Concept mapping is a method of graphical learning that can be beneficial as a study method for concept linking and organization. Conceptmaps, which provide an elegant, easily understood representation of an expert‘s domain knowledge, are tools for organizing and representing knowledge. These tools have been used in educational environments to better connect the relationships among theory and practice as well as among other concepts covered in a course. They also help the learners build relationships between previous knowledge and newly introduced concepts, encouraging meaningful learning rather than rote learning.
Conceptmaps constitute a graphical representation tool used to describe the understanding of the meaning of a set of concepts, related to a particular subject. That is one of the reasons why their inclusion in the training courses in the context of the biomedical area is extremely relevant. The objective of this study is to analyze conceptmaps on cestodes, which were prepared by students in classes of human parasitology. The elaboration of this mapping was proposed to answer the following focal question: "How do cestodes affect human health?”The challenge was proposed to groups of medical students, along the lessons of the components, such asMedical Parasitology Theory and Medical Parasitology Practice.The instructions on the activity were given by an oral presentation and includedthe orientation to download the CmapTools software, the reading of a basic text on conceptmaps and Parasitology books; as well as the technical and operational details necessary for the proper and accurate preparation of the maps. The file with the information was also made available to students. Ten conceptmaps elaborated by the groups of students were analyzed. The analysis took as parameters, the structure of the map and the content related to the focal question. Categories were created following the instructions given and the content of the answers; the data were systematized using Microsoft Excel software, version 2010.The most common structure of the maps was radial, but with many occurrences of mixed structures (radial + linear; radial + network), once the maps became extensive; in part, because each parasite is approached in particular.The diseases most frequently mentioned by cestodes are best known through textbooks, such as teniasis and cysticercosis; or those that occur frequently in our environment, such as hymenolepiasis. Deviations from the focal issue occurred with high frequency and mainly addressed risks and prevention measures. The addition of correct and important concepts for the enrichment of the response wasaddressed here as extrapolation, and referred to cysticercosis and hydatidosis. There were few concept errors, with omissions being the main impediment to achieving full response. It is noteworthy that most of the analyzed conceptmaps had an adequate response to the focal question.
The present article investigates the production of conceptmaps focusing on little-known animal groups, aiming to reflect on the results brought about by the frequent use of these graphic tools in undergraduate Zoology teaching activities over four consecutive years. In addition to the analysis of publications dealing with experience reports developed by students and their supervisors, some reflections were considered by the authors now engaged in explaining this construction. It is emphasized that the representativeness of the elaborated works, coming from the group of academics linked to teaching projects, exposes evidence to the engagement in the elaboration of conceptual maps and their improvement. The systematization of contents on the biology, phylogeny, and taxonomy of the organisms under study, highlighted in the analyzed writings, suggest that conceptmaps may represent powerful didactic tools for divulging knowledge about biodiversity, thus empowering those involved in the teaching-learning process. By expanding the number of explanatory concept map diagrams dealing with diverse zoological groups, along with explanations on the theoretical underpinnings and methods of concept mapping, one envisages pathways for the use of this instigating technique in research and learning.
Conceptmaps can be an important measure of knowledge structure in medical education, but there is limited information regarding the validity and reliability of CMs assessment scores (Schmidt, 2004). Since the introduction of CM in the pathophysiology course at NMS, no scoring methodology has been used and the assessment is still currently based on a qualitative analysis of the various components of each map. The current project aims to address this issue within the context of a whole course involving tutorial sessions to around 190 students, divided into 18 tutorial groups and accompanied by 14 tutors for a whole semester.
Based on the understanding that knowing the interests of students makes it possible for teachers to improve their pedagogical practices, this work aimed to demonstrate motivational aspects of undergraduate students in Biological Sciences, from a Federal University located in the Northeast region of Brazil, for an experience involving the use of conceptmaps (Cmaps) to learn about invertebrate taxa. The research involved a total of 59 new entrants in the first half of 2017, covering two classes (daytime and nightime) of the discipline of Zoology. We used for investigation, documents originating from: activities carried out in didactic sequence, questionnaires elaborated and applied and annotations made throughout the process. It was verified that the activities carried out, involving Cmaps, in group and individual, indicated positive aspects for: I) the receptivity to the proposal; II) the involvement with the technique of mapping concepts and, III) the self-evaluative concept. The experience, using the Cmaps, showed traces of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and confirmed the didactic-pedagogical potential of this tool to mobilize the teaching process, promote learning situations and access higher critical thinking.
Recently, attempts have made to reduce this diﬃculty using online conceptmaps with a standard format, designed by experts. However, this solution is mostly be applied to the ﬁnal assessment of a large number of students and does not reﬂect the learning process that occurs, for example, during tutorial sessions or self-learning periods. Another online methodology used testable incomplete CMs, which proved to be successful to improve the learning of pathogenesis of renal and hepatic disease, but the study was performed in a small group of voluntary students. Very recently, a web-enabled mechanistic diagramming methodology was applied to two consecutive classes of 150 students, from a medical school with a fully integrated curriculum (Ferguson et al., 2018). This approach used 16 mechanistic diagrams, developed by experts, and the students had to develop, individually, their own diagrams based on a clinical case and were allowed to use all the materials displayed in the reference map constructed by the expert. The students received one point for each correct matching between their maps and the expert maps in the
In promoting more self-regulated learning, conceptmaps contribute to "the acquisition, storage and / or use of information" (Boruchovitch, 1999, p. 3). By allowing students to understand the meaning of content, the maps enable them to relate the new information to their prior knowledge. Also, during their preparation and comparison with other productions, maps favor the students’ continuous assessment of what they are performing and, as a result, the students’ efforts to learn what has just been enunciated as a possibility. This way, they favor the occurrence of a "deep processing" or learning by restructuring, which is the mental activity that leads to the "construction of new knowledge in the form of new propositions," in such a way that
The conceptual map is considered a strategy that enables the development of critical thinking skills. The aim of this article was to evaluate conceptmaps produced by students to obtain an understanding of research projects. This is an experience report based on the Special Topic: concept map of the Graduate Program in Nursing/Federal University of Paraiba in February/2012. Methodology comprised interactive reading of conceptmaps, installation and use of Cmap Tools® software and construction of conceptmaps. Concept evaluation included coherence, propositions, clarity of ideas and logical relation between concepts. This evaluation of maps revealed consistency among concepts, significant relationships, clarity of ideas and logical relationship between the stages of a research project. Results showed that the concept map is a valid strategy to evaluate the learning-teaching process and can be used for education, research and reflection in the nursing practice.
In the context of words like gezellig, Harré speaks of quasi-emotions. Being bound to time and place makes this type of words outstandingly context bound.12 To compare certain concepts between several languages, the explanation of competent users of these languages is absolutely necessary. Also, Harré uses the information of users of Dutch for a further explanation of the concept ‘gezellig.’ And yet it seems that only a slight feeling for languages suffices for one to notice that the concept does not fit —that the meanings of seemingly the same word are not the same in various languages. Cees Schuyt mentions the reaction of the American sociologist, Alfred Schütz, to the question whether or not he had become happy in the end, twenty years after fleeing from his homeland. Schütz replied: "I am happy, aber glücklich bin ich nicht," and while we think we understand what Schütz meant to say, while we will never have the command of both languages as native speakers (Schuyt, 1995, p.24).
What then is Europe, and how did it come to be what it is? Bismarck said: ‘Whoever speaks of Europe is always wrong.’ He meant that Europe has no status as a political entity. It looks as if he was wrong. But what precise status does it have? Our confusion about the European Union is fed in part by a lack of clarity about the concept of Europe itself. How and when did this concept emerge? Of course there is not one single such concept or idea. And there is no one certain and satisfying answer to the question. But let me give you a few historical references. Don’t worry – I shall soon move on to questions of a more contemporary significance.
Matters such as justice, values, reasonableness, and argumentative procedures are frequent in Perelman’s works. When thinking of them jointly, we raise some questions about the concept of justice, the field of argumentation, and the relationships between argumentation and the concept of justice. These questions seem to dialogue with studies on discourse, allowing us to broaden our vision and to search for new relationships between different theoretical points of view about the same object. In this way, the paper intends to reflect upon the underlying dialogic vision in the concept of justice proposed by Perelman, which is present in legal discourse. Thus, the present text is divided into three parts, besides this introduction and the final considerations: The first one broaches the concept of justice for Perelman; the second part deals with the concept of argumentation, attempting to situate its field and to emphasize how this concept supports that of justice; and the third part attempts to show the ethical and dialogic aspects of legal argumentation according to Perelman ’s approach.
From the conventional equations of the gravitational field, the point-mass concept has in this investigation been elaborated in terms of a revised renormalisation procedure. In a first application a black hole configuration of the Schwarzschild type has been studied, in which there is no electric charge and no angular momentum. A gravitational collapse in respect to the nuclear binding energy is then found to occur at a critical point mass in the range of about 0.4 to 90 solar masses. This result becomes modified if the collapse is related to other re- strictions such as to the formation of “primordial black holes” growing by the accretion of radiation and matter , or to phenomena such as a strong centrifugal force.
For Bomfim (1999) emotions and feelings mediate the identity of the subjects, the interaction with space and others, as is the uniqueness of everyday history that it constructs, and moreover, is able to reveal how the subjects know and act on the city (Bomfim, 2003a). Sawaia (2011) understands the power of action as the regulative principle that allows the individual to act on his reality, towards his emancipation. Thus, Bomfim (1999) argues that affectivity gives an understanding of the conflict be- tween the micro and macro social, reestablishing the dialectical relationship between them, breaking the dichotomy between internal and external, subjective and objective, thus decoupling affection, activity and consciousness about the environment perpetu- ates the alienation of subject and attenuates the existing relations of domination in society. On the other hand, according to Sawaia (2011), the power of suffering, the passion generated by sadness, driven by bondage and passivity, since it becomes sub- ject to another at will. We would state, based on these considerations, that spaces and places can be emancipatory or maintainers of bondage and the suffering of individu- als, and we propose affective maps as a way of consistent research about how subjects interact with the spaces, such as affecting with them, because we agree with Vygotsky (1998) that affection can only be understood within the dynamics of human life as a whole, in addition to not always being the same, but differing according to the level of development of the subject. Therefore, the Esteem for the Place (Bomfim, 2010; 2013), it is worth mentioning, concerns affective evaluations, with a positive and/or negative background, which a person feels from their environment, and it is, in turn, expressed by feelings and emotions through projected images, representations and vi- sions of a world.
Drug interaction is an increasingly important cause of adverse reactions (ADR), and is the modification of the effect of one drug (object) by the prior or concomitant administration of another drug (precipitant drug). Drug interaction may either enhance or diminish the intended effect of one or both drugs. For example severe haemorrhage may occur if warfarin and salicylates (asprin) are combined. Precipitant drugs modify the object drug's absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion or actual clinical effect. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics and, in particular, rifampin are common precipitant drugs prescribed in primary care practice. Drugs with a narrow therapeutic range or low therapeutic index are more likely to be the objects for serious drug interactions. Object drugs in common use include warfarin, fluoroquinolones, antiepileptic drugs, oral contraceptives, cisapride and 3-hydroxy-3- methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors. Many other drugs, act as precipitants or objects, and a number of drugs act as both. The aim of present review is to throw light on the concept of drug interaction.
These attribute maps were validated qualitatively with petro- physical maps and well logs analysis associated to structural context established in seismic interpretation. It shows the impor- tance of a well-known geological review to support the mathe- matical relation presented in this paper. These attributes empha- sized a central structural high that was highlighted in petrophys- ical maps because it shows high porosity ( >20%) and low den- sity ( <2.35 g/cm 3 ) delimited by faults to the Northeast, Southeast
addition, we numerically solve the dynamics for a moving stimulus in either environment A or B. We use this as a reference for computing, at each time step, the correlation coefficient between the network activity during the morphing protocol and the activity in the fixed environment. The transition is sharpest for the storage of two slightly correlated maps. Note that similar results would be obtained by testing the network separately in each environment of the sequence (see e.g. ). The sharp transition is maintained when increasing the amplitude of the external tuned input, because a small tilt in the tuned input towards either map A or B is sufficient to generate the dynamical pattern separation described in the previous Section. The transition in the cylinder regime occurs few seconds later than the one occurring in the double ring regime, which in turn happens in the middle of the morphing ( T