Based on previous studies , C57BL/6 mice with CM develop a wide range of behavioral and functional alterations as the syndrome progresses, and significant impairment in all functional categories when assessed 36 hours prior to death. Reflex, sensory function and neuropsychiatric state are altered in the early phase of malaria infection, and muscle tone, strength and autonomic functions are affected in animals with CM exclusively. We confirmed these findings in several models of CM. We also observed that C57BL/6 mice treated with chloroquine are rescued to basal locomotor activity when tested by the SHIRPA protocol (data not shown). Nevertheless, a cognitive deficit persists and was clearly demonstrated when the animals were subjected to specific tasks, such as the memory habituation open-field test performed 15 and 30 days after CM, indicating that cure of the parasitic infection does not prevent the development of late cognitive sequelae once CM is established. Furthermore, C57BL/6 mice infected with Pch developed clinical signs of infection but failed to develop CM and cognitive damage, indicating that cognitive impairment is not an unavoidable consequence of systemic malarial infection in C57BL/6 mice, but rather is associated with the development of clinically detected CM. We also found that severe infection without clinically established CM is not sufficient to trigger cognitive impairment using the PbA-infected BALB/c mice model. Taken together, these data document a strict correlation between development of CM and long-lasting cognitive impairment in surrogate models of malaria. It is our working hypothesis that acute cerebral malaria that leads to death in the absence of rescue therapy and long term cognitivedysfunction in animals that have been rescued with chloroquine share some of the same cellular and molecular mechanisms, and that the substrate for long term cognitivedysfunction is initiated by cerebral injury during the acute period of untreated cerebral malaria. We do not exclude, however, the possibility that long term cognitivedysfunction may also have complex mechanisms that are independent of those that cause neurologic injury and death during acute cerebral malaria, and that these undefined mechanisms only operate if the animal survives. Future investiga- tions are aimed to clarify this point.
Mice fed a CK and KM diet did show a slight amelioration in cognitivedysfunction. There- fore, in Experiment 2, we evaluated the cognitive function of P8 mice at 7 months of age. Body weights of 7-month-old P8 mice decreased compared with R1 mice of the same age. The total swim distance of the P8 CE2 group in the Morris water maze test was significantly shorter compared with the R1 CE2 group, suggesting that the exercise activity of 7-month-old P8 mice declined. Escape time decreased after each training day in the R1 CE2 group. In contrast, there was no change in the P8 CE2 group. The time spent in the correct quadrant for the P8 CE2 group was also significantly shorter than that of the R1 CE2 group. These results indicate that 7-month-old P8 mice lost not only exercise activity but also cognitive ability. Escape time of the P8 CK group, but not the KM group, was slightly faster than that of the P8 CE2 group. There was a significant difference at day 3 (p<0.05). Time spent in the correct quadrant was significantly longer in CK-fed mice, but swimming distance did not change. These findings suggest that CK feeding ameliorates cognitivedysfunction, but not exercise ability, in older P8 mice.
in ALS. Compared to ALS patients without nocturnal hypoxia, the patients with ALS and nocturnal hypoxia had significantly lower scores for memory retention and retrieval efficiency on the Rey-Kim memory test. Also, duration of nocturnal hypoxia showed significant correlation with retrieval efficiency . Fronto- temporal dysfunction is a common form of cognitive impairment in patients with ALS [6,8,18]. Previous studies have shown that cognitivedysfunction in ALS is related to reduced vital capacity , implying that hypoxia or hypoventilation in these patients might, at least partially, contribute to cognitivedysfunction. The results of this study demonstrate a relationship between nocturnal hypoxia and cognitivedysfunction in ALS. These results are consistent with those of previous studies reporting reversibility of some cognitivedysfunction with non-invasive ventilation (NIV) treatment and with studies that showed a relationship between reduced vital capacity and cognitivedysfunction in ALS [3,4]. These findings may provide an early indication for NIV treatment in patients with ALS and/or nocturnal hypoxia [3,5].
Neuroimaging is the technique most commonly used to assess cerebral diseases . Func- tional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), especially resting-state fMRI, has been established to be a useful noninvasive technique for determining how structurally segregated and function- ally specialized cerebral centres are interconnected; these relationships are reflected by fluctua- tions in low-frequency (0.01–0.1Hz) blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals [12– 14]. Previous studies have employed resting-state fMRI to examine multiple whole-brain net- works, especially the default-mode network (DMN), to explore the neural changes occurring in stroke patients [15–20]. Tuladhar et al. found decreased intra-network functional connectivity (FC) in the left medial temporal lobe, the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the medial pre- frontal cortex within the DMN and reduced inter-network FC among these regions in stroke patients . Wang et al. confirmed that stroke patients exhibited decreased intra-network FC within the anterior DMN . By contrast, Dacosta-Aguayo et al. found that stroke patients showed increased DMN activity, which was more widespread in the left precuneus and the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) [17, 18]. Furthermore, Park et al. found that the increased FC of the contralesional dorsolateral prefrontal cortex within the DMN positively correlated with cognitive functional recovery in stroke patients, and this alteration might be considered as a compensatory mechanism for overcoming cognitive impairment . Together, these results suggest that the DMN may play a pivotal role in the neurological pathophysiology of post- stroke cognitivedysfunction.
Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation between resting state functional MRI (RS-fMRI) activity and motor and cognitive impairment in spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6). Methods: Twelve patients with genetically confirmed SCA6 and 14 age matched healthy controls were imaged with RS-fMRI. Whole brain gray matter was automatically parcellated into 1000 regions of interest (ROIs). For each ROI, the first eigenvariate of voxel time courses was extracted. For each patient, Pearson correlation coefficients between each pair of ROI time courses were calculated across the 1000 ROIs. The set of average control correlation coefficients were fed as an undirected weighted adjacency matrix into the Rubinov and Sporns (2010) modularity algorithm. The intranetwork global efficiency of the thresholded adjacency sub-matrix was calculated and correlated with ataxia scores and cognitive performance. Results: SCA6 patients showed mild cognitive impairments in executive function and visual-motor processing compared to control subjects. These neuropsychological impair- ments were correlated with decreased RS functional connectivity (FC) in the attention network. Conclusions: Mild cognitive executive functions and visual-motor coordination impairments seen in SCA6 patients correlate with decreased resting-state connectivity in the attention network, suggesting a possible metric for the study of cognitivedysfunction in cerebellar disease. Hum Brain Mapp 38:3001– 3010, 2017. V C 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
tric oxide (NO), as well as superoxide scavenging activities (% inhibition of superoxide anion) and the levels of SOD, GPx, and CAT, in the brain after treatment. As shown in Tables 1 and 2, MDA, protein carbonyl, 8-OHdG, and NO were significantly higher in the brains of SAMP8 mice than those of SAMR1 mice (P < 0.01 for all). Treatment with redox polymer significantly decreased levels of MDA, protein carbonyl, 8-OHdG, and NO, compared with SAMP8 control mice (P < 0.01 for all). Compared with SAMR1 mice, SAMP8 mice showed a significant de- crease of 86.9% (P < 0.01), 16.6% (P < 0.05), and 21.3% (P < 0.05) in the activities of SOD, CAT, and GPx in the cortex area of the brain, respectively. Treatment with redox polymer markedly increased only SOD activity in the brain of SAMP8 mice (P < 0.01). In fact, the activ- ities of superoxide scavenging in the brain after treatment with redox polymers are higher than those of TEMPOL-treated mice. In addition, levels of inflammatory cytokines in the brain after one month of treatment were measured. Compared with SAMR1 mice, SAMP8 mice have higher levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, especially in the hip- pocampus area, as shown in Fig 4I–4K, respectively. Treatment with redox polymer decreased the levels of those pro-inflammatory cytokines. Since changes within the cholinergic systems so far have been reported to be involved in cognitive and behavioral functions that are widely disturbed in AD , we evaluated the effects of redox polymers on AChE activity in SAMP8 mice. As shown in Fig 4L, however, we did not find the amelioration of AChE activity in the cortex and hippocampus areas by treatment with redox polymer, indicating that the therapeu- tic effect of oral administration of RNP N is attributable to the suppression of oxidative stress, but not the AChE pathway.
This study shows that neuropsychiatric manifestations and autonomic dysfunction have a similar pattern of risk factors. The years of evolution of the PD and the pres- ence of cognitivedysfunction appear as risk factors for these NMM, probably relecting a common pathogenic mechanism involved linked to the progression of the neu- rodegenerative process. A recent study has shown that dementia in PD patients is associated with signiicantly more impairment in autonomic, depressive and psychotic domains 13 as is also shown in our study.
receptor antagonists have been effective in preventing cognitive impairment in other animal models [46, 47]. Although we acknowledge that in the absence of genetic knockout experi- ments to confirm selectivity, the possibility of off-target effects of ET-1 receptor antagonism are inherent limitations in the study, the protective effects of ET A receptor antagonism with Fig 9. ET-1 induces cognitivedysfunction in non-CM mice. Visual memory testing was performed on PbN-infected (non-CM) and PbN-infected ET-1 treated mice. Non-CM mice do not display visual memory impairments (A,B). (B) A significantly higher proportion of PbN mice passed the object recognition test when compared to PbA mice (p < 0.0001). (A) Exogenous ET-1 treatment induced cognitivedysfunction in PbN-infected mice (p < 0.05). (B) In addition, PbN ET-1 treated mice performed significantly worse than PbN saline treated mice (p < 0.0001). One-way ANOVA was performed for preference scores in A, and Chi-square was performed for success rate in B. n = 4–20/group.
In this edition, a Brazilian group adds a contribution to this subject by studying the prevalence and factors associ- ated to postoperative cognitivedysfunction. I invite the readers to read the study and think about it. Brazilian pop- ulation is aging and surgical management of elderly pa- tients is a reality. Creating evidences contributing to clini- cal practice guidelines is a must.
Amyloid-β (Aβ) plays a causative role in Alzheimer’s disease. Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is involved in Aβ accumulation, whereas occlusal disharmony increases Aβ production in the rat hippocampus. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of apoE deficiency and occlusal disharmony on Aβ production and spatial memory. Wild-type (WT) (n = 12) and apoE-deficient [ApoE(−/−)] (n = 12) rats (Sprague-Dawley; 8 weeks old) were used. These rats were randomly divided into four groups of six rats each: two control (C) groups: WT (C-WT) and ApoE [C-ApoE(−/−)], and two occlusal disharmony (D) groups: WT (D-WT) and ApoE [D-ApoE(−/−)]. The C group received no treatment for 8 weeks. In the D group, the maxillary molar cusps were cut off for 8 weeks. The spatial memory of rats was assessed according to their behavioral performance in a radial arm maze. In both genotypes of rats, significant differences in the reference memory, Aβ42 production, β-secretase expression and plasma corticosterone levels were observed between the C and D groups (P < 0.0125). The levels of Aβ42 and glucocorticoid receptor in the C-ApoE(−/−) group were also significantly higher than those in the C-WT group (P < 0.0125). However, no significant differences in these parameters were found between the two genotypes with occlusal disharmony. In conclusion, occlusal disharmony induces cognitivedysfunction and Aβ accumulation in the rat hippocampus, and the effects of occlusal disharmony on Aβ accumulation and cognitivedysfunction were larger than those of apoE deficiency.
Background and objectives: Multiple sclerosis is a demyelinating disease of the brain and spinal cord, characterized by muscle weakness, cognitivedysfunction, memory loss, and personality disorders. Factors that promote disease exacerbation are stress, physical trauma, infection, surgery, and hyperthermia. The objective is to describe the anesthetic management of a case referred to urological surgery.
comorbidities, complications of the acute critical illness (e.g., hypotension, hypoxia, hypo- or hyperglycemia and polyneuromyopathy), life support (e.g., sedation, mechanical ventilation and dialysis), organizational aspects of intensive care (e.g., restricted contact with family) and adjustment to the post-ICU period (e.g., changes in body image, disabilities, difficulty in returning to work and poor social support network) might impair the functional physical statuses of patients in the long run as well as contribute to the occurrence of cognitivedysfunction, anxiety, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). (10-15)
and maintaining of sleep 84 children (15%) with disorder of the sleep-wake transition, and 61 children (11%) with daytime sleepiness. There was no association among these sleep dis- orders and cognitivedysfunction (Tables 3 and 4). The grade and age variables were highly correlated and therefore were Table 4. Distribution of cognitivedysfunction in sleep disorders group (disorders of sleep-wake transition - DSWT; daytime sleepiness - DSS) and control group (CG) for all children, by gender, age (7, 8, 9, and 10 years old), total sleep time (<8h, >8h) and by start time to school (STS-M: morning; STS-A: afternoon). Cognitivedysfunction did not differ significantly to each group pair.
Several studies pointed out that education and cultural and socioeconomic background can cause a considerable bias in the MMSE's scores (Ponton, & Ardila, 1999). Guerreiro, Botelho, Leitão, Castro-Caldas, and Garcia (1994) in the Portuguese version set different cutoff scores according to the educational level of subjects for differentiation of individuals with intact cognitive function from patients with dementia. Thus, the authors consider that cognitive impairment exists in the Portuguese population when the MMSE score is ≤ 15 for the illiterate, ≤ 22 points for subjects with 11 or fewer years of education and ≤ 27 points for people over 11 years of education. In our study, we also recorded education levels and illiteracy using the same cutoff scores to select the participants with and without cognitive impairment.
Abstract- There is little evidence on the correlation between immigration effects and the evolution of the mind and cognition, especially concerning children. Last generations of young immigrants are expected to experience adaptive strategies to respond to the school environment in order to achieve success. Specifically concerning the new language learning in the diversity of the host countries (plus the diversity of the countries of origin and home languages/cultures), it should be analyzed how the human cognitive aptitude (language aptitude and problem solving) is being reorganized in terms of thought, concepts and cultural orientations previously developed in a certain native culture. The native culture (aspects of the nationality and of the home language) is mentally associated to concepts and generates the self-regulation which implies consciousness in a home culture as a reference. How does it works for new immigrants that were separated (including cases of forced immigration) from their unique cognitive reference? Different cognitive achievements and language deficits would be constrained in their natural development and differences in academic achievement are expected. This lead to implications for the biological hypothesis of critical period concerning the new waves of immigration and ethnic differentiation in current generations. Age would be considered along with other unexpected variables such as nationality. The present study examines populations’ differences – ethnic and age – on specific language and cognitive tasks considering immigrant students in Portuguese schools (M=13 years old; SD= 2,7) with origin in different world areas: Western Europe, Eastern Europe, African countries, Latin America, Asia (Indian Asia) and China and with different home languages and cultures. Data showed a variability of groups’ achievements in cognates, text recall, lexical recall and dichotic listening tasks. Disparities among the minorities will be discussed considering educational and ethological implications. Population evolutionary characteristics might be concluded from those disparities.
RESUMO. Existem vários testes para ajudar no diagnóstico da Doença de Alzheimer (DA) e é importante que o mesmo seja feito o quanto antes. A escolha dos testes neuropsicológicos pode variar de acordo com o tempo de escolaridade, pois a mesma pode influenciar o desempenho cognitivo. Instrumento breve de rastreio de habilidades cognitivas é o CASI (Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument). Há uma versão resumida deste instrumento, CASI-S, que inclui registro, orientação temporal, fluência verbal, e evocação de palavras. O objetivo do estudo foi o desempenho cognitivo de idosos analfabetos entre os testes Cambridge Cognitive Examination, Fluência Verbal e o Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument em sua versão reduzida. Método: foram avaliados 38 idosos analfabetos atendidos no Ambulatório de Geriatria de Jundiaí. Os instrumentos utilizados foram o Casi-S, CAMCOG, Fluência Verbal (FV), EDG e Questionário de Atividades Funcionais de Pfeffer. As análises do teste de correlação evidenciaram que o Casi-S correlacionou-se significativamente com o CAMCOG (r = 0,82; p < 0,0001). Pode-se observar um coeficiente moderado e significativo entre o teste de FV versão animais (r = 0,59; p < 0,0001) e a versão frutas (r = 0,69; p < 0,0001). Pode-se concluir que o Casi-S apresenta vantagens na aplicação em idosos analfabetos, por ser de simples execução e não exigir aspectos de escrita e leitura.
Electronic databases (to October 2014) were searched: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database, Wan Fang Data and Weipu Database for Chi- nese Technical Periodicals. The following keywords were used in various combinations: older adult(s), elderly, aging, aged, cognition, cognitive ability, cognitive function, computer(s), com- puterized training, video and game(s). To identify unpublished studies, trial registrations (WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform) and dissertations (Chinese Dissertation Full-text Database and ProQuest Dissertations) were searched. The reference lists of relevant articles were reviewed for additional trials, and we contacted experts in the field.
We also observed that chagasic patients exhibited morphological and functional ventricular echocardiographic Doppler measures similar to those of normal individuals, except by the increased LVESD. This alteration alone would represent an incipient morphological alteration, which could precede the established systolic or diastolic dysfunction. Furthermore, it is likely that this finding is only a casual variant of normality, with no morphofunctional significance and so, it should be disregarded. Our results are in agreement with the lack of alterations or mild alterations in ventricular function observed by other authors in chagasic patients with cardiomyopathy 12-14,25 . On the other hand, they disagree with
It is frequent to see in Cognitive Linguistics and other cognitive sciences some tension between cognitive and social, individual and interindividual, perception and interaction, and neural and cultural. Two main reasons can explain these tensions and, in fact, why these classic dualisms are maintained. One reason comes from the cognitive perspective, which sees language from a psychological point of view, as part of the organization of knowledge in the individual mind. Another reason that has already been discussed here involves the very conception of human cognition – more specifically, the tendency of focusing on the individual and universal dimensions of cognition and its physical and neurophysiological sides. A sociocognitive agenda and the systematic integration of the social aspects in the agenda of Cognitive Linguistics thus become tasks of highly difficult realization.
help patients with early or moderate dementia to get the best out of their memory and cognitive functioning, despite the difficulties they are facing. Cognitive training can be conducted in different formats, which vary in relation to the following aspects: 1) the modality used - individual or collective sessions; 2) the target abilities – multi- domain interventions stimulate cognitive abilities in different domains, whereas in a unimodal intervention the target abilities are in the same cognitive domain; 3) the format of the stimuli – "pencil and paper" activities or computerized tasks; 4) cognitive measurements – the measurements can focus on the target abilities of the intervention (the aim of the training), in order to investigate the effects of proximal (near transfer) transference, or non-trained abilities, in order to investigate the effects of distal (far transfer) transference; 5) the follow-up period – long-term monitoring examinations determine the temporal durability effects of the intervention.