This report shows the experience of a work conducted with the Meli-Melo puzzle in two early childhoodeducation classes at two different schools in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. With the work’s activities as a starting point, aspects related to space and shape, as well as quantities and measures, were approached. Children from two and a half to five years old participated in the playful activities, which had the following goals: to develop spatial and geometric skills, to allow measuring actions, to favor dialogue and to boost group work experience. There were several activities, like handling the pieces, assembling images free- ly or according with outlines and models, assembling three-dimensional figures, and the length game. The following questions were considered in the evaluation of the work: how was the children’s participation in large groups and small groups? How did children of dif- ferent age groups engage in the different proposals? Which activities were easier or more difficult for each group? Which behaviors and conversations showed us new knowledge? The fulfillment of the planned activities showed that the children had several hypotheses regarding shapes and that they were able to identify similarities and differences, use ge- ometry vocabulary, and discuss their thoughts, particularly when working in small groups, which favored the participation of nearly all children. We believe the work reported has allowed learnings and a contact with mathematics in early childhoodeducation.
These results were presented at a meeting with parents and school staff. Based on this classification, it was possible to discuss strategies to promote health from the risk of harm to herself and the process of learning in early childhoodeducation focuses on the development of healthy habits. It envisioned the possibility of planning and conducting educational workshops with the school community. Faced with this possibility, most participants showed up excited and willing to accept the proposal.
[...] based, in most cases, on case studies, reflections on localized experiences with little scope; maintaining lim- ited dialogue with the more general discussions that have been accompanying the introduction of educational re- forms that have occurred in the last two decades, which have a direct impact on the management of educational systems and units (Fernandes; Campos, 2015b, p. 152). The articles on early childhoodeducation management presented here, although they do not exhaust the discussions on this theme, sug- gest the opportunity of developing studies with this focus that elucidate the interfaces between this dimension and evaluation. In the four pa- pers analyzed, no discussions on this interface were found, even though the importance of evaluation as a contributory instrument for the for- mulation and implementation of educational policies is a consensus within the scope of public management.
In this article we intend to analyze the extrajudicial performance of the Public Prosecution’s Office (PPO) regarding the right to early childhoodeducation (ECE), through the Conduct Adjustment Terms (CATs), using the case of the municipality of Telêmaco Borba (Paraná). We seek to understand the ways in which the institution impacts the enforcement of the right to ECE in this municipality. We interviewed the stakeholedrs, who took part in the signing and implementation of the CATs, and analyzed the interviews along with enrollment data and documental sources – regarding the signing process and other related activities in the legislative branch. Using these sources, we try to understand causes and effects of the ECE judicialization process that took place in this town. We understand judicialization as the displacement of issues usually debated by elected officials to the justice system sphere, extrajudicial activities included. The results point to the intensification of disputes between the administration and the PPO, with alleged meddling between the administrative discretion and the activities of the prosecution. Moreover, we noticed the broadening of the discussion on the access to ECE, denoting the expansion of the entitlement of local citizens regarding their educational rights.
Abstract: Several authors who have been reflecting on the environmental crisis understand that this would be the result of a civilization crisis, a consequence of a worldview that promotes current patterns of relationship between society and society, society and nature. Being part of the coping process of this crisis, the environmental education has been increasingly present in schools and other spaces, since the educational process is presented as one of the possibilities to reverse the current degradation framework installed. Considering the importance of including the construction of values in education in general and the difficulties to achieve that evaluative work by the teacher this question, in the case of environmental education, presents itself as an important theme for the continuing education of teachers and managers of Early ChildhoodEducation, which will be presented and discussed in this paper.
to the effects of education and human capital on the economic variables. As it will be shown, all the data used in the calibration refer to the productive sector of the economy. In fact, the data on years of schooling is the only one that would not clearly represent the productive sector, but the average years of schooling of the labor force is calculated only for individuals over 25 years of age (i.e. for individuals who are of working age). Thus, any modification in the educational policy has an immediate impact in the model on the productivity of individuals, for instance. A possible problem is that by using contemporary teacher labor force (which increased in time) to calibrate preschool education, we may overestimate x. To check if this is an issue, we run the model with values of x lower than the estimated values. The main results (section 6) did not change significantly, i.e the evolution of early childhoodeducation is the main force to explain the evolution of both income per capita and years of schooling.
Teachers spend a great deal of time gathering information for the purpose of conducting on-going assessments in the classroom. The literacy development of young children should not be determined by one formal (or standardized) assessment tool. Rather, should involve gathering data from multiple instruments, daily observations, and work samples that measure progress. Often, schools have a data-gathering system in place that reflects the child’s growth and development in the area of literacy skills. As a parent of young children, it is important to ensure that your child is enjoying the reading process and at the same time, that the child is developing his literacy/reading/writing skills to maximum potential. Not all children learn the alphabet by a specific age, and children often learn to ‘sing’ their abc’s before they can identify letters in isolation, or tell you what sounds a letter makes, or what words start with a specific letter. It is an on-going developmental process that takes time, and this is why assessment is important in early childhood. We assess to determine how well a child is progressing at a specific time, and to document a specific aspect of learning. Keeping careful progress records helps teachers adapt the curriculum to make it meaningful and child-centered. Furthermore, if assessment is to be effective, parents need to be kept informed in order to help support the child’s learning at home.
Defending the child education as a legal right means, in the present text, to understand it as a social phenomenon, result of historical struggles and pressures of the work class, which involves contradictory processes since the legal guarantee does not mean, necessarily, the effec- tiveness of these rights. For neither being something given, according to what the Universal Declaration of the Human Rights defines, nor natu- rally inherent to the subjects, it results in social disputes from the great tensions manage to establish those demands.
After the CRC placed children’s right to participate on the agenda, including in ECE settings, many conceptualizations of children’s participation and agency emerged from sociology of childhood (Lansdown, 2005). Therefore, it is not surprising that these two perspectives are frequently combined. Nonetheless, they both seem relevant to understand various positions and discussions about children’s right to participate. For instance, studies framing participation from both legal and sociological perspectives (e.g., Alasuutari, 2014) documented the need to validate children’s talk and take their views into account, reinforcing the notion of the competent child.
Starting from the assumption that different spaces and realities produce different childhoods, it appears that there are endless possibili- ties when it comes to being a child. The cultures of childhood, therefore, seek to examine the multiple situations in which infants live and how the first stage of life is built in these contexts. This heterogeneity initiates an invitation for an interpretive investigation of the singularities and differ- ences that structure these ways of being a child. As well as being a child- care facility for small children, an Elementary school becomes a building space and conviviality of individuals which, when properly respected and integrated, may represent a guiding point of qualification for the peda- gogical work which, consequently, exerts major influences on the com- plete development process of the students.
Abstract: This study is part of the dissertation research conducted with 104 teachers who work in 12 kindgarden schools of the municipal teaching network Manaus-AM, which had as one of the objectives analyze the understanding that educators have about the importance of environmental education (EE) and the priority themes that must be developed since childhood. Questionnaires were applied with closed and open questions for teachers. For the analysis and interpretation of the data was used the technique of content analysis for the open questions while closed issues received descriptive statistical treatment. Through the analysis of the data showed that educators have two distinct categories of understanding about EE: those who understand how to process of awareness of individuals and those with more comprehensive understanding, because knowledge area claiming to be able to construct social values. Educators have also listed priority environmental themes for discussion in the educational space, as well as stimulating socio-environmental practices. These themes are inviting to reflection of behavioral change that individuals must have about the environmental problems experienced in daily life.
In conclusion, play and playfulness are basic aspects of early childhood educa- tion. he younger the child, the more important it is that play permeate every aspect of his or her life. A play pedagogy means that teachers provide support for young children to play in a safe and challenging environment that is adapted to their needs and interests and also that teachers support peer play and peer relationships from an early age. A play pedagogy in addition involves teachers’ knowing that playful- ness and the co-construction of meaning with infants and toddlers go hand in hand. Structuring and limit setting by the teacher and the adaptation of young children to the teacher’s demands should take place in a spirit of playfulness. Ritualized interac- tions or patterns of behavior help the child to anticipate, to take the initiative, and to invent variations; they support the child’s agency. Above all, in a play pedagogy teachers are aware that young children live in a world that can easily overpower them. hey have much to learn, and they have to adapt to the cultural world into which they are born. Play helps children to maintain their conidence and not to give up ater failure. In a play pedagogy, teachers gently structure young children’s lives by means of routines, rituals, songs, dance, rhythms, rhymes, and humor.
Several Brazilian studies have shown very tense entrance process- es in Elementary School for children, their families, and teachers (Cas- tanheira, 1991; Motta, 2010; Neves, 2010; Neves; Gouvêa; Castanheira, 2011; Nogueira, 2011; among others). Such studies highlighted, in gen- eral, practices relating to a greater body control of children, as well as repetitive, fragmented, and individualized activities that took the cen- trality in the classroom routines. The predominance of a transmission- based pedagogy in working with the children was identified, with long waiting times and activities that did not stimulate the reflexive capac- ity of children. Besides, there was an absence of toys and games in the everyday life of Elementary School. There was, thus, a great mismatch between the expectations of children and their families and what was proposed by the schools. In the cited research, the difficulties found in the process of teaching and learning of children were produced within the school institution from the interactions between teachers and chil- dren. The data from research reveal a wide gap between the practices of Elementary Schools and Early ChildhoodEducation schools, an educa- tional stage that cannot be ignored in the process of education of con- temporary childhood.
I collected this data – excerpts from a school’s politico-pedagogic project and a poster hanging by one classroom’s entrance – while doing ethnographic research on the links between schooling and citizenship education; or rather, on the possibilities of what some in the anthropology and sociology of educa- tion have labelled a “critical democratic education” or a “critical pedagogy” (Darder; Baldotano; Torres, 2003; Giroux, 2003; Hantzapoulos, 2015). There might be nothing surprising about this particular text, given that on some level all education can be seen as being about the making of citizens (Levinson; Foley; Holland, 1996) – were it not for the fact that this was a day care cen- ter and preschool catering to children between three months and six years of age. What was it about this preschool, I wondered, that made it naturalize such political language and target it at such young children? And what might this politicization teach us about schooling, education, and citizen- and demo- cracy-making, especially as applied to early childhoodeducation?
As revealed by the literature of the area, it is during the preschool years that children acquire several self- regulation skills (Nagin & Tremblay, 1999), with teachers playing a particularly important role in this developmental process. For example, when they talk about feelings, teach strategies for the regulation of emotions and when they reinforce prosocial behaviors, teachers can contribute more effectively to the development of children’s emotional competence and, consequently, to the control and prevention of aggression (Denham et al., 2003). Furthermore, the planning of pedagogical actions in early childhoodeducation should consider the differences between the contingencies of free and guided activities, as shown in the present study; in particular, the need for closer monitoring of children and provision of an adequate amount of materials and toys for the children, thus avoiding an increase in conflict over objects.
This article presents results from a research whose objectives were to evaluate the quality of early childhoodeducation (ECE) in six Brazilian state capitals (quality assessment) and, then, identify differences in school performance of children at the beginning of fundamental education (FE) associate to their attending a good quality ECE school (impact assessment). The impact assessment made use of the results of the quality assessment obtained from the application of grades of quality evaluation to a sample of pre-schools situated in three Brazilian state capitals. These results indicate that the quality level has been compromised in the majority of the institutions evaluated. The sample for the impact assessment was constituted by 762 students from public schools with grades in the Provinha Brasil [National Literacy Exam], from which 605 had attended a pre-school evaluated in the quality assessment, and 157 children who had not attended ECE. The data were treated by multilevel/hierarchical analysis with cross classification, which makes it possible to take into account, simultaneously, the effect of several explicative variables (characteristics of pupils and their families; of the ECE schools and FE schools) upon the results of the response variable (second- year students’ grades in the Provinha Brasil). The impact assessment reveals that attending a good quality pre-school has positive effect in the performance of students in the Provinha Brasil . The analyses also indicate that the child’s age is an important factor for the results obtained in that exam, as well as mother’s level of schooling, family income, and the Ideb result of the ECE attended.