The circular economy is a topic of growing interest as it presents an alternative to the current linear model of “take-make-disposal” and is needed to connect the environment and the economic systems. Not only new technologies and collaboration among the supply chain are crucial to achieve the circular economy, but new business models are required to expand the potential and application of circular principles. The fashion industry has an important role in our lives and is responsible for a huge environmental and social impact, what makes it especially interesting for the transition to a circularbusinessmodel. The objective of this research is to analyze how the adoption of circularity by “born sustainable” fashion companies affect their businessmodel. By identifying and adapting a circularbusinessmodel framework from the literature to the fashion industry, the aim is to understand how companies from Brazil and Italy implement circular principles in their business models. This study is separated into two papers. The first had the objective of adapting a circularbusinessmodel framework for fashion apparel manufactures, and experts were interviewed to validate the proposal. The second paper sought to analyze the application of the circularbusinessmodel framework by four sustainable fashion companies of the aforementioned countries by conducting case studies. Results show that the small sustainable fashion businesses share the concern about the social welfare of the involved in the supply chain and offer garments aiming quality and durability. However, they present different design strategies and differ with respect to the materials used. Besides the design, is part of the implementation of circularity the offer of services such as repair, in which while the ownership is still transferred, increases the interaction with customers. Take-back systems, referring to the collection and management of used garments, are important buy still not widely implemented or utilized, indicating some barriers. Design challenges and high costs due to resources and manual and fairly paid production processes are other common challenges.
The resources can be classified into transformed resources and transforming resources. Similar to the key activities’ principle, the key resources are those most important assets required to make the CBM works besides the primary resource that is the flue gas. Physical resources correspond the majority of the key resources, i.e. the transforming resources that allow to offer the value proposition. They comprise not only the microalgal cultivation assets and biomass processing infrastructure (e.g. raceways, machines) but also the logistics infrastructure, which starts with the feed of CO2 and nutrients from the cement plant to the microalgae production facility, and finishes with the biodiesel distribution to the cement plant (e.g. pipelines). This type of business also requires intellectual resources that may be operationalised by R&D projects, in order to continuously improving the system efficiency.
Existing resource consumption practices have been risking society’s sustainable development. Linear business models can no longer be sustained. Therefore, circularbusiness models should gain prominence and change the way society does business. The transition to a circular economy can be made by conceiving entirely new business models or adapting existing ones. Hence, determining the circularity of a businessmodel is of unquestionable assistance to implement new or adapt/manage existing business models. Therefore, this thesis aimed to identify relevant criteria to measure businessmodel circularity. To this end, a systematic literature review and background was conducted to map potential influencing factors of circular economy on business models. An initial list of influencing factors underwent a process of debugging, after which 33 influencing factors remained for validation. The importance of these 33 influencing factors for circular strategies within each of the 9 businessmodel building blocks, identified in the businessmodel Canvas, were validated using a Fuzzy approach, by means of a questionnaire, using a continuous scale of 7 points from UNIMPORTANT to EXTREMELY IMPORTANT, applied to specialists on circularbusiness models. In total, 120 specialists were identified as potential respondents. It was registered 6 complete responses to the questionnaire, which were used to conduct the analysis for validation. For Customer Segments 28 influencing factors were considered at least FAIRLY IMPORTANT for measuring businessmodel circularity, 26 for Value Proposition, 26 for Channels, 19 for Customer Relationships, 23 for Revenue Streams, 28 for Key Resources, 30 for Key Activities, 27 for Key Partnerships and 26 for Cost Structure. After validation, the validated influencing factors became criteria for businessmodel circularity assessment. Throughout the 9 businessmodel building blocks the criteria relate mostly to product-service systems and resource-saving strategies. These criteria indicate where companies should focus their efforts towards more circular practices. They also follow a generic approach, thus not being directed to any particular type of businessmodel. The results in this thesis may be of interest to researchers, regarding the understanding of the usefulness and applicability of the criteria dealt with, to practitioners, regarding strategies to make businesses thrive on the circularbusinessmodel perspective, and to governments, regarding the development of public policies and incentives for private companies to engage in circular practises.
which were slightly adapted to represent today’s e-world. Secondly, the businesses were evaluated as to their reliance on the three elements of a successful platform strategy: data, infrastructure and network/community (Bonchek & Choudary 2013). Naturally, all firms have a varying degree of focus on each of these, and the goal of addressing this theory was to spot any patterns in the success of B2B e-businesses, and whether these were related to the three factors. Thirdly, we looked at the financial success 3 and monetization model behind each business. We gathered information on recent growth (revenues, profits and critical mass), the monetization model (subscription, freemium or one-off transactions) and operational KPIs related to e-businesses (customer acquisition cost, churn rate and customer lifetime value). For each of the sub factors in these three steps, companies were evaluated on a scale of low, medium or high.
Assuming the continuous improvement and revision of the BusinessModel, the main driver that will signal the success of our strategy, are the long run customers that Waydip will be able to evolve in a 5 year time. Not just go to an Internalization Process, but by providing superior benefits to clients that today seem unrealistic, but with great potential to superior levels of value creation. Waydip know exactly the target for the future, and the extra benefits that could be created for them. In the Waynergy Vehicle sector it is clearly believed that Highways, Roads (Tolls, Speed Bumps), Fuel Stations and Parking Zones will be perfect users of our product, with devices associated like Illumination, Traffic Control devices supply, Electric Vehicles batteries charging, Security Systems supply and Electricity Sold to the Grid. In the People Motion segment there are also very suitable targets to the future, and
The whole dynamic evolutionary process shows that traditional income and cost cannot be displayed in a certain business, and they may be united in the era of sharing economy. For instance, at dianping.com, a user spends time and energy at his cost to post a piece of food information, while the sharing act has provided him with pleasure. He obtains income at the same time when he pays the cost. In the Internet era, a common saying goes like this “Wool comes from a pig, but a dog pays for it”. Precisely because of the potentiality and dynamism of artistic value, the whole artistic space can obtain more spaces based on network relationship, making the conflicts between commerciality and commonweal under a single dimension mismatched and thus achieving effective integration of both. Accordingly, new definitions are generated for source of income and cost structure. The cost structure under this model is the investment paid by the organization to promote the connection of the bottom relationship and keep the field active, and income comes from new methods of fee-charging that emerging constantly in the process of explicit utilization. Due to unmatched transaction, income forms become increasingly obscure. Just like a gallery holding an exhibition free of charge, it will not charge the consumers by entry tickets as the direct income, but raise the real estate price via the commercial community developed by the exhibition attendance at the gallery, and thus obtains the income. Under such model, the modes of income become diversified in the way that the organization achieves continuous investment to keep the bottom active, thus forming a benign cycle.
The factorial validity of the three dimensions considered in the EFA previously performed was evaluated through the confirmatory factorial analysis with the AMOS software (v. 20, SPSS INC, Chicago, IL) as described in . The composite reliability and average variance extracted by each factor were evaluated as described by  and . The square distance of Mahalanobis (DM 2 ) evaluated the existence of outliers, and the normality of the variables was evaluated by the univariate and multivariate coefficients of asymmetry (sk) and kurtosis (ku). Anyone variable presented Sk and Ku values Indicators that put in question the Normal distribution (|Sk|<3 and |Ku|<10) . Some observations presented DM 2 values that suggested that these observations were outliers, so the confirmatory factor analysis was done without these observations. The overall adjustment quality of the factorial model was made according to the indexes and respective reference values described by  (X2 / df, IFC, GFI, RMSEA, P [rmsea ≤ .05] and MECVI). The quality of the local adjustment was evaluated by the factorial weights and the individual reliability of the items. The adjustment of the model was made from the modification indexes (>11; p <. 001) produced by AMOS and based on theoretical considerations.
Construction of a tractable circularmodel with an asymmetric shape has been a problem in statistics of circular data. To tackle this problem, some asymmetric extensions of well-known circular models have been proposed in the literature. Malsimov (1967), Yfantis and Borgmann (1982) and Gatto and Jammalamadaka (2007) discussed an extension of the vM distribution, generated through maximization of Shannon’s entropy with restrictions on certain trigonometric moments. Batschelet (1981) proposed a mathematical method of skewing circular distributions that has seen renewed interest very recently. In Fernández-Durán (2004), the author proposed the non-negative trigonometric moment distributions. Pewsey (2008) presented a four parameter family of distributions on the circle by wrapping the stable distribution and Jammalamadaka and Kozubowsky (2004) by wrapping the classical exponential and Laplace distributions. Kato and Jones (2010) proposed a family of distributions arising from the Möbius transformation which includes the vM and wrapped Cauchy distributions. Umbach and Jammalamadaka (2009) intro- duced the idea of Azzalini (1985) to circular distributions that typically results in an asymmetric distribution. Kato and Jones (2013) proposed a mathematical tractability model, obtained from the wrapped Cauchy, by applying Brownian motion. Unlike familiar symmetric distributions, it is often difficult to deal with skew models in statistical analysis. This difficulty is partly due to the lack of some mathematical properties that many of the well known symmetric models have. For example, existing asymmetric models often have complex normalizing constants and trigonometric moments, which could cause trouble in analysis (Kato and Jones, 2013).
In English-speaking countries, the audiobook is a popular format and used very often. In Portugal the audiobook is an unknown format of the majority of the population, there are few audiobooks in Portuguese, and the ones that are found, are mostly in Brazilian Portuguese. With this work, we intend studying the business and production models present in the English-speaking countries, indicating the way for Portuguese companies to have success. In the course of this work, a preliminary recording was made, in order to know the difficulties related to the recording of an audiobook. The recording was provided to the University student community, to conduct a questionnaire about the quality of the recorded audiobook. The results of the questionnaire are presented and analyzed.
This report analyzes the Bom Dia Lisboa’s businessmodel, which approaches both the business logic and the integration between the external environment and the firm’s internal capabilities, key factors that will allow the firm to create and deliver value to stakeholders. The understanding of the Metro passengers’ needs through a research inquiry to a sample of 180 passengers has proved vital for the market analysis. This way the team was able to design a proper and suitable value proposition, that, when connected to the operating model and to the firm’s sources of competitive advantages, will expectedly lead the business to succeed.
Business process modelling (BPM) specializes on describing how activities interact and relate with each other, and how activities interact with other business concepts such as goals and resources, where resources may be material and informational entities, as well as human or automated actors. BPM emphasizes process notions (workflow, decision, information, activities) as the dominant dimension . However, BPM would benefit from a better understanding of other elements that contribute to process execution such as people and human interactions, products or tools used, specific vocabularies, preferences, habits and rules. Moreover, it has been argued that existing BPM languages don’t offer support in keeping up-to-date the continuously evolving knowledge coming from business process execution . Business processes are executed through human and automated activities. Whereas many business processes are fairly static only at a high level, at finer-grained levels such as activities, are more agile and unpredictable. Indeed, many organizations do not know their end-to-end processes accurately or in detail, since the knowledge required for its execution is tacit and decentralized . Recent research in BPM is aiming to address the unpredictability of business processes [7, 8] but there is yet little help in addressing the problem of tacit knowledge and business process model maintenance.
Alloy is a specification language for expressing complex structural constraints and behavior in a software system. It provides a structural modeling tool based on first-order logic. Alloy’s tool, the Alloy Analyzer, is a solver that takes the constraints of a model and finds structures that satisfy them. It allows for compiling and analyzing models. It bears little resemblance to model checking, its original inspiration. However, it relies on recent advances in SAT (boolean satisfiability) technology. It supports two types of automatic analysis: 1) the search for an instance that satisfies all the constraints and relations specified in a model; and 2) the identification of a counterexample that violates the assertions specified in a model. Both analysis cannot be used in general to guarantee the consistency of (or, equivalently, the absence of counterexamples for) a theory [ 21 ]. Hence, they must be performed within a user defined scope that bounds the cardinality of entity sets in instances of the model. Thus, this analysis procedure can be regarded as a validation mechanism, rather than a verification procedure.
There are many cases in which the business process must change in order for organizations to accomplish news goals and objectives. Changing an existing business process can cause many problems for the organization if they did not know all the effects of changed elements previously. Following a manual approach to achieve this task can take a long time on its execution and proportionally more error-prone. Thus the benefit in automating the process of change impact analysis becomes even necessary in this situation. As such, this tool’s primary goal is to provide the means to automatically apply change patterns to get comparison information between two versions of the BPMN model and show the impact analysis report regarding each change.
In this paper we present an alternative view of business cycles. We follow the RBC theory in the sense that nominal issues are overlooked. The Ramsey growth model will be our guiding structure. However, unlike RBC models we aim at explaining cycles under a purely deterministic framework. This is important because a central critique that we can point relatively to the referred class of models is that fluctuations are not endogenously explained, i.e., as in the Solow growth model, RBC models explain a crucial economic mechanism by saying that, in its essence, what determines it is outside the economic system – uncontrollable innovation processes or political decisions regarding government purchases are the key causes of the observed macroeconomic aggregates evolution over time. In this way, the interaction of demand and supply in the several markets would not be truly important; efficiency is from the beginning assured, and exogenous factors are the ones able to justify how the economy evolves.
Abstract: The choice of theme is identified by the need to improve business processes in organizations, as well as the continuous improvement of overall quality, which is under- represented in the Montenegrin organizations. The state of Montenegro has recognized the growing importance of small and medium-sized organizations in the development of the national economy.Small and medium-sized organizations are the drivers of future economic growth and development of every country whose competitiveness has to pay special attention. One of the main sources of the competitiveness of small and medium-sized organizations is their pursuit to the business excellence, because it has become the most powerful means of achieving competitive advantage of organizations. The paper investigates certified organizations in Montenegro and their contemporary business and commitment towards business excellence.These organizations in Montenegro adapt its business to international standards and procedures that represent the future of economic growth and development of modern business. Research results of Montenegrin organizations were compared with small and medium-sized organizations from Serbia, which won the awards for business excellence "Quality Oscar" in the category of small and medium-sized organizations, for the last three years (2009, 2010, and 2011). The idea comes from the neccessity of Montenegrin economy to give small contribution in order that small and medium organizations ajust their businesses to the new business .
Abstract-In today’s business world, decision making is challenging task due to emerging technologies and strategies applied for enterprise. To make accurate decisions, the data present in the decision databases should be of good quality, in this relation we emphasis on building data quality evaluation model for data migration or Extraction Transformation and Loading (ETL) business enterprises. However, there are no standard tools in the market for evaluating the ETL output in the decision databases. The proposed model evaluates the data quality of decision databases and evaluates the model at different dimensions like accuracy derivation integrity, consistency, timeliness, completeness, validity, precision and interpretability, on various data sets after migration.
It is possible to see that the model is capable, in the long run (after the cyclic equilibrium is attained, roughly after 30 quarters in this case), of generating business cycles corresponding to the situation 2 described above. The cycles repeat unchanged overtime, as can be verified in the graph, for which 5 000 quarters (instead of the mere 200 shown in the other graphs) were computed. Capacity utilization never reaches 1 after the equilibrium is attained. As for investment, it just touches 0, and thus is not affected by the investment lower bound. However, given that the investment time series never touches 0 from 1948 to 2016, this result of the model does not fully match the data. Moreover, net investment for the same period does not fall below 0 for most of the business cycles (the only significant exception being the crisis of 2008) 14 , while in the simulation it is below 0 for some time in each cycle. In these conditions we did not manage to obtain a more satisfactory result. In fact, if net investment were always positive, there could not be constant cycles in capital. However, in the
The revenue comes from the selling of game titles. Publishers pay royalties to platform providers for each sale, retain their margins and cover their costs. The hardware platform itself is subsidized, being sold usually below its cost, especially if it has been recently released, in order to achieve the maximum number of users. Although new business models like microtransactions and episodic content are getting common, the most significant revenue comes from sales (Bradley & Barlett, 2008; Ofek, 2008).
The Work Project intends to provide a co-operative businessmodel that attempts to reduce waste of pharmaceutical products and correct the market disequilibrium in the pharmaceutical Industry by reallocating products to underprivileged people. This proposal is based on the best practices and adapted to input provided by the models researched. The result is the creation of a hybrid structure that is able to drain the overproduction from the industry sector at the same time that effectively appeals for individual donation and creates awareness for the problem (e.g. through the Journey of drug-donation) engaging communities and aiming people in need, reaching greater social benefits. Furthermore, the businessmodel promotes a more equitable access to basic services and enhances commitment for social causes, on a long term perspective these efforts attempt similarly to teach communities to donate instead of waste.