The constructionwaste have an important role in the whole of solid urban wasteand can reach up to twice the mass of the solid household waste. These data show the need for adequate and specific management for this type of waste, especially in cities with expansion dynamics, demonstrating the need for public policies aimed at them. Thus, for this work, bibliographic research was used with data collection in literature referring to the management of solid waste in the municipality of Tucuruí-PA, in the national information system on solid wastemanagement (SINIR), which is one of the instruments of the national solid waste policy (PNRS) and having as its main source of information the municipal plan for the integrated management of solid waste in Tucuruí (PGRSU), where it was possible to obtain data on the generation and treatment of waste generated in the city under study . In general, the results emphasize the poor management of the constructionanddemolitionwaste (CDW), and point out some actions that can induce the civil construction sector to adopt practices that improve the socio-environmental performance from the project to the effective construction in order to minimize generation, to promote segregation at the generating source, the reuse, recycling, treatment and the environmentally appropriate final disposal of civil constructionwaste (CCW) according to Resolution No. 307/2002 of the National Environment Council (CONAMA).
Figure 6 presents our candidate DEA models: a sustainability model (a), and an efficiency model (b). The sustainability model (a) measures the efficiency of a country (or subnational entity or company) for generating construction GVA and maximizing the CDW Recovery Rate (CDWRR) while at the same time reducing Non-Hazardous Mineral CDW. It is an input-oriented model that, for a given construction GVA and CDWRR, looks for minimizing Non-Hazardous Mineral (NHM) CDW. There is no input in the model, as CDW is an undesirable output treated as an input. The reason is that, so far, all the inputs considered in related work, such as labor force and gross capital formation , add little value to the model. Alternative inputs, such as national GVA, buildings’ construction year distribution and distribution of population have been tested by us, but these inputs either add little value (GVA is highly correlated with construction GVA) or consider efficient a significantly higher number of countries. In a sector where data quality might be modest/poor and outliers are frequent, the usage of additional variables not directly related to the efficiency metric sought (such as using labor salary for estimating CDW production) causes the efficiency metric to lose discriminatory power. Finally, it is expected that the returns of the model will be varying in scale (thus VRS will be used), and different construction turnover and CDWRR might show different efficiencies when reducing the input.
The civil construction sector contributes extensively to environmental degradation when it comes to generation of constructionanddemolitionwaste. In fact, the significant amount of these materials, produced in urban spaces, and their inadequate disposal are factors that aggravate the ecosystem imbalance. The purpose of this work was to carry out a qualitative analysis of the generation of constructionanddemolitionwaste in small-scale construction in the city of Belo Horizonte. To this end, a survey of current state of wastemanagement was contemplated, in order to understand the viability of using recycled waste as supplies in civil construction. In addition, the work includes the analysis of constructionwastemanagementanddemolition of some small-scale constructionand current disposal facilities located in the city of Belo Horizonte, pondering its efficiency in municipal management. It has been detected a great deficiency regarding proper wastemanagement generated within small-scale construction. Therefore, the results point to the need for improvements regarding the handling of said waste, in addition to the development of guidelines for the concepts of reduction, reuse and recycling.
Identifying deposition areas for ConstructionandDemolitionWaste (CDW) and managing waste is a challenging task for many developing countries. Planning a strategy that is sustainable in wastemanagement is a critical step for decision makers. The technological tools of multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) and the Geographic Information System (GIS) were used in the management of the CDW. Therefore, to support decision makers and researchers, the objectives of this article are presented in the bibliographic review of applications of the MCDA and GIS tools in the management of CDW, in addition to providing suggestions for future work. Thus, a brief review of the fundamental concepts was carried out, followed by the analysis of articles related to the applications of MCDA and GIS in the management of CDW. From the analyzed articles, note the studies that use MCDA and GIS that use CDW managementand are predominantly directed towards solving problems related to the location of facilities. However, there are no studies that use these tools applied, in an integrated manner, to constructionanddemolitionwaste. Thus, it is recommended to apply MCDA and GIS to solve problems of localization of residues generated by civil construction.
The total number of waste bins needed to collect all the waste from a worksite was determined from the total waste generation, considering they are able to carry a volume of 6m³ and have unitary mass of 1.30 t/m³ [23,24,25,26], defined from the result of several surveys conducted in Brazil. In addition, percentage of waste per class was estimated from the accounts of the waste generated in accordance to the National Council of Environment (CONAMA) resolution nº 307/2002. A comparison was made between the total waste generation from construction companies that were granted an ISO 14001 certification andconstruction companies that were not, to analyze the influence of the Environmental Management System in waste generation.
Favorable factors for promoting energetic efficiency in Romania are represented by the law, institutions and existing regulations, the relatively high price of energy and fuels. Unfavorable factors (which paradoxically outperforms favorable factors) are owned to the fact that energetic efficiency is downplayed, the responsible institutions are not very active, the energetic efficiency programs are only declarative, without any practical outcome, energy audits are formal, unstimulating penalties, bad management, difficult financing.
The budget/target setting process results in clear operational action plans for improving the key value drivers, for committing resources, and for setting financial targets for the coming year. Business issues that drive organizations to improve the budgeting/target setting process are the low reliability of the budget data and the too high level of detail of the budget. Because of the volatility of the business environment and the organization itself and the early start of the budgeting process in the year, the targets in the budget tend to be out of date the moment it is set. In addition, the budget tends to be detailed with too many parameters on all management levels, and therefore takes too much time to prepare.
Some previous designs directly write the adjacent relation to the table SurveySections as a field, the next and/or the prior ID of cross-section is recorded in this field. But the design has two problems: first, the adjacent relation field for other records must be updated when a cross-section is added or deleted. This presents a threat to the consistency management of the database; second, each record contains coordinate point data for the cross-section survey points. The amount of data is very large, leading to inefficiencies when querying adjacency relations. However, the survey data and adjacency relations of the cross-sections are managed separately, when a cross-section is added or deleted. The operation is only associated with adding or removing cross-section data in the table SurveySections, while the adjacent relation between adjacent cross-sections is expressed clearly in the lightweight table ModelSections. These table structures for database storage can flexibility manage uploaded survey data for cross-sections, and provides support for the following dynamic 3D modeling.
Return on Investment Calculation: Allows the manager to track use of information, the amount of value-adding processing required and the amount of error prevention and correction required adding value. In this case, the manager relates the eventual business value back to the costs associated with generating that business value 558 . Information flow model is used when the organization need to know how information flows around, into and out of the business. This shows how information flows work between business functions (within the business) and between business and external functions (as entities like suppliers or customers).
- XML - store of a various settings and communication channels (such as between PHP and Flash via AMFPHP). - MXML and ActionScript 3 (or AS3)- languages used in creating applications in Flex 3 to provide real-time dynamics for the platform and other facilities in real time that the PHP can not provide. Also, compiled programs in Flex (SWF files), are running on the client machine, reducing the risk of overloading the server.
There were almost no solutions to get me out of trouble, but I thought of professional development. The only solution was to send 100 new employees to a training course for the respective qualification, which was to be organized by a specialized institution in Bucharest during one year. The cost would have been huge, involving specialist lecturers, logistics of the institution that held monopoly over professional development for the job openings in the Romanian Railway System, as well as accommodation and meals for 100 trainees.
According to the Statistical Office of the European Communities 637 , in some of the European Union’s countries, such as Sweden, Denmark, Finland, more than 80% of the companies have their own website. Unfortunately, in our country the situation is not as good as in these countries: only 24% of the companies have their own website. For some enterprises, the website has only the functions of a static or dynamic electronic “shop-front”. These enterprises develop their own webpages in order to present and promote products and services, to deliver news, to attract new clients and to develop the loyalty of the existing ones. In such situations, the enterprise presents its offers on the Internet and the important issue is the quality of the offered information. For a static shop-front, the commercial offer is shown using static information presented in a web-page. This information is not permanently updated but from time to time, and these intervals can be shorter or longer. Such a situation can generate the risk that the clients will get obsolete information. On the other hand, for a dynamic shop-front, the commercial offer is generated by displaying the information directly from a database structured similar to a products’ catalogue, permanently updated by the company’s informatic system. This way, the clients will access up-to-date information. Other companies use their own website as an online store used to sell products and to get orders. The buyers are allowed to consult the online catalogues of products and services the company offers. This way, the clients are allowed to compare the offers from different companies by passing from a company to another, to order and to buy in seconds. In this case, the essential thing is the quality of the offered services that is mainly expressed by how much the commercial transaction is guaranteed, by the offer’s availability and by the flexibility offered to the clients when they choose their orders. The client, except the qualitative aspects mentioned before, is attracted by the facility offered by this way of shopping.
Urban Solid WasteManagement (USWM) is a worldwide challenge. The problems faced are even greater due to the disproportional increase of Urban Solid Waste (USW) generation in volume, especially in a context of increased urbanization, population growth and economic globalization in the BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa). In this context, the objective of this work is to analyze the status of MSW management in the BRICS countries, as well as to promote an exchange of experience andmanagement strategies, pointing out possible ways to improve USWM systems that have to be adapted to each local reality. Focusing on this, a systematic literature revision was carried out through a bibliometric analysis. Results showed that the management system of these BRICS countries does not possess well-developed structures. The collection stage is quite often inefficient, the solid waste being stored in inappropriate ways and also disposed of in irregular locations. The participation of the informal sector is a trademark characteristic in USWM for BRICS countries, highlighting the need to integrate and formalize these activities for USW collection. Due to the high organic fraction, it is known that composting offers advantages as a way to promote a better use of organic wasteand also as a means of reducing the amount of waste sent to sanitary landfills. Finally, with a better knowledge about solid waste generation and decentralization of the offered services, the decision makers will be able to successfully provide this essential public service.
The GRNN is used for estimation of continuous variables, as in standard regression techniques. It is related to the radial basis function network and is based on a standard statistical technique called kernel regression. By definition, the regression of a dependent variable y on an independent x estimates the most probable value for y, given x and a training set. The regression method will produce the estimated value of y, which minimizes the mean-squared error. GRNN is a method for estimating the joint probability density function (pdf) of x and y, given only a training set. Because the pdf is derived from the data with no preconceptions about its form, the system is perfectly general. Furthermore, it is consistent; that is, as the training set size becomes large, the estimation error approaches zero, with only mild restrictions on the function. In GRNN, instead of training the weights, one simply assigns to wij the target value directly from the training set associated with input training vector i and component j of its corresponding output vector . GRNN architecture is given in Fig. 2.
Perhaps the most important contribution in this sense is that managers attach great importance to relative risk and return, but few empirical studies focusing on relative risk were found. In future work, we suggest that researchers compare optimized portfolios for tracking error, benchmark VaR and other optimization methods with relative risk. We also suggest studies that help determine how international diversiﬁcation or the ﬁnancial education of clients of asset management companies relates to the adoption of sophisticated methods for portfolio construction, risk management, and performance evaluation. Because the present study is limited in that it reﬂects the state of the industry in only a short time interval, longitudinal studies are suggested because they do not suffer from this restriction.
India Is The Second Largest Nation In The World, With A Population Of 1.21 Billion, Accounting For Nearly 18% Of World‘s Human Population, But It Does Not Have Enough Resources Or Adequate Systems In Place To Treat Its Solid Wastes. Its Urban Population Grew At A Rate Of 31.8% During The Last Decade To 377 Million, Which Is Greater Than The Entire Population Of Us, The Third Largest Country In The World According To Population. India Is Facing A Sharp Contrast Between Its Increasing Urban Population And Available Services And Resources. Solid WasteManagement (Swm) Is One Such Service Where India Has An Enormous Gap To Fill. Proper Municipal Solid Waste (Msw) Disposal Systems To Address The Burgeoning Amount Of Wastes Are Absent. The Current Swm Services Are Inefficient, Incur Heavy Expenditure And Are So Low As To Be A Potential Threat To The Public Health And Environmental Quality. Improper Solid WasteManagement Deteriorates Public Health, Causes Environmental Pollution, Accelerates Natural Resources Degradation, Causes Climate Change And Greatly Impacts The Quality Of Life Of Citizens With Increasing Population And Urbanization, Municipal WasteManagement In Our Cities Is Emerging As A Major Problem, Which Is Going To Get Even Worse In The Future. The Total Msw Generated In Urban India Is Estimated To Be 68.8 Million Tons Per Year (Tpy) Or 188,500 Tons Per Day (Tpd) Of Msw. This Will Lead To The Generation Of Even More Wastes With Serious Implications For Urban Sanitation And Health, The Environment And Global Warming And Climate Change. And Where Will This Waste Be Disposed, Considering That Large Cities In The Country Are Already Finding It Difficult To Locate The Land Needed To Dispose Their Waste? Of The Green House Gas (Ghg) Emissions (Which Include Carbon Dioxide, Methane, Nitrous Oxide, Etc
On the other hand, we need to identify all steps in the management of SWHS, from its generation to its final disposal. Thus, nursing professionals will have to participate in finding solutions that are consistent with the need for environmental preservation, as a thought based on whole promotes to the construction of conscious actions, and facilitate the dialogue of ideas with reality, reducing the problems that are reductionist views in our lives.
A restaurant business magazine in the US once conducted a study on information systems for the restaurant industry. They observed that the primary uses of computers in this industry were accounts receivable, employee salaries, menu analyses, inventory control, food service control, employee work schedules, creating and processing tables or documents, kitchen production, and printing menus. According to their statistical analysis, large-scale restaurants and, in particular, restaurants in tourist hotels are almost completely dependant on computers to process these affairs [1, 2]. Ten years ago, using cash registers to manage cash was common in the restaurant industry. Today, cash registers have been replaced by point of sale (POS) terminals. Although new POS computers system are still cash based, management can obtain additional information such as monitoring of items sold, materials used, and employee work efficiency. They can even calculate wages and the amount of tips due. The main computer, linked to the POS terminals by Internet connection, provides information such as accounting records and food purchases to obtain desired values [3, 4].
gravity, sulfur content, asphaltene content, carbon residue conradson, base sediment, water, H 2 S and ash contents of the recovered oil are desirable and under the acceptable limit comparing to the exportable Sirri Island crude oil. Comparing Sirri Island’s crude oil to recovered oil, the American Petroleum Institute (API) has fallen from 32.6 to 24.6. It shows that during oil storage process in storage tanks, heavier hydrocarbons settle down at the bottom of tanks and sedimentation happens. Therefore, the sludge contains more of heavier hydrocarbons than lighter compositions which show its effect through API index reduction. The wax content has been increased signiicantly from 4.6 to 49.7. The wax content increase leads to pour point rising from -11°C to 70°C which indicates the presence of heavier rather than lighter hydrocarbons in sludge. Separated soil and sand in sludge samples which were stripped off hydrocarbon had a light cream color which is the exact same color as the regional soil in Sirri Island indicating the place where the sediments are formed from. The crude oil of Sirri (excluding sludge) contains carbon atoms in range of C7 to C20 and less than 5 percent extends up to C50. The range of abundant carbon atoms of extracted hydrocarbon after petroleum sludge reinement varies from C38 to C50 .These two ranges reveal that during the formation of petroleum sludge at the bottom of the storage tanks, more of molecules with higher molecular weight are precipitated and accumulated in sludge while lighter molecules evaporate and are released to the environment.
Abstract: This paper describes the design andconstruction of 300W audio power amplifier for classroom. In the construction of this amplifier, microphone preamplifier, tone preamplifier, equalizer, line amplifier, output power amplifier and sound level indicator are included. The output power amplifier is designed as O.C.L system and constructed by using Class B among many types of amplifier classes. There are two types in O.C.L system _ quasi system and complementary system. Between them, the complementary system is used in the construction of 300W audio power amplifier. The Multisim software is utilized for the construction of audio power amplifier.