This study aims to investigate L2-to-L1 cross-linguistic influence on bilinguals’ representation and processing with three psycholinguistics tasks. The interest in this type of effect lies in its possible association with cognitive control development. Our study focuses on possible influences of the non-dominant language on the dominant language: we analyzed whether highly proficient Brazilian Portuguese-English late bilinguals immersed in the L1 context behaved differently from Brazilian Portuguese monolinguals in regards to sentences in the L1 that simulated an L2-specific construction (true resultative). We conducted a maze task in order to analyze the speakers’ linguistic processing and a speeded acceptability judgment task in order to analyze their linguistic representation. We also observed participants’ behavior towards a construction available in both languages (depictive). The overall results indicate that bilinguals processed both constructions faster than monolinguals, but the difference between the groups was significantly larger towards the true resultative construction. However, there was no significant difference between the groups in relation to how they perceived the acceptability of both constructions. We interpret the results as evidence that the L2 influence on the L1 occurs during real time sentence processing, but it does not result in changes in the overall L1 representation.
Furthermore, Voyer, Postma, Brake, and Imperato-McGinley (2007), who conducted a meta-analysis of 36 studies examining gender difference, also reported an overall women advantage for object location memory. As observed by Voyer et al. (2007), the ability to remember the locations of specific objects depends on explicit encoding. Although the explicit memory system is not the focus of the current study, it seems relevant to review some well documented research on the relationship between gender differences and two distinct memory systems - implicit memory and explicit memory. According to Paradis (2004) implicit competence/knowledge is represented in procedural memory and explicit competence/knowledge in declarative memory. Craik (2000) explains that implicit memory underpins learned skills, such as motor (driving a car) or cognitive (solving a puzzle) skills. When learning something or performing an activity in which procedural memory is involved, especially those that include sequences (e.g. motor sequences), we are not consciously aware of how we go about accomplishing the task (Ullman, 2005, p. 146). With regard to declarative memory, this system involves memories that may be explicitly (consciously) retrieved (Ullman, 2001). Although it refers to knowledge of which we are explicitly aware of, Ullman (2005, p. 143) states that the memories in declarative memory are not completely consciously available - in other words the knowledge stored in declarative form is not explicit in its totality. As Old and Naveh- Benjamin (2008) explain, there are two basic forms of declarative memory: semantic knowledge, which refers to knowledge about the world and general facts, and episodic knowledge, which refers to memory of events and is based on personal experiences. According to Ragland, Coleman, Gur, Glahn, and Gur (2000), women outperform men on verbal episodic memory tasks, which may be related to the verbal advantage found for women in some verbal tasks.
Although for late bilinguals, the Simon effect was not statistically significant, a comparison shows that late bilinguals significantly outperformed monolinguals on incongruent trials in the Simon task 2 Colors (t (26) = 2.45, p = 0.021). These results indicate that late bilinguals are less distracted by interference on irrelevant trials than monolinguals. According to Costa et al. (2008), who investigated the relationship between early bilingualism and executive control functions, dealing with two linguistic representations requires control. In other words, bilinguals need to focus on the relevant language and ignore the other. For this reason, bilinguals are expected to perform better on non-congruent trials. In this study, the mean RTs were lower for late bilinguals than for their monolingual peers. These findings may indicate that becoming fluent in a second language late in life can also bring positive cognitive benefits. In summary, late bilinguals in the present study were better able to inhibit irrelevant items than monolinguals. Late bilingualism seems to contribute to the enhancement of executive control functions in nonverbal cognitive tasks that involve inhibitory control.
Ellen Bialystok e Raluca Barac assinam o capítulo 9, CognitiveEffects. Os autores relatam principalmente estudos sobre os efeitos positivos do bilinguismo, que iniciaram no fim da década dos anos de 1960. Antes, acreditava-se que o bilinguismo era uma experiência negativa para crianças porque causaria ‘confusão mental’. Nesse sentido, o objetivo principal do capítulo é descrever os benefícios do bilinguismo para a cognição, em habilidades verbais, sobretudo nas habilidades metalinguísticas e na aprendizagem da leitura, quando as duas línguas possuem dois sistemas de escrita parecidos. Os benefícios do bilinguismo se estendem também para habilidades não verbais, isto é, nas funções executivas (atenção, seleção, inibição, alternância de tarefas, flexibilidade cognitiva). As evidências suportam a hipótese de que o bilinguismo teria o poder de auxiliar no desenvolvimento das habilidades relacionadas a essas funções e manter o alto nível de funcionamento para idosos. Com relação à população idosa, o bilinguismo pode ser um fator protetivo para atenuar os sintomas do Alzheimer, atuando como reserva cognitiva.
In Winter and Reber’s (1994) definition there is no specification that implicit learning should be necessarily conceptualized as strictly incidental, that is, implicit learning is not necessarily cost-free in concern to cognitive resources, namely attentional allocation. The role of attention in language learning as a whole, and its role in implicit learning in particular has been a controversial issue among psycholinguistics-oriented second language researchers. A strong version of the notion of implicit learning could be defined as strictly incidental, as discussed above. This would predict that implicit learning might involve learning without attention. But as reviewed by Schmidt (1995, 2001) and by Robinson et al. (2014), research findings have not supported such strong version. Although language learning may take place without overt intention and without availability of any conscious recollections of learning effort, the currently available evidence does not support claims that learning might take place without attention to the linguistic input available to the learner. This distinction is framed by Schmidt (1995) as a separation between learning without awareness (a possible operational definition of implicit learning), and learning without attention, a hypothetical mode of learning whose actual existence has not been substantiated by empirical findings. Schmidt (2001) argues that attention is an umbrella concept for a multicomponent cognitive function that can include subsystems such as alertness, orientation and processing selectivity (subsuming both activation and inhibition of information). In other words, according to Schmidt (2001), even though attention to linguistic patterns may unfold unavailable to introspection and independently of intentionality, it is qualitatively different from preconscious detection, as it requires controlled cognitive processes. If some threshold level of attention to properties and patterns in the L2 linguistic system is paramount for learning, then the emergence of L2 linguistic representations in the bilingual mind is, to quote Schmidt’s (2001, p. 29) words, “a side effect of attended processing” of the L2.
At the semantic level, there appears to be no sensitive period for acquisition (Neville & Bavelier, 1998; Stowe & Sabourin, 2005; cited by Uylings, 2006); it is a process that can be developed at any age: “Critical period effects thus appear to fo- cus on the formal properties of language (phonology, morphology, and syntax) and not on the processing of meaning” (Newport, 2002, p.738). Conversely, the foreign accent in the speech of the child, adult or adolescent is, in fact, an effect of the sensi- tive period. With the advance in age, depending on the moment in which the indi- vidual starts acquiring L2, the accent could be foreign or native (Liu, Flege & Yeni- Komshian, 1997). Moreover, it will be more difficult to achieve a correct pronuncia- tion, given that there is a negative correlation between age of acquisition and pro- nunciation in the L2, exactly after the bilingualism has been reached (in the sequen- tial sense). However, the phonetics knowledge, at the speech production level, does not predict phonological knowledge developed. Phonetics awareness, as also phono- logical awareness, is not necessarily conscious. Phonological awareness is a not per- ceived knowledge (Gillon, 2004) about the phonetic and phonological properties in a language, through an incidental acquisition conditioned by a favorable input; phono- logical consciousness is a high level that requires deliberation and control mecha- nisms depending on executive level. The experience in second language could con- tribute to develop and promote the growth of phonological awareness to the phono- logical consciousness level, and, considering “the malleability of phonological knowledge” (Darcy, PeperKamp & Dupoux , 2007, p. 6), the individual could de- velop a consciousness that implies more than one phonological system.
Data extraction was performed using a designed form by two authors. The information was collected about study details (year of the study, follow-up period, settings, method of SCD assessment, method of cogni- tive function assessment, MCI and dementia criteria), and demographic features (number of participants in SCD and control groups, mean age, percentage of fe- males, mean Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE] score in the SCD group). Results of the study (number of cases from both groups that converted to MCI and dementia) were accurately extracted. The reviewers en- countered disagreement such as differences in selection of time points, control groups, scales, and whether to include a study in the review. Disagreements about data extraction were solved by consensus or by the decision of a third reviewer. In case of possible duplications, only one main study was included.
When no pacing was imposed and the participants could perform the assemblies at their own speed, alll the assemblies were completed fully (finger tight) and the codes were memorised and typed accurately. Similar results were achieved at the lower pacing, which was set as 90 seconds to finish each assembly. The mean time of each assembly for no pacing and high pacing remained fairly constant across each condition . The higher pacing, set as 60 seconds to finish each assembly, clearly caused more difficul-ty and some participants were unable to finish all their assemblies in the required time. The quality of performance also deteriorated, with increases in the number of poorly completed assemblies, errors, and numbers of dropped nuts and bolts. These results were similar to those found in studies conducted by Bosch, Dempsey, et. al. and Escorpizo, and Moore, [3,6,12]. The quality of performance was also affected by working at above shoulder height, which resulted in an increased number of drops . The stress score was not affected significantly by pacing, work height or memory load, which is similar to the finding in a study by Poolton, et. al. .
ABSTRACT. The aging of the population leads to an increase in the prevalence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. Recent studies highlight the early non-amnestic deficits in AD and MCI. The European Union report shows the importance of thoroughly assessing cognitive aspects that have been poorly evaluated, such as processing speed (PS), which could represent early indicators ofcognitive decline. Objective: To analyze the diagnostic accuracy of PS measures in older adults with MCI, AD, and those who are cognitively-healthy. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted by performing an extensive neuropsychological assessment in three samples: 26 control participants, 22 individuals with MCI, and 21 individuals with AD. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to test the relationship between dependent variables and the clinical group. Post hoc tests (Bonferroni test) were used when a significant ANOVA result was found. Finally, the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve for PS measures was performed in older adults with MCI and AD compared with cognitively-healthy older adults. Results: The results showed that deficits in PS measures can be early indicators ofcognitive decline in cases of MCI, even when executive functions (EFs) and functionality are preserved. Conversely, AD versus MCI presented differences in PS, EFs, and functionality. Conclusions: The ROC analyses showed that PS measures had discriminative capacities to differentiate individuals with MCI, AD, and cognitively-healthy older adults. Keywords: cognitive dysfunction, Alzheimer disease, diagnostic, cognition.
Elite athletes outperform the ordinary due to their physiologi- cal traits and their techniques. However, among super-athletes, the mental attributes seem to be the golden key ( 1 ). Concerns about mental health and improvement ofcognitive abilities have increased, but there is still notable lack of the knowledge in this field. According to the current literature ( 24 ), high performance athletes are more vulnerable than the general population to mental disorders, especially anxiety and depres- sion. Our study showed that tDCS interventions can increase cognitive performance and diminish depression scores in pro- fessional athletes, which in our point of view may contribute to performance gains, greater well-being, and faster recovery. In other words, our results are in line with reports that have shown that tDCS is an effective non-pharmacological treatment for major depressive disorders ( 25 , 26 ) and should be taken as an important finding, even considering that our sample did not reach baseline levels for being diagnosed with depressive disorder, as bad mood may be strongly counterproductive for this cohort.
To better mark off this, one may begin by realiming how often the term “translation” appears in Freud’s writings. It is either used to designate the dream’s translation from thought into words or images—in the dreams—or to mention the translation of the unconscious. Even the divisions of the psychic apparatus and the structure of the neurosis are connected to the language structure—especially when we consider Jacques Lacan´s reading of Freud, which relies upon the advances of linguistics and structuralism, but can also be foreseen in Freud´s theory. In the well-known letter of Freud to Wilhelm Fliess of 1896, he used the term “failure of translation [to refer to] what is known clinically as ‘repression’” 12 (“Letter 52” 208). I will consider a brief analysis of the psychoanalytical work of Freud and Lacan only insofar as to understand the possible link of language—and consequently translation—with psychoanalysis. This will help us understanding the claim that every language is “foreign” when one considers the constitution of an identity. The psychoanalytical theory also provides us the necessary tools to understand Beckett´s proposition of dismantling the traditional logic of discourse to create another logic that, analogically, follows the very same principles of the language of the unconscious as Sigmund Freud has proposed.
Objective: To compare the cognitive performance of elderly practitioners of weight training and hydro-gymnastics after a training session. Method: A quantitative descriptive cross-sectional study with 20 active people between 60 and 75 years old participants of a gym in Teresina. Their memory was evaluated through the Game of Memory, Verbal Fluency and TrailMaking Test A and B before and after the training sessions. The analysis was performed using SPSS 15.0. Results: The Weight Training group showed better results in post-game tests in memory (GM: -36.6s + 24.15; GH: -28.3S + 18.64), verbal fluency (GM: 5.1 words + 2.88; GH: 2.7 + 4.03 words) and A TrailMaking Test (GM: -23.4 + 20.28s; GH: -22.4 + 16.49 s), while the Hydro-gymnastics group presented in the Track B (GM: -17.7s + 11.75; GH: - 21.8s + 17.47). Conclusion: It was evident that a weight-training workout shows the most relevant improvements in cognitive responses in the elderly. Descriptors: Cognition, Aging, Physical exercise.
Neuroimaging studies have identified the effectsof APOE ε4 allele on both brain structure and metabolism[21–24]. APOE ε4 carriers may present gray matter reductions, decreased rest- ing glucose metabolism in brain regions with potential AD pathology, including the posterior cingulate, parietal, temporal, and prefrontal cortices, and also increased task-related activation in relative regions. Recently, altered DMN connectivity has been reported in APOE ε4 carriers. Westlye and colleagues reported increased functional connectivity between hippocampus and the posterior DMN in APOE4 carriers , and their whole-brain analysis revealed similar effects in the PCC, parietal, and parahippocampal regions. These findings remained significant even hippocampal volumes and gray matter maps were considered as covariates. Another case- control study used seed-based voxel-wise connectivity analysis, and found increased connectiv- ity in the cingulate gyrus, medial prefrontal cortex, bilateral insular cortex, striatum, and thala- mus in ε4 carriers when ACC was considered as a seed region. They also found decreased connectivity between PCC and the posterior DMN in APOE4 carriers. Fleisher et al reported increased DMN connectivity in the medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and temporal lobe structures in cognitively normal APOE4 carriers, with posterior cingulate/retrospenial region (pC/rsp) as a seed region. Sheline et al presented a study in 2010 using bilateral pre- cuneus as a seed region, and suggested that most of DMN regions, particularly bilateral hippo- campus and left parahippocampus, had decreased connectivity with precuneus in carriers. Not only in the old population, similar findings were presented in young APOE4 carriers. Filip- pini et al found increased DMN coactivation (including retrosplenial, medial temporal, and medial-prefrontal cortical areas) in APOE4 young carriers (20–35 years). Later, Dennis and colleagues replicated this findings. This suggested a long-term effect of APOE4 on DMN connectivity, even decades before the onset of AD. Our results were consistent with these studies though there was some differences in regions involved.
48 to deal with bilingualism and bilinguals in a classroom context. In this respect, there is a huge mismatch between theory and practice. Linguists claim that bilingualism is beneficial, but this idea is not reflected in practice, because one can hardly find any practitioners who have worked out teaching-learning strategies to benefit from bilingualism. As a proof of everything mentioned above, it has to be mentioned that on deciding to write about bilingual education I was sure that I would be able to find some papers where they would talk about schools where they teach bilinguals (as in my case), with a description of techniques, teaching and learning strategies they are using there, and so on. Instead, I came up with the descriptions of schools where to foster bilingualism and bilinguals is set as the objective. It would be unfair to state that all the papers about bilingualism are of no pedagogic value, but it was the feeling that they were written by linguists for linguists, with texts full of terminology and endless sentences which an ordinary teacher in practice (like myself) has to read at least twice to find a grain of sense in it. To change this situation, we should encourage practitioners to share their experiences in terms of teaching bilinguals (I am sure that my school is not unique and a lot of teachers are working in a similar context). To do this is possible by means of a special web site, where teachers could offer their ideas about how they manage bilingual classrooms, to share thoughts about bilingualism not from the scientific point of view but from a point of view of a person who is close to the classroom context. On the same site they could also describe the problems which they run into when dealing with bilinguals and suggest possible ways out. To my mind, such a web site could compensate for the lack of practical material connected with this subject.
determines the result of their action. 7 A systematic review addressed the influence of neurotrophic factors on synaptic plasticity and their changes in patients with MDD. 8 Much research has been conducted to determine the association of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) with depres- sion; in fact, BDNF was the neurotrophic factor most widely investigated in the last decade. In mammals, it is respon- sible for regulating axonal growth and synaptic plasticity in neuronal networks involved in depressive behaviors, among other functions. 9 Beta-nerve growth factor (beta-NGF) is a neurotrophic factor structurally related to BDNF. Its signaling is widespread and plays an important role in the development and preservation of sensory and sympathetic systems. 10 The glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) influ- ences the maintenance of serotonergic neurons and glial cells, as well as regulates, dopaminergic, noradrenergic, and GABAergic routes. 9 Specifically, this factor is respon- sible for promoting the uptake of dopamine and the survival and morphological differentiation of neurons, 10 effects which may influence the clinical manifestations of MDD. Research has shown that levels of these factors in peripheral blood are reduced in patients with depressive disorders. 9
Exposure to stressful events early in life increases the risk of developing neuropsychiatric disorders later in life , , , . Early life stressors can take a variety of forms and may be experienced in different phases of life (prenatal, early postnatal or juvenile). There is a wealth of information on the effectsof stress in the perinatal phase, but comparatively little research on the juvenile phase (the childhood or pre-pubertal phase). The juvenile brain is predicted to be very sensitive to stress, as it is a ‘brain in transition’, undergoing dramatic changes in structure and function as it matures into an adult brain . Research to date suggests that stress experienced in this phase is of great importance, as it is associated with the development of disorders such as depression, anxiety and PTSD, as well as impulse control disorders and suicide attempts later in life , , . In animal models, juvenile stress causes lasting changes in the adult animal, increasing anxiety behaviour and altering fear conditioning, learning and memory , , , , neural gene expression (e.g. L1 and GABAa receptors , ), and increasing basal corticosterone levels and reducing neurogenesis in females only . Stress in the juvenile phase also affects the animals as juveniles, remodeling cortical areas involved in emotional-type behaviours . Whilst effects on behaviour are observed when animals are given stress in adult- hood, they are significantly exacerbated when stress is given in juvenility , , indicating that certain changes observed in
The unexpected aspect of the current results is that one apparently unrelated non-motor task, performed after the termination of the training experience, can effectively enhance motor memory consolidation, while another apparently unrelated non-motor task, can interfere with motor memory consolidation. Overall, these results constitute a challenge to the view that interference (or enhancement) of memory consolidation must necessarily be ascribed to a competition (or cooperation) in neuronal resources shared between the trained and the subsequent tasks. It has been proposed [2,6,21,25–27] that interference may occur when both initial training and subsequent experience activate overlapping neural representations in specific brain areas. The need to adapt to the demands of the second task may eliminate or supersede the settings of the initial task with an advantage for the most recent experience For example, in line with the synaptic- tagging hypothesis (e.g., ), Balas et al.  proposed that when the initial and subsequent experiences activate different groups of synapses at a putative shared neuronal level, e.g., within the population of neurons active in the performance of both tasks, there are possible grounds for competition. Thus, memory consolidation processes triggered by the activation of a subset of synapses subserving the initial task may be taken over by the activation of a different subset of synapses subserving the subsequent (interference) experience. The modification of the former group of synapses, representing the long-term memory of the initial task, may be slowed or left incomplete [28,29]. A similar line of thought suggests that if the two experiences (initial learning and subsequent experience) activate the same set of synapses or contribute together to the consolidation process, there are possible grounds for enhancement. Alternatively, as proposed by Albouy et al.  and Brown and Robertson [8,9], enhancement or interference reflect indirect effects, that is, interactions between two systems, rather than shared neuronal resources. It may be the case, that the subsequent experience indirectly affects the ongoing memory consolidation process by recruiting or inhibiting a competing memory consolidation system (the declarative memory system). However, the current results indicate that competition between consolidation processes in two memory systems may not be the crucial factor, because neither the MATH nor the SEM conditions required novel
The majority of IG patients maintained their respective weight gain between the end-of-group and follow-up, except those who were discharged immediately following the end-of-group. Despite presenting worse results in comparison with those observed in the CG in terms of regained weight, the reduction of ED symptoms assessed by the EDE-Q was more expressive (in descriptive terms) in the IG, while showing a statistical difference in the comparison between the groups in the subscale which assesses restraint, in the follow-up. A similar result, with regard to the reduction of symptoms, was presented in a study 23 that compared CBT with Psychodynamic
Impulsivity may lead to several unfortunate consequences and maladaptive be- haviors for clinical and non-clinical people. Although many studies discuss the negative impact of it, few of them emphasize the relationship between cognitive im- pulsiveness and decision making in non-clinical subjects. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectsofcognitive impulsiveness on decision making and explore the strategies used by participants to solve problems. For this purpose, we apply two measures of impulsivity: the self-report Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) and the performance based Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT).This is the first study that compares self-report impulsiveness based on BIS-11 and performance-based reflec- tivity measured by CRT. Moreover, due to the fact that we apply the instruments on pen and paper, it is possible to evaluate participants’ reasoning processes em- ployed to answer CRT questions. These reasoning processes are related to the role of Executive Functions for decision making and its relationship with impulsiveness. In practical terms, we observed participants’ strategies by analyzing their calcula- tion expressions and data organization to answer CRT questions in the paper sheet. The sample consists of 191 non-clinical adults, professionals, and undergraduate students from the fields of business, management, and accounting. Results show that cognitive impulsiveness may negatively affect performance. Moreover, there is no difference in strategies used by impulsive and non-impulsive people during a de- cision making, and who calculate in the paper sheet perform better. Finally, people who inhibit their immediate answers also perform better during a decision making.
study aims to evaluate the effectsof a multidisciplinary rehabilitation program on cognitive ability, quality of life and depression symptoms in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and cognitive impairment without dementia (CIND). Methods: Ninety-seven older adults were recruited to the present study. Of these, 70 patients had mild AD and were allocated into experimental (n = 54) or control (n = 16) groups. Two additional active comparison groups were constituted with patients with moderate AD (n = 13) or with CIND (n = 14) who also received the intervention. The multidisciplinary rehabilitation program lasted for 12 weeks and was composed by sessions of memory training, recreational activities, verbal expression and writing, physical therapy and physical training, delivered in two weekly 6-hour sessions. Results: As compared to controls, mild AD patients who received the intervention had improvements in cognition (p = 0.021) and quality of life (p = 0.003), along with a reduction in depressive symptoms (p < 0.001). As compared to baseline, CIND patients displayed at the end of the intervention improvements in cognition (p = 0.005) and depressive symptoms (p = 0.011). No such benefits were found among patients with moderate AD. Discussion: This multidisciplinary rehabilitation program was beneficial for patients with mild AD and CIND. However, patients with moderate dementia did not benefit from the intervention.