The anthocyanin synthesis regulation is directly related with the activity of di ﬀerent R2R3-MYB transcription factors, some of which are located in two well-described grape color loci. The recently identiﬁed ‘vegetative color locus’ ( Matus et al., 2017 ) harbors MYBA5/6 and MYBA7 genes (Chr. 14), while the ‘berry color locus’ comprises MYBA1 and MYBA2 genes (Chr. 2) ( Walker et al., 2007 ), two essential genes that determine berry skin colorvariation ( Fournier-Level et al., 2010 ). Both loci share the regulation of late biosynthetic and modi ﬁcation/ transport-related genes, such as UDP-glucose: ﬂavonoid 3-O-glucosyl- transferase (UFGT) and anthocyanin 3-O-glucoside-6″eO-acyl- transferase (3AT) ( Matus et al., 2017 ; Rinaldo et al., 2015 ; Walker et al., 2007 ). However, the synthesis of speci ﬁc anthocyanins is also aﬀected by the expression of early biosynthetic genes that encode ﬂavonoid 3′- hydroxylase (F3 ′H) and ﬂavonoid 3′, 5′-hydroxylase (F3′5′H). These enzymes competitively control the synthesis of di- and trihydroxylated anthocyanins, respectively, whereas anthocyanin O-methyltransferase (AOMT) methylates anthocyanins of both groups. Usually F3 ′5′H ac- tivity prevails over F3 ′H, and the products of ﬂavonoid hydroxylases are predominately channeled into the branch of the pathway involved in the biosynthesis of delphinidin (blue purplish derivatives) at the expense of those involved in the synthesis of cyanidin (reddish deri- vatives) ( Castellarin et al., 2006 ; Castellarin and Di Gaspero, 2007 ; Jeong et al., 2006 ). In contrast with the well-characterized MYBA1 gene, which promotes the synthesis of larger quantities of trihy- droxylated anthocyanins, the vegetative color locus genes (MYBA6/7) are not able to activate the trihydroxylated branch due to the lack of a C-terminal protein motif that is present on MYBA1 and related genes of the berry color locus. Consequently, only dihydroxylated anthocyanins with a reddish hue are almost exclusively
(or crypsis or camouflage), communication (in which color patterns should be as conspicuous as possible), and regulation of physiological processes (e.g., by affecting temperature exchange with the environment) (Caro, 2005, and references therein). In relation with these functions, there are alternative explanations for sex differences in pelage color. In the case of A. budini, the difference is probably related to differential physiological or ecological fitness of individuals across the range of pelage colors, or to pelage color as a visual signal to conspecifics of (or a consequence of) optimal or suboptimal health (Davis and Castleberry, 2010 , and references therein). Whatever the cause, adult female coloration was more uniform than that of adult males, a pattern exactly opposite to that reported by Rios and Álvarez-Castañeda (2012). Given that A. budini adult female dispersal is supposed to be less common (in analogy with the statement by Rios and Álvarez-Castañeda, 2012 ), males should be more vulnerable to above ground predation (because they spend more time on the surface searching for territories), and therefore extreme colors should be more vulnerable to predation (Rios and Álvarez-Castañeda, 2012). Prima facie, our result seems to contradict this hypothesis of stronger negative selection on males. However, if we consider that Akodon budini inhabits between 1000 and 2800m (Jayat et al., 2006 ), with a great environment diversity at micro-scale, maybe the wider male coat color range is related to male individuals phenotypically adapted to this micro-scale diversity, even in macro-scale homogeneous landscapes. Following Lai et al. (2008), who state that precipitation determines the environmental background color, male individuals moving between micro environments with higher precipitations (and therefore higher vegetation density and darker soil color, i.e., darker background color) and micro environments with lower precipitations (and therefore lower vegetation density and lighter soil color, i.e., lighter background color) are continuously subjected to constantly changing selection pressures and may therefore find fit with the environment both at one end of the range (the darker) as at the other (the lighter) or somewhere in between throughout the all range of colorvariation.
A marine biological invasion is a natural process accelerated by human activities, and the crab Charybdis hellerii is an example of a globally widespread invasive species. This study evaluated colorvariation in C. hellerii and its relationship to the sex, size and sexual maturity of these crabs, and compared the eficiency of a freeware digital image-editing program with a commercially available program. The color of the individuals was analyzed using standardized digital images. The color pattern varied signiicantly with size; smaller and immature individuals were darker than larger and mature ones. The female abdomen changed in morphology and color with sexual maturity, becoming wider and orange-colored. There was no statistical difference in the color values between males and females and immature males did not show morphological or color differences in their abdomen. This study highlights the possible relationships of the color and physiological state of the reproductive system, which could help in future studies of behavior, avoiding the need to dissect and/or remove individuals from nature for assessment of sexual maturity. The freeware program showed the same eficiency in digital image analysis as a widely known commercial program.
crabs were placed on a surface for photographic recording of the body parts: cephalothorax, chelipeds, abdomen and pereiopods using a digital camera installed on a photographic table. Images were converted to the spectrum of red, green, blue and also of them combined (RGB). The values of each spectrum revealed that the colorvariation of the cephalothorax and chelipeds were different between adults and juveniles. The abdomen and pereiopods showed colorvariation in both sexes and at developmental stages. The pattern of colorvariation observed in juveniles ranged from light to dark brown and adults are from orange to intense red. The change in color of the cephalothorax and chelipeds could be used as a character to determine the onset of sexual maturity. The high colorvariation of the abdomen and pereiopods in both sexes and at developmental stages, though, indicates individual variation which probably is associated with other factors, such as molt stage or even the quality of food available.
Panaqolus nix shows a remarkable plasticity in coloration: the base coloration can be uniformly yellowish- white, pale brown, or dark brown to nearly black. Specimens that showed a light coloration when collected, changed to a nearly black coloration when in an aquarium. Panaqolus nix showed a color pattern very different from most of its congeners that present a color pattern with bands or saddles. The other Panaqolus species with uniform coloration are P. nocturnus, from Peru, Río Marañon basin, and large P. purusiensis, from upper rio Purus. Panaqolus nix is the first species of the genus reported to be caught using trawl nets and also the first that seems to have a preference for deeper habitats. Besides, P. nix is the species in the genus with the smallest eyes what might be related to its capacity to explore deeper benthonic habitats. The other Panaqolus species with small orbits is P. purusiensis. However, P. nix has a more elongate body and shallower caudal peduncle depth, whereas P. purusiensis present a more robust and truncate body form. Schaefer & Stewart (1993) called attention for the reduced number of vertebrae in the holotype of P. purusiensis (26 vs.
black) to 100 (pure white). Coordinate a* identifies chromaticity in the green‑red axis, where positive values indicate red color and negative values mean a green shade. Coordinate b* defines chromaticity in the blue‑yellow axis, where yellow is positive and blue is negative. [14,15] Differences in L*, a*, and b* measures between the evaluation times (T1–T0) in each group (blue pearl [BP], colorless, white pearl [WP], and pearl) indicated a colorvariation in three coordinates (ΔL, Δa, and Δb). Calculation of total color change of esthetic elastomeric ligatures was performed using the CIELAB (ΔE ab ) and the CIEDE2000 (ΔE 2000 ) equations.  Reproducibility testing was carried out on repeated measures taken by one observer in 20 samples that were randomly selected, after a 7‑day interval. Visual evaluations of color were performed in a 1366 × 768 pixel screen, which displayed samples from the four elastomeric ligatures groups as received (T0) and after 30 days in situ (T1) [Figure 2]. Twelve observers (four orthodontists, four graduate orthodontic students, and four undergraduate students) ranked the elastomeric ligature groups in a one to four sequence, where the smallest color change was the rank one and the greatest color change was rank four.
Color pattern is an important character in the systematics and alpha-taxonomy of electric fishes of the genus Gymnotus. This paper presents evidence of colorvariation in populations of G. pantanal found in the streams Jacutinga and Pinheirinho, in the upper Paraná River basin, southern Brazil. Color variations were corroborated for morphological and cytogenetic data. Our results show the importance of integrating morphologic and cytogenetic data in the taxonomy of the Gymnotus species. O padrão de colorido é um caráter muito importante na sistemática e alfa taxonomia de espécies do gênero Gymnotus. O objetivo deste trabalho foi apresentar evidências de variação no padrão de colorido em populações locais de Gymnotus pantanal encontrados nos córregos Jacutinga e Pinheirinho, bacia do alto rio Paraná, sul do Brasil. A variação no padrão de colorido foi corroborada por dados morfológicos e citogenéticos. Nossos resultados demonstram a importância da integração de dados morfológicos e citogenéticos na taxonomia de espécies de Gymnotus.
AN2 function (Quattrocchio et al., 1999; Hoballah et al., 2007); in Mimulus, gains of pigmentation in petal lobes are attributable to the evolution of R2R3-MYB TF (Cooley et al., 2011); in Antirrhinum, variation in three R2R3-MYB regulatory genes might account for the flower colorvariation among species (Schwinn et al., 2006); in Oncidium, the red/yellow color of floral lip depends on whether OgMYB1 is expressed or not (Chiou & Yeh, 2008); in apple, differential expression of MYB10 led to differences in anthocyanin levels between red and green strips (Telias et al., 2011); in gentian, the loss of functional GtMYB3 expression leads to the absence of anthocyanin in white flower (Nakatsuka et al., 2008). In this study, a striking difference in MYB5 gene was detected in two lotus species. In all populations of N. lutea with yellow flowers, MYB5 is a nonfunctional gene; however, in all populations of N. nucifera with red-flowers, MYB5 is a functional gene. It indicated a relationship between flower color difference and loss of functional MYB5 gene.
(1953), who studied a large sample of Vonones sayi (Simon, 1879), first documented colorvariation in cosmetids. The intraspecifc variation they recorded ranged from a small patch only on sulcus I to a wide white stripe on sulci I and IV, a pair of stripes on sulci II-III and a median stripe from sulcus I to IV (interrupted twice). They also observed a wide colorvariation in Cynorta casa Goodnight & Goodnight, 1953 and in Erginulus clavotibialis (Cambridge, 1905) (G OODNIGHT & G OODNIGHT 1976). However, a more comprehensive study, including genitalia and external features, on the two species mentioned above, should be conducted to justify that they belong in same species. G OODNIGHT & G OODNIGHT (1976) based their conclusion on au-
Alfred Hitchcock provides another opportunity to comment on the signifying use of color in films. In ' (1958) the colors are chosen in such a way that they make a contrast between the interior (browns, oranges, yellows) and exterior scenes (greens and blues). Inside the apartments of Scottie (James Stewart) and Midge (Barbara Bel Geddes), for instance, soft browns, oranges and yellows predominate. Important points in the film are intensified by Hitchcock with the introduction of the color red. When Scottie first sees Madeleine (Kim Novak) in the restaurant, the walls are full red. Again, when Scottie takes Madeleine to his apartment after her attempted 'suicide', the orange firelight gives a strong effect to the scene. In the exterior scenes, the color green predominates. It is present in the scene in front of the art museum which Madeleine frequents and in the Redwood Forest where Madeleine goes with Scottie.
In this section, proposed model devised using color moments is presented . Given a video containing many frames, compute the color moments for each frame and the Euclidean distance measure is used to measure the similarity between the frames. Based on the preset threshold, a shot is said to be detected if the dissimilarity between the frames is above the threshold. It is a well known fact that the color distributions of a frame is represented by its color moments and probability distribution is uniquely characterized by its moments, we compute the color moments of a frame to capture the characteristics of a frame and construct a feature vector for each frame as discussed in the following.
On the other hand, regarding the Travel brands, results showed that differences arise only when comparing both Warm or Neutral to Cool. No difference was found between the Means of Warm and Neutral colors. This finding may be noticed by looking at random Travel profiles, that include several photos of nature that usually feature Blue (watery elements; sky) and Greenish tones (leaves; mountains; natural landscapes) and can justify the higher interaction in this category. Finally, concerning the Food category, a third scenario is visible: Color Temperature showed no impact on Engagement Rates. This outcome shows the severe impact of Product Category on the relationship between the other two categories. The fact that this category has a weaker presence on Instagram may indicate that colors have a stronger impact on engagement for larger brands on the platform.
Screening for the presence of CVD can be made by using simple color vision tests like pseudoisochromatic plates (e.g. Ishihara test, Hardy-Rand-Rittler (HRR) test, etc.) and arrangement tests (e.g. Farnsworth Munsell 100 hue test, Panel D-15 (D15), etc.) . But for the quantification of deficiency severity more complex tests like the Color Assessment & Diagnosis (CAD) test and Cambridge Color Test (CCT) are recommended. The gold standard for diagnosing hereditary CVD is the anomaloscopy because it allows to perfectly distinguish between dichromacy and severe anomalous trichromacy . Anomaloscopy consists on a color matching test of monochromatic lights that lie on CVD confusion lines. Unlike normal and anomalous trichromats that have unique match, the dichromats present a fully extended matching range. In addition, there are also matching differences within the types of trichromats and within the types of dichromats, which makes the different types of trichromacy and dichromacy easily distinguishable by anomaloscopy.
scale of order L QCD by stretching color strings between the partons and spectators. The strings subsequently hadronize. Rapidity gaps appear when a cluster of dynamical partons, i.e. interacting partons or spectators, form a color singlet ~see Fig. 1b!. As before, the probability for forming a color sin- glet cluster is inversely proportional to its color multiplicity. In this scenario we expect that quark-quark processes pos- sess a higher probability to form rapidity gaps than gluon- gluon reactions, because of their smaller color multiplicity. This simple idea is at variance with the two-gluon exchange model for producing gaps, in which F QQ ,F GG , where
and observing reproductive behaviors (nest building and mouthbrooding) up to repro- duction or up to 10 days after the first nest construction. Environmental color was im- posed by covering each aquarium (60 x 60 x 40 cm; 100 liters) with white or blue cello- phane and controlling light intensity to a narrow range from 100 to 120 Lux by adding cellophane layers. The bottom of the aquaria consisted of a 2-cm gravel layer to be used for nest building (a male activity in this species). Feeding, photoperiod and water quality were as in the holding condition. The experiment was carried out from June to November, 2002, and each replicate was run at the same time for the blue and white conditions.
In this paper, we present a new efficient method for accurate eye localization in color images. Our algorithm is based on robust feature filtering and explicit geometric clustering. This combination enhances localization speed and robustness by relying on geometric relationships between pixel clusters instead of other properties extracted from the image. Furthermore, its efficiency makes it well suited for implementation in low performance devices, such as cell phones and PDAs. Experiments were conducted with 1532 face images taken from a CCD camera under (real-life) varying illumination, pose and expression conditions. The proposed method presented a localization rate of 94.125% under such circumstances.
Figure 1. Schematic illustration of the illusion. The mask consists of a regular array of colored disks and the target of equally colored windmill patterns in the same places (top). When the target and mask images are displayed in alternation, observers perceive the windmills as desaturated in color and ultimately uniformly black, while the color of the disks remains unchanged (bottom).