RESUMO. Influência de diferentes frutos tropicais em aspectos biológicos e comportamentais da mosca-das-frutas Ceratitiscapitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera, Tephritidae). Estudos em Ceratitiscapitata, uma praga agrícola, pode auxiliar na implementação do pro- grama de controle determinando as plantas com maior vulnerabilidade de serem atacadas e plantas capazes de sustentar sua população em áreas de distribuição da mosca. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de oito frutos tropicais em alguns parâmetros biológicos e comportamentais de C. capitata: porcentagem de emergência, duração do ciclo de vida, tamanho do adulto, produção de óvulos, longevidade, fecundidade, viabilidade dos ovos e aceitação de frutos para oviposição. Os frutos testados foram: acerola (Malpighia glabra L.), caju (Anacardium occidentale L.), carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.), goiaba (Psidium guajava L.), graviola (Annona muricata L.), cajá (Spondias mombin L.), jambo (Syzygium malaccense L.), and umbu (Spondias tuberosa L.). Os parâmetros biológicos foram obtidos colocando larvas recém eclodidas em cada fruto testado. Nos experimentos de aceitação para a oviposição, as moscas foram expostas a dois pedaços das mesmas frutas. A melhor performance foi obtida com goiaba, graviola e carambola. Larvas criadas no caju e na acerola tiveram performance regular. Nenhum adulto emergiu do cajá, jambo ou umbu. As frutas não influenciaram a longevidade dos adultos, fecundidade das fêmeas, ou viabilidade. Goiaba, graviola e acerola foram preferidos para oviposição, seguidos por carambola, jambo, caju e cajá. Oviposição não ocorreu em umbu. Em geral, frutos nos quais houve um melhor desenvolvimento larval, também foram mais aceitos para oviposição.
ABSTRACT- Mango fruits of ‘Keitt’, ‘Tommy Atkins’ and ‘Haden’ cultivars, infected with larvae of the Mediterranean fly Ceratitiscapitata (Wied.), were submitted to hydrothermal treatment at 46.1ºC. The fruits were classified in two weight ranks, 450g to 650g and 651g to 800g, kept in the water for 75 and 90 minutes, respectively. The number of dead larvae was obtained from 75% of the infested fruits. The 25% remaining fruits were kept as control. Larval mortality was observed to be 100% in the fruits infested with first and second instar lar- vae. Four and three adults survived in the fruits which were infested with larvae of the third stadium, and weighted above 540g and 730g, in the immersion peri- ods of 75 and 90 minutes, respectively.
The fruit fly Ceratitiscapitata is considered the most destructive pest of the world fruitculture. Many pest management practices, mainly based on agrochemicals, have been developed to allow the world-wide commerce of fruit. Solutions to decrease the use of synthetic insecticides in agriculture are based on the development of new target-specific compounds which cause less damage to the environment, especially vegetal proteins with insecticidal effects. The aim of this work was to evaluate the deleterious effect of a purified vicilin of E. velutina (EvV) seeds to C. capitata larvae and adult insects and to investigate the mechanisms involved in these effects. EvV was purified, characterized and its deleterious effect was tested in bioassay systems. EvV mechanism of action was determined by immunodetection techniques and fluorescence localization in chitin structures that are present in C. capitata digestory system. EvV is a glycoprotein with affinity to chitin. Its molecular weight, of 216,57 kDa, was determined by gel filtration chromatography in FPLC system. Using SDS-PAGE, it was possible to observe EvV dissociation in two main subunits of 54,8 and 50,8 kDa. When it was submitted to eletrophoresis in native conditions, EvV presented only one band of acid characteristic. The WD 50 and LD 50
Os dados de preferência de oviposição com chance de escolha foram analisados com ANCOVA. Avaliou a preferência de oviposição de Ceratitiscapitata entre as variedades de Coffea arabica e entre as variedades de Coffea canephora. Também, foi avaliada a preferência de oviposição de C. capitata entre combinações de variedades de C. arabica com C. canephora. Esta análise possibilitou incluir o aninhamento existente entre as variedades da mesma espécie de café. A variável resposta y (número de ovos por roseta/gaiola) foi transformada em arcoseno por se tratarem de dados de proporção (CRAWLEY, 2007). A proporção de ovos foi calculada dividindo o número total de ovos por roseta pelo somatório de ovos de todas as rosetas na gaiola, de acordo com as combinações entre as variedades. O calculo de proporção de ovos foram feito para a combinação entre variedades C. arabica, entre as C. canephora, e entre as combinações de C. arabica com C. canephora. A simplificação do modelo procedeu através da retirada das variáveis não significativas. Como variável explicativa x foi utilizada as variedades de C. arabica e C. canephora. As análises foram realizadas através do software R (R Development Core Team, 2009) com distribuição de erros Normal, considerando como significativo p< 0,05.
The sterile insect technique (SIT) aim at the induction of sterility in wild females by mating with sterile males released in great amounts in the field. These released males must compete with wild ones being able to attract and mate wild females, fertilize their eggs and avoid remating with a wild male that would lead to fertile eggs and consequently reduce the efficiency of the technique. The circumstances in which remating of Ceratitiscapitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) females interfere with the SIT, as well as the consequences of this behavior are not well known, what justified the present study. The experiments were carried out at the Embrapa Semi-Árido, Petrolina-PE, inside the laboratory under ambient conditions of temperature and relative humidity to determine the influence of the order of mating type in the induction of sterility. The parameters evaluated to better understand the remating behavior were remating frequency, number of matings per female, mating and remating time, refractory period, sexual competitiveness of males, and the interference of males’ aromatherapy with ginger root oil in the female’s remating. Moscamed facility, Juazeiro-BA, provided the sterile males and the wild ones were from pupae collected from infested fruits from commercial orchards in the São Francisco River Valley. In the presence of sterile and wild males in competition (5 sterile: 1wild), 63% of females remated in average 3.37 times in short refractory period between the mating and the first remating. The male’s aromatherapy with ginger root oil reduced significantly the remating rate, but did not reduce the fecundity, neither confer advantage to the males in the sperm competition, however increased the induction of sterility in wild females multiply mated. The second male to mate the female presented reproductive advantage if the refractory period was short. For the SIT be efficient the sterile males in the field must always have great quality to remate the females in a short refractory period and thus induce sterility in the wild population.
The main goal of this survey was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new method to control Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitiscapitata Wied. (Diptera: Tephritidae), which could be less hazard for the human health and for the environment. This method uses baits with 3% of lufenuron. For this survey, 1056 of baits were installed covering an area of 44 ha in the North Island of Terceira. The experiment has started in 2009 and lasted for 3 years. The results are contradictory about its effectiveness. Between 2009 and 2010, there was a decrease of C. capitata male populations, while between 2010 and 2011 there was a high increase of C. capitata male populations, overcoming 2009 capture values. There are differences of the attack influence of males in areas with baits and without them. The number of captured males was much higher than of the females. Keywords: Control, infestation, Mediterra- nean fruit fly, monitoring.
ABSTRACT: Brazil has great potential in fruits production, however shows significant losses with frequent infestation of fruits flies. The objective of this work was evaluate efficiency of thermal treatment with vapour and hot water in Spondias mombin fruits, aiming Ceratitiscapitata control. The experiment was carried Laboratory of Entomology of Departamento of Fitotecnia, at University Federal of Paraíba - UFPB, Areia – PB. After the harvest the fruits had been, disinfested, fragmented longitudinally and infested with 10 eggs/fruit with 24 hours and another fruits lot had been infested with larvae of second instar. After 72 hours of fruits infestation with eggs and 48 hours after fruits infestation with larvae, fruits had been submitted to the treatments with vapour and hot water at 46 and 50°C in exposition times of 0, 15, 20, 25 and 30 minutes. Evaluations of eggs mortality were realized seven days, and for larvae 48 hours after treatment. The experimental design used was completely randomized, in factorial arrangement 2x4+1 (two temperatures, four exposition times + control). Mortality at immature stages of C. capitata was higher with increases of temperature and of exposition time. Hot water was more efficient of C. capitata control than vapour treatment for eggs inviabilization.
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vegetable extracts to control Ceratitiscapitata. The treatments were aqueous extracts prepared with fresh and dry vegetables at a 20% w/v (weight plant/water volume) rate of chinaberry leaf, twig and fruit, rue leaf, garlic, and ginger. For the immature phase evaluation, each repetition consisted of a plaque with 20 larvae or 20 pupae, which were dipped in 1 mL of extract for 30 seconds. For the extract prepared with chinaberry dry fruits, concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 15, 10, and 25% w/v were evaluated. Analyses were made after fmve days by counting the number of dead larvae or pupae and the number of deformed adults. For the adult phase, only the extracts prepared with dried vegetables were assessed. Each repetition included a plastic jar containing a red plum fruit and a cotton roller soaked with 5 mL of extract. For each plastic container, three females and two males of C. capitata were transferred. After two days, the assessment of adult mortality and fruit withdrawal, which were individualized, were carried out. After seven days, the amount of larvae developed in each fruit was counted. It was found that all extracts reduced the number of viable insects, especially the chinaberry one, which also had an effect on the adult phase. In the studied conditions, no extract had effects on the fertility of C. capitata females.
RESUMO - O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da senescência no sucesso de cópula e na secreção de feromônio sexual por machos de Ceratitiscapitata (Wiedemann). O efeito do envelhecimento do macho sobre o acasalamento foi analisado utilizando-se machos com cinco e 21 dias de idade, através do seu sucesso de copula (escolha dos machos pela fêmea para cópula) e pela quantidade de machos que emitiram feromônio sexual. O sucesso de cópula foi avaliado através de várias proporções de machos jovens em relação a machos velhos pelo aumento do número de machos velhos:machos jovens de 1:1 até 5:1. O sucesso de cópula na proporção de 1:1 também foi avaliado em gaiola de campo. A avaliação do sucesso de cópula (na proporção 1:1) demonstrou clara preferência das fêmeas pelos machos jovens. A emissão de feromônio sexual foi mais comum em machos jovens do que em machos velhos. Mesmo em casos onde os machos velhos foram mais abundantes (proporções 2:1 e 3:1), as fêmeas continuaram escolhendo os machos jovens. Entretanto, as fêmeas não distinguiram mais os machos jovens em relação aos machos velhos nas proporções 4:1 ou 5:1. Os resultados indicam que o envelhecimento dos machos de C. capitata tem considerável efeito negativo sobre seu sucesso reprodutivo, especialmente se eles são encontrados em proporção menor do que 3:1.
and was composed of two subunits with 27.7 and 5.6 kDa linked by disulfide bridges. CpaTI was stable at 50 °C and lost 40% of activity at 100 °C. CpaTI was also stable from pH 2 to 12 at 37 °C. CpaTI weakly inhibited chymotrypsin and elastase and its inhibition of papain, a cysteine proteinase, were indicative of its bi-functionality. CpaTI inhibited, in different degrees, digestive enzymes from Spodoptera frugiperda, Alabama argillacea, Plodia interpunctella, Anthonomus grandis and Zabrotes subfasciatus guts. In vitro and in vivo susceptibility of Calloso- bruchus maculatus and Ceratitiscapitata to CpaTI was evaluated. C. maculatus and C. capitata enzymes were strongly susceptible, 74.4 ± 15.8% and 100.0 ± 7.3%, respectively, to CpaTI. When CpaTI was added to artificial diets and offered to both insect larvae, the results showed that C. maculatus was more susceptible to CpaTI with an LD 50 of 3.0 and ED 50 of 2.17%. C. capitata larvae were more resistant to CpaTI, in
ABSTRACT - During July and August 1996, surveys of natural infestation lev- els in star fruits were carried out in eight counties of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Infestation rates of 1.38 puparium/star fruit and 31.7 puparia/kg of star fruit were obtained. From the 2,474 emerged flies, 92.2% were Anastrepha and 7.8% Ceratitiscapitata (Wiedmann). All the Anastrepha females belonged to Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (545). The braconid Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) was obtained in only two samples, from Pindorama and Presidente Prudente; the parasitism rates were 2.4 and 0.6%, respectively.
ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of aqueous plant extracts to neonate larvae of Ceratitiscapitata. Silk cotton (Calotropis procera), citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus), joazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro), sugar apple (Annona squamosa), jatropha (Jatropha curcas), noni (Morinda citrifolia) and tingui (Magonia pubescens) were collected, dried, and milled in a knife mill in order to obtain a powder. These powders were added in distilled water to prepare aqueous extracts (10%, w/v). The suspension containing the hydrosoluble compounds was filtered to get the extracts, which were added to the artificial diet of fruit fly larvae. Only distilled water was added in the control diet. Assays were carried out in DIC, with four treatments (aqueous extracts) and one control. All treatments consisted of 10 repetitions, each containing 10 newly hatched larvae of C. capitata. Larval mortality and control efficiency (E%) of aqueous extracts to the larvae were evaluated. The joazeiro, tingui and jatropha extracts are the most toxic and effective in controlling larvae of C. capitata, causing high mortality.
ABSTRACT. Acceptance and preference of fruits for oviposition in two Ceratitiscapitata (Diptera, Tephritidae) populations. The influence of four host fruits, orange (Citrus sinensis L.), papaya (Carica papaya L.), mango (Mangifera indica L.) and apple (Malus domestica Borkh) on oviposition behavior of Ceratitiscapitata (Wiedemann, 1824) was evaluated. Experiments were carried out on two C. capitata laboratory-reared populations: one with artificial diet for 10 years with periodic introduction of wild flies and other reared with artificial diet for 20 years without wild flies introduction. In acceptance experiments two pieces of a single fruit type were exposed to a group of 10 females; after 48 hours, these were changed by two new pieces of the same fruit type, and, in the end of the fourth day, the experiments were concluded. In preference experiments, two pieces of different fruits were offered to the females. These experiments were driven under the same conditions of the acceptance ones. Acceptance and preference experiments for both populations showed the following choice hierarchy: papaya > mango > orange > apple. The acceptance experiments showed no differences in the number of eggs/female/day laid in the first 48 hours and in the last 48 hours of the experiments. The amount of eggs in the two pieces of fruits offered to the females was similar. In spite of the two populations present similar behavior in relation to host hierarchy, the number of laid eggs was different, being larger for the population reared without wild flies introduction.
RESUMO: Objetivou-se avaliar a influência da idade (tamanho) das larvas de Ceratitiscapitata utilizadas na criação de Diachasmimorpha longicaudata sobre o parasitismo, a razão sexual e a longevidade das fêmeas da progênie, quando as fêmeas mães foram mantidas sozinhas ou competindo pelo mesmo hospedeiro. Para isso, foram oferecidas larvas de cinco, seis, sete e oito dias de idade às fêmeas do parasi- toide em “unidades de parasitismo”, no interior de gaiolas adaptadas, contendo uma ou duas fêmeas do parasitoide de sete dias de idade. O número de fêmeas do parasitoide dividindo a mesma “unidade de parasitismo” não afetou nenhum aspecto da qualidade do para- sitoide. O tamanho do hospedeiro influenciou significativamente no número de parasitoides emergidos. Larvas hospedeiras menores (cinco dias) provocaram uma redução no parasitismo em relação às larvas de seis, sete e oito dias de idade. Houve maior emergência de parasitoides machos de hospedeiros com cinco e seis dias de idade, enquanto mais fêmeas emergiram de larvas com sete e oito dias de idade. As fêmeas de D. longicaudata provenientes de larvas com seis, sete e oito dias viveram mais do que as fêmeas obtidas de larvas com cinco dias de idade. Larvas hospedeiras maiores, quando utilizadas na criação de parasitoides de moscas-das-frutas, aumentam a por- centagem de parasitismo, o número de fêmeas na progênie e a lon- gevidade das fêmeas da progênie, podendo proporcionar vantagens econômicas quando utilizadas para liberação aumentativa no campo. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: controle biológico; parasitismo; razão sexual; Braconidae; Tephritidae.
ABSTRACT - The mathematical model proposed has the objectives: (1) to simulate the population dynamics of a tritrophic system composed by the Mediterranean-fruit-fly Ceratitiscapitata (Wiedemann), the braconid wasp Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmed) and citric fruits; (2) help to better understand the main biological and ecological factors affecting the population interactions and (3) contribute to more efficient biological control programs. The methodology was based on the formulation of different equation systems, which described the interaction processes of the trophic system. Numerical resolutions and graphical representation of these equation systems were produced, using the computational program Matlab, version 6.1. The biological and ecological data necessary to formulate the mathematical equations were provided by specialists in C. capitata control, and on the literature related to the biological control of fruit flies in citrus cultivars in Brazil, mainly with parasitoid wasps, such as D. longicaudata. The simulation results suggest that the proposed model describes suitably the ecological system considered, and permit a better comprehension of its main biological and ecological characteristics. Consequently the model may help to choose the best way and moment to liberate the parasitoid wasps aiming to a more effective control of C. capitata.
ABSTRACT - The importance of the protein ingestion during the adult stage on the mating success of males of Ceratitiscapitata Wiedemann was evaluated in experiments of laboratory and ﬁ eld cage. In laboratory, the effects of protein ingestion during the ﬁ rst four or 12 days of the male adult life was assessed by the following parameters: mating success (capacity of being chosen by the female) and the number of males that give out pheromonal signals. Some experiments of mating success had been carried through with males in different ratios. In these tests, the number of males which had ingested protein (an unique male) was remained constant and the number of males fed without protein was gradually increased from 1:1 to 1:5. In the ﬁ eld cages, the mating success experiments were done using a 1:1 ratio. The results showed that the protein ingestion in the ﬁ rst four days of life did not inﬂ uence any of the analyzed parameters. When the period of ingestion of protein was extended to 12 days, protein-fed males fed produced more pheromonal signals and had a higher mating success when at a 1:1 ratio in laboratory and ﬁ eld cage assays. In laboratory, females randomly chose males in any other tested ratio (1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5), indicating that the female may lose the perception to identify the male who ingested protein in the ﬁ rst 12 days.
ABSTRACT - This study evaluated the inluence of two fruits hosts (orange and papaya) on biological and behavioral parameters of two populations of Ceratitiscapitata (Wiedemann) reared under laboratory conditions. One of these populations has been reared under laboratory conditions by 25 years without introduction of wild lies (Lab-pop), while the other has been maintained under the same conditions by 15 years but with occasional introduction of wild specimens (Hybrid-pop). The following parameters were analyzed: emergence percentage, life cycle duration (from eclosion to emergence), adult size, longevity, female fecundity and oviposition preference. The best performance of immatures of both populations was obtained on papaya as a host. Larvae reared on orange had longer life cycle, low emergence percentage and smaller adults. The fruit type did not affect fecundity and longevity of the Lab-pop, but in the Hybrid-pop males lived longer when reared on papaya, while females had higher longevity and fecundity when reared on orange. Females of both populations preferred to lay eggs in papaya (better host for larvae) when compared to orange. However, some eggs were deposited on orange only by females of Lab-pop, suggesting a lower ability for host selection of this population. These data are discussed regarding to the effects of continuous laboratory rearing on the biological parameters of this species.
RESUMO - O presente trabalho objetivou investigar se a presença de agrotóxicos no solo afeta a patogenicidade de Metarhizium anisopliae Metsch. (Sorokin) para Ceratitiscapitata (Wied.). Avaliou- se também o efeito das formas de aplicação dos conídios. Foram utilizados os fungicidas clorotalonil e tebuconazole, o acaricida abamectina, o inseticida triclorfom e o herbicida ametrina, aplicados nas doses recomendadas pelos fabricantes. Porções de solo contidas em frascos de vidro receberam o fungo na forma de suspensão de conídios ou como conídios secos incorporados. Após a aplicação dos agrotóxicos, 20 larvas de 3 o ínstar foram colocadas no solo. Os frascos foram então vedados com