Each test consisted of 50 mL volume of raw industrial effluent electrolyzed with a 0.5A direct current and the potential varies in the range of 7.0 to 8.0 V. The current was applied by a power supply (Dawer DC, model FCC-3005D) and the effluent was under agitation at room temperature conditions. After different electrolysis durations (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 min), the chemicalindustry effluent has been analyzed by a visible-UV method to determine the molecular changes in the wastewater by peak shifting showed in a spectrum obtained from a visible-UV spectrophotometer Shimadzu, model 2401 PC.
International quality management standard (QMS) ISO 9001 became widely accepted as a framework for product and/or services quality improvement. There are recent research conducted in order to define relationships and effects between the applied QMS and financial and/or non-financial business parameters. The effects of the applied pharmaceutical quality system (PQS) on the business per- formances in Serbian pharmaceutical-chemicalindustry are analyzed in this paper using multivariate linear regression analysis. The empirical data were collected using a survey that was performed among experts from the Serbian pharmaceu- tical–chemical industrial sector during 2010. An extensive questionnaire was used in the survey, grouping the questions in eight groups: Implementation of pharma- ceutical quality system (AQ), Quality/strategy planning (QP), Human resource management (HR), Supply management (SM), Customer focus (CF), Process mana- gement (PM), Continuous improvement (CI), and Business results (BR). The pri- mary goal of the research was to analyze the effects of the elements of the first seven groups (AQ, QP, HR, SM, CF, PM and CI) that present various aspects of the implementation of PQS, on the elements of business results (BR). Based on empi- rical data, regression relations were formed to present the effects of all consi- dered elements of PQS implementation on the business performance parameters (BR). The positive effects of PQS implementation on the business performances such as the assessment of performance indicators, continual products and/or ser- vices quality improvement, and efficient problem solving, are confirmed in the presented research for the Serbian pharmaceutical-chemical industrial sector. The results of the presented research will create a room for the improvement of the existing models in application, and for attracting interested parties that aim to commence this business standardization process. Hence, implementation of PQS is not only the regulatory requirement or advertising movement, but also a very important issue for the development and improvement of business performances.
CHEMICALINDUSTRY: RECENT DEVELOPMENTS, PROBLEMS AND OPPORTUNITIES. Chemicalindustry underwent a significant upturn in the past few years. In Brazil, the position of this industry has been continuously strengthened as the second largest industrial sector. Current circumstances are discussed, especially the need for increased innovation, the impacts of nanotechnology, biotechnology and information technologies. Some misconceptions on the Brazilian chemicalindustry are criticized and recent improvements are described, including those related to environmental protection, to conclude that its prospects are very good, considering both the availability of basic raw materials (oil, natural gas, agribusiness products and minerals), the growing demand and increased competitiveness.
CARBOHYDRATES AS A SOURCE OF COMPOUNDS FOR FINE CHEMICALINDUSTRY. Coal, oil, natural gas, and shale gas are biomass that is formed millions of years ago. These are non-renewable and depleting, even considering the recent discovery of new sources of oil in the presalt and new technologies for the exploitation of shale deposits. Currently, these raw materials are used as a source of energy production and are also important for the production of fine chemicals. Since these materials are finite and their (oil) price is increasing, it is clear that there will be a progressive increase in the chemicalindustry to use renewable raw materials as a source of energy, an inevitable necessity for humanity. The major challenge for the society in the twenty first century is to unite governments, universities, research centers, and corporations to jointly act in all areas of science with one goal of finding a solution to global problems, such as conversion of biomass into compounds for the fine chemical industry.Non-renewable raw materials are used in the preparation of fuels, chemical intermediates, and derivatives for the fine chemicalindustry. However, their stock in nature has a finite duration, and their price is high and will likely increase with their depletion. In this scenario, the alternative is to use renewable biomass as a replacement for petrochemicals in the production of fine chemicals. As the production of biomass-based carbohydrates is the most abundant in nature, it is judicious to develop technologies for the generation of chain products (fuels, chemical intermediates, and derivatives for the fine chemicals industry) using this raw material. This paper presents some aspects and opportunities in the area of carbohydrate chemistry toward the generation of compounds for the fine chemicalindustry.
As part of this drive to mitigate environmental impacts and fueled by keen competition, Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) has emerged during the past few years as an extension of Supply Chain Management (SCM). As a result, information and process technologies now play leading roles for drawing up strategies in a context of fierce competition and pressing environmental demands. However, among companies in the chemicalindustry – already tagged as environmental polluters – linkages between technology and competitive performances are often not properly understood (Ritzman & Krajewski, 2002). For example, when a company acquires new equipment, it deploys technology in pursuit of a competitive advantage through stepping up the product value to the customer or cutting the costs of placing its goods on the market. This equipment may require a better- qualified workforce, thus upgrading job quality and the workplace. However, it may also be noisy, leak contaminants into the soil or have other undesirable effects. These aspects are tightly tied to the price that society will have to pay in order to resolve external environmental issues caused by companies (Coase, 1937).
ASYMMETRIC CATALYSIS IN BRAZIL: DEVELOPMENT AND POTENTIAL FOR ADVANCEMENT OF BRAZILIAN CHEMICALINDUSTRY. The preparation of enantiomerically pure or enriched substances is of fundamental importance to pharmaceutical, food, agrochemical, and cosmetics industries and involves a growing market of hundreds of billions of dollars. However, most chemical processes used for their production are not environmentally friendly because in most cases, stoichiometric amounts of chiral inductors are used and substantial waste is produced. In this context, asymmetric catalysis has emerged as an efficient tool for the synthesis of enantiomerically enriched compounds using chiral catalysts. More specifically, considering the current scenario in the Brazilian chemicalindustry, especially that of pharmaceuticals, the immediate prospect for the use of synthetic routes developed in Brazil in an enantioselective fashion or even the discovery of new drugs is practically null. Currently, the industrial production of drugs in Brazil is primarily focused on the production of generic drugs and is basically supported by imports of intermediates from China and India. In order to change this panorama and move forward toward the gradual incorporation of genuinely Brazilian synthetic routes, strong incentive policies, especially those related to continuous funding, will be needed. These incentives could be a breakthrough once we establish several research groups working in the area of organic synthesis and on the development and application of chiral organocatalysts and ligands in asymmetric catalysis, thus contributing to boost the development of the Brazilian chemicalindustry. Considering these circumstances, Brazil can benefit from this opportunity because we have a wide biodiversity and a large pool of natural resources that can be used as starting materials for the production of new chiral catalysts and are creating competence in asymmetric catalysis and related areas. This may decisively contribute to the growth of chemistry in our country.
Companies today operate in an increasingly turbulent environment, with multiple (and sometimes competing) demands. Among these there is sustainability. No longer merely a buzzword, sustainability is becoming a mainstay of organizational operations, and a strategic pre-requisite for long term competitive advantages and business excellence. Crafting and implementing of strategy adapted to the company’s external context and internal resources and capabilities are fundamental, and sustainability needs to be a central element to any such strategy. As such, tools are required that can bring these components together. Long used for performance management and strategic management more generally, the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) could plausibly constitute such a framework, if appropriately extended to include sustainability concerns. The aim of this paper is thus to develop such an extension, through creation of a Sustainability Balanced Scorecard (SBSC), which includes social and environmental perspectives and their interactions with the traditional perspectives. We outline the structure for a SBSC, which takes companies’ overall sustainability objectives into account, as well as the steps required for its development. A case study of the formation and introduction of a “credible” sustainability strategy in the chemicalindustry is presented. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the SBSC in pursuing sustainability strategies, and provide preliminary evidence that introduction of such a system is likely to lead to fundamental changes in the way a company is managed. Practical implications and managerial guidelines are also reported.
Up to 2008, the inve stments for SHE didn’t have the criteria defined for its prioritization which caused distortions and resource allocation concerning the portfolio of "end of life" in the portfolio of "SHE”. From the introduction of the criteria based on the demand of legal requirements, in greater control of the dangers and aspects and causes of accidents, near-misses and deviations, the investments should be justified and framed in this criteria to be included in the SHE portfolio. For this portfolio, 40% of the industry annual investments were destined, something around R$ 4millions.
In the analysis of the second hypothesis (H 0 B and H 1 B), there was no statistically significant difference in average values of non-internationalized and internationalized companies, in the constructs environmental regulation, reputation effects, support from top management, reactive strategies and proactive strategies. This shows that in- ternationalized companies do not differ from those non-internationalized, as the adop- tion of contextual factors and proactive eco-innovation strategies. This result rejects the null hypothesis H0B, in contrast to the literature in some aspects, such as meeting the strictest environmental regulations in other countries, international policies, customers, suppliers and competitors in the international market. Moreover, this result may sig- nal that companies in general have been concerned about the eco-innovation indepen- dently of the scope of its market. In this case, concern for environmental management may be present in the strategic decisions of all chemical companies investigated, but not to a greater extent in the internationalized ones.
in this study and elsewhere  that the smaller the LVG the higher the number of LVs that an air separator can have and hence the higher the efficiency. It is important therefore to provide as small an LVG as is possible in order to accommodate as many LVs as possible in order to increase the theoretical efficiency. The LVGs <0.06 have been found to give higher efficiencies than those >0.06 value. It is therefore important to trade off between LVG and size of air separator in order to operate within optimum conditions of right LVG, AR, number of LVs, angle of LV inclination and efficiency. The area ratio of the exit ports of the separator is one of the critical factors in the design and performance evaluation of the air separator. Because of the area ratio, it has been possible to determine the dimensions of the exit ports and evaluate the efficiency of the separator. Since large area ratios gave higher efficiencies, it shows how important it is to make the blow down area of the exit port as small as possible in order to optimize the design and maximize the separator efficiency. The number of LVs, as alluded to earlier, is linked to the size of LVG and length of the separator. When the LVG is fixed, one can increase the number of LVs and vice versa. Increasing the number of LVs increased the efficiency. Therefore designers and engineers engaged in product development and modifications need to consider such correlations before, during and after design, installation and commissioning of chemical engineering plants. It has been shown in this study that theoretical efficiencies can be obtained without knowing the concentration of particulate matter in any process change . Efficiencies above 80% for flows <500 m 3 /h mean that it
process, technology or business model that delivers the same (or better) effect. Any new solution should also reduce the overall environmental impact and be safe to users and consumers. All these solutions will require sustainable chemistry to achieve them and will contribute to the medium to long term security of supply for raw materials. They will also boost resource efficiency and develop new business areas such as advanced recycling processes. The chemicalindustry is developing new technologies for more efficient extraction of raw materials and works for the most efficient use and recycling of materials. It will also develop substitute materials and alternative technologies for its own and other
The Pact has served as a basis for the diagnosis of the sector by the “Chemistry Competitiveness Council” for the “Plano Brasil Maior”. The final agenda for the chemicalindustry was formulated by Government representatives, workers and industry. All the main problems affecting the sector were treated and for each of them one or more correction actions were identified. The main measures aim at increasing the fixed investment, reducing the costs of raw-materials, encouraging the diversification of the chemical production in Brazil, increasing the qualification of the human resources, stimulating the local production of imported products, encouraging companies to invest in innovation as well as in renewable-basis chemical products, improving the industrial infrastructure and increasing the international presence of Brazilian companies.
To sum up, it makes sense to teach chemistry and chemical engineering students: there are jobs and there is even an increasing demand for post-graduates. Brazilian chemicalindustry is already differentiated from many other sectors because it employs significant numbers of PhDs and this difference seems to be increasing, now. It also makes sense to do chemical research, because industry has been able to innovate creating and improving products and processes that are competitive worldwide. Significant research & development & innovation are being done in Brazil by Brazilian-based as well as foreign companies.
THE CHEMICAL PROCESS INDUSTRY IN BRAZIL: ITS MOTIVATIONS FOR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT AND ITS INTERFACES WITH PUBLIC POLICIES. As the Chemical Science is an experimental one a ChemicalIndustry require technical people in all its staff level: from Directors and Managers to Operators. This chemical and chemical engineering based education is the foundation of the innovate process and motivation. The paper discusses this and the role of Public Policies to improve the R&D and innovation in the Brazilian ChemicalIndustry.
Nowadays, biodiversity is appropriately seen in Brazil as one of the most important sources for the nation’s empowerment. Thus, we should focus on devising sustainable and conservative ways to permit the Brazilian productive sector, that is, all the companies legally established in Brazil, to access this resource. Leaving aside the less sophisticated uses of biodiversity, it is obvious that there is room for the development of the chemistry of biodiversity as well as for strengthening our still ledgling biotechnology of biodiversity. These application areas require a better knowledge of our biodiversity, not only from the botanic and eco-systemic point of view, but also from the chemical one. So, it is necessary to systematize collection procedures, followed by chemical processing of Field samples in order to implement large-scale chemical biodiversity collections and databases, available for research and industrial bioprospection. Such databases should be closely linked with lab systems equipped for the extraction and the reined chemical study of the stored materials. It will also be fundamental to provide such labs with high throughput screening systems capable of quickly identifying substances of interest through assays assembled to test desired properties, be it a biochemical reaction or a physical-chemical characteristic. Although there are in Brazil both public and private signiicant efforts to deal with the chemistry of biodiversity, cohesion of forces around the sort of goals mentioned above is still lacking. It will be essential to develop an open model, able to match reciprocal assistance under the understanding that knowledge should lead to the economic activity. We will need to bring together knowledge, people and high-level resources. I am afraid that only a very deinite and energetic biodiversity policy will succeed in harnessing Brazilian Biodiversity and bringing it to fruition, for the beneit of scientists, entrepreneurs and the Brazilian Society as a whole.
* Maximum use of these technologies in order to achieve the strategic objectives of brotherhood industry * Continuous performance appraisal of technologies and develop skills necessary to maintain readiness. Technology like steel base Barysk bit (of rust), and the use of technologies such as Medium Risk are entitled arrester. Instant power in two basic forms willow and metal oxide are used. Silicon carbide older and requires an air gap to avoid excessive current during normal operation. Moisture in the air gap can cause corrosion and withstand voltage air gap is reduced. In addition, the thermal expansion of the heat of water vapor into the arrester can create mechanical stress damage and lead to deterioration in the situation becomes normal and overvoltage. Breakdown, exacerbated by heat, breaking stress and cracking under the pressure of the arrester are four other main failure mode. 126.96.36.199. Areas Strategy III, VII, XI:
Biodiesel brought a large number of new co-products, once cakes and meals that are being produced, existing then, necessity to study the viability of inclusion of these new alternative food sources in animal diets. Inclusion of these alternative food sources could increase dry matter in the silage content, ensuring a good standard of anaerobic fermentation. High moisture contents maintain low osmotic pressure, providing the development of Clostridium bacteria, which change sugars into butyric acid, acetic acid, ammonia and carbon dioxide, compromising the silage quality (MCDONALD et al., 1991). The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of including forage turnip and physic nut cakes, derived from oleaginous grains cold pressing for biodiesel production, on chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of elephant grass silage.
Where were used various approaches to analyse economic situation in meat industry. It is hard to compare the same problematic as in this paper. Mijic et al. (2014) used wide portfolio of inancial analysis indicators to evaluate meat industry. They indicated the low return on investment, proitability, liquidity, and high debt of the companies in the meat industry in Serbia. The companies in the meat-processing industry had better performance than livestock producers and this difference is statistically signiicant. With these authors we can compare ROA, which was 11.08% in 2012, in our sample of processing companies was much lower (depends on company´s type). Martin et al. (2015) used to evaluate the economic and inancial health of the meat industry companies, by inancial ratios Price to earnings ratio, proit margin, debt to equity, and return on equity. The ratios were compared to the ratios of the top 15 industries. For three of the four key inancial ratios that were tested, meat industry irms on average performed signiicantly weaker than the top 15 industries. Debt to equity ratio showed the meat irms to be about the same as the top 15 industries. Financially and economically, the meat irms were not as strong as the average irm in the top 15 industries.
Pulverized coal boilers are the dominant combustion tech- nology used in power plants, accounting for 92% of capacity in the power sector (SEPA, 1996a). Grate furnaces account for the remaining 8%, mostly used in small electricity gener- ation units within industry self-supplying power plants. ESP, WET and CYC were widely used in power plants to mitigate PM emissions. In recent years, FAB has increasingly been installed, but we do not consider it in our model as its share of the power sector before 2005 is negligible. There were three emission standards for thermal power plants published from 1990 to 2005. The first release gave various standard val- ues for new power plants using coals with different ash con- tents (SEPA, 1991); the second release gave a unique stan- dard value for all new power plants (SEPA, 1996b), resulting in a phasing out of inefficient PM removal technologies such as CYC; and the third release gave a stricter standard value (SEPA, 2003), which not all power plants could meet without the use of ESP or FAB. In this work, based on the penetration rate in China of the three types of PM control technologies in the early 1990s (SEPA, 1996a) and after 2000 (China Elec- tricity Council, 2004), we estimated the PM EFs from 1990 to 2005 by interpolating penetration rates of the PM control technologies based on the three versions of emission stan- dards, as shown in Fig. 1a. The estimated net EF of PM 2.5 ,