus, this study aimed to identify the main inflammatory oral affections in sheltered cats and to verify the results of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) tests. Forty-three felines from private shelters in the Central Region of Rio Grande do Sul (RS) which presented clinically evident oral lesions, regardless of age, race, sex and reproductive status, were used. Serological tests for FIV and FeLV were performed in all the cats, and data regarding the rearing system were collected. Sixteen cats (37.2%) were reared in a free system, while 27 (62.8%) were kept in a restrict system. Of the 43 cats with oral lesions, 29 (67.44%) presented one type of lesion only, characterized as periodontitis (n=22) (51.16%), followed by gingivitis (n=06) (13.95%) and stomatitis (n=01) (2.32%). Concomitant stomatitis and periodontitis lesions were found in the 14 remaining cats (100%). With respect to the retroviruses test results, nine (20.93%) of the 43 felines were positive for FIV only. Co-infection with both viruses was observed in seven cats (16.28%). No cat was seropositive for FeLV only. None of the six cats which presented gingivitis was positive for FIV and FeLV; one cat which had stomatitis was positive for FIV and FeLV; of the 22 cats with periodontitis, six (27.27%) were FIV positive and two (9.09%) were FIV/FeLV positive; and of the 14 cats which presented stomatitis and periodontitis, three (21.43%) were FIV positive and four (28.57%) were FIV/FeLV positive. As for the diagnosis, 28 cats (65.1%) presented periodontal disease (PD) only, one cat (2.32%) had feline chronic gingivostomatitis (FCG) only, and 14 (32.5%) had both PD and FCG. In view of the results obtained, it may be concluded that the main oral lesions found in sheltered cats from the Central Region of RS were gingivitis, stomatitis and periodontitis; the latter, in association or not with stomatitis, was the most frequent oral lesion in FIV and/or FeLV-positive cats. It is believed that other factors may contribute to the installation of oral diseases in sheltered cats, since the majority of the retrovirus-seronegative cats presented oral lesions.
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Jovens da região central do Rio Grande do Sul

Jovens da região central do Rio Grande do Sul

The youth is a social category highlighted, a phase of changes that deserve to be studied, especially rural youth who becomes invisible by agriculture sociali- zation process. The study aims to characterize the young people who have re- mained in rural areas, with their perceptions about what needs to change and improve for young people to remain in the field and the known policies and ac- cessed by them. To this end, we interviewed 18 young people from 11 different rural communities in the municipality of Arroio do Tigre, central region of Rio Grande do Sul. The study was limited to young between 14 to 25 years design- ing their lives in rural areas. It was found that young people feel good at the stage of life they are in and associate youth to a freedom and responsibility step. With respect to the outlook, respondents demand investments, specific policies and government support, still wish to respect and value the profession and the way of life of the farmer. Finally, it is noted that young people are placed in public policies aimed the other age groups, the known and accessible policies are for the production and productivity, requiring actions in non agri- cultural activities and related to leisure and education.
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Epidemiologia da esporotricose na região central do Rio Grande do Sul.

Epidemiologia da esporotricose na região central do Rio Grande do Sul.

Abstract Thirty-one cases of sporotrichosis diagnosed in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul from 1988 to1997 were studied. Clinical data were compared with a study concerning three past decades, clearly showingt a decrease in the incidence of the mycosis, and an alteration in the profile of the infection, with a decrease of sporotrichosis in rural patients, children, women and farmers. In the past decade the mycosis was most frequent among urban adults with different professions, with the onset of the disease being associated with rural leisure activities such as fishing and hunting.
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Necessidade de irrigação para o feijoeiro na região central do Rio Grande do Sul.

Necessidade de irrigação para o feijoeiro na região central do Rio Grande do Sul.

The lack of knowledge about the likelihood of occurence of bad weather is a problem for production planning of the bean. This study aimed to determine the values of water depth and number of irrigations required for common bean at different sowing times, considering the storage capacity of available water (CAD) of the main soils of central region of Rio Grande do Sul . The cycle simulation was performed using the thermal time in ten sowing times (ES) and in each year of the historical series of meteorological data for the period between 1968 and 2006. Irrigation was simulated for 13 soils of the region covered by meteorological station of Santa Maria, which were grouped in six groups. To simulate the irrigation, four handlings were used: 0.8, 0.7, 0.6 and 0.5 corresponding to the maximum depletion of 20, 30, 40 and 50% of CAD, respectively. The variation of soil water content was determined by soil water balance, considering the irrigation. The greater demand for irrigation occurred in last sowing times of the main crop season and lowest at the begining of the main and second crop season. For the 90% probability of occurrence of the water depth ranged between 32 and 143 mm and the number of irrigations between 3 and 20 during cycle.
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Caracterização de plintitas e petroplintitas em solos da depressão central do Rio Grande do Sul.

Caracterização de plintitas e petroplintitas em solos da depressão central do Rio Grande do Sul.

The presence, composition and distribution of ferruginous concretions in the soil, called plinthite and petroplinthites, are conditioned to the environmental characteristics of the region, attributing intrinsic properties to the soil. The objective of this study was to understand the composition of plinthite and petroplinthites, of soils at the Central Depression of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, by the evaluation of chemical and mineralogical characteristics of these features. For this, chemical, morphological and particle size characterization of three soil profiles, was performed. The ferruginous concretions
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CERAMBYCIDAE ASSOCIATED WITH LAURACEAE IN THE CENTRAL REGION OF THE STATE OF RIO GRANDE DO SUL, BRAZIL

CERAMBYCIDAE ASSOCIATED WITH LAURACEAE IN THE CENTRAL REGION OF THE STATE OF RIO GRANDE DO SUL, BRAZIL

Coletou-se, durante o mês de julho de 1993, galhos cortados de quatro espécies de lauráceas, canela-amarela: Nectandra lanceolata Nees, canela-do-brejo: Ocotea indecora ex-Meissn., canela- preta: Nectandra megapotamica Mez e canela-vermelha: Aiouea saligna Meissn., cortados pelo serrador: Oncideres captiosa Martins, 1981 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), nas localidades de Sanga do Taboão, município de Cachoeira do Sul, e do Morro do Cerrito, município de Santa Maria, na região central do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.

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Itinerários terapêuticos de travestis da região central do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.

Itinerários terapêuticos de travestis da região central do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.

Abstract The scope of this paper is to shed light on the therapeutic itineraries of transvestites from Santa Maria in the central region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul in southern Brazil. The study sought to follow the complex trajectories followed by transvestites in their quest for health care. Field research was conducted between January and November 2012 with transvestites from different cities in the state who were living in Santa Maria at the time. It involved qualitative methodology using ethnographic research. The results showed that the interviewees avoid institutionalized health services, opting for other forms of health care. In this respect, it is noteworthy that of the group of 49 transvestites who were included in this study, 48 sought health care in “African reli- gion groups” or “batuque” (“drumming”), as they refer to them. The transvestites stated that they opted for “African religion groups” as they saw them as places that were able to afford forms of care and protection, without questioning bodily changes and sexual orientation. This article may help to shed light on some of the unusual trajecto- ries of transvestites in their quest for health care. Key words Transvestite, Therapeutic itinerary, Care, Religion
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Doenças e/ou lesões que afetam o sistema nervoso central de caninos no sul do Rio Grande do Sul

Doenças e/ou lesões que afetam o sistema nervoso central de caninos no sul do Rio Grande do Sul

The aim of this dissertation was to describe the diseases and/or lesions that affect the central nervous system of dogs in the southern Rio Grande do Sul. A retrospective study was made using the database of the Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico of the Faculdade de Veterinária of the Universidade Federal de Pelotas between January 1978 and December 2016. All protocols of necropsy and materials sent to the laboratory were reviewed and 739 cases of dogs with neurological clinical signs were identified. The diagnoses were grouped by etiology. Viral diseases accounted for 54.80% of cases, followed by traumatic lesions with 5.54% of cases. Degenerative/inflammatory lesions corresponded to 3.65% of the cases. Neoplasms and toxic/metabolic lesions represented, respectively, 2.97% and 2.84% of the cases. The bacterial diseases and congenital/hereditary defects obtained the same representatively of 1.90% of the cases. Parasitic diseases corresponded to 0.68% of the cases and the vascular disorders 0.28%. The inconclusive cases accounted for 25.60% of the total. Among the viral diseases, distemper was the main disease diagnosed in dogs in the southern Rio Grande do Sul. Distemper was observed in all age groups, but had a higher occurrence in young animals. It was evidenced that between the years of 1978 and 1987 canine rabies was one of the main neurological diseases diagnosed in dogs in the region, but since 1987 no new diagnoses of this disease were made. Two cases of Pug dog encephalitis (ECP) were diagnosed in this study. ECP is a fatal disease occurring in Pug dogs. In Brazil there are few reports of the occurrence of this disease and due to the increase of Pug dogs breed, it was considered important to register and publicize the occurrence of this disease in the State.
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