Food plays an important role in rural development through tourism (Hall and Sharples, 2003; Plummer et al., 2005), especially food routes (Briedenhann and Wickens, 2004). The promotion of food tourism results in a symbiosis between the agrarian sector and the tourism sector. High-quality agricultural products take shape as a resource that makes possible the development of tourism. At the same time, the tourism turns into a promotional and marketing tool of high-quality agricultural products (Armesto and Gómez, 2004; Kivela and Crotts, 2006). Because food can be branded by region, the opportunity exists to create a positive association between food and a destination (Okumus et al., 2007). In addition, consumers are increasingly concerned to know where products come from and how they are produced, not only for health and safety reasons but also in terms of satisfying a current nostalgia which harks back to a perceived time of real and wholesome foods (Gilg and Battershill, 1998). The existence of such trends within consumer attitudes prompted the European Union to implement regulations (2081/92 and 2082/92) to protect food an drink products which have either special character, such as being produced with traditional raw material and/or a traditional mode of production, or a recognisable geographic origin (eg. Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) or Protected Geographical Indication (PGI)) (Ilbery and Kneafsey, 2000).
The study conducted by Samant and Seo (2016) provides empirical evidence that a higher visual attention paid to labels may translate into a positive purchase behavior (higher purchase intent, higher overall liking and higher trust in the product). A theoretical framework developed by Grunert and Wills (2007) demonstrates that individual interest and background knowledge of label claims motivate consumers to look out for these claims while buying food products. The more consumers are exposed to label claims, the higher the chances of the information actually being “perceived” by them. The perception leads not only to “understanding”, indicating that consumers attach meaning to the information being perceived, but also “liking” the label claims, meaning that they find them useful and easy to comprehend. Subsequently, the understanding and liking of the label claims may be “used” in making choices with respect to product evaluation and purchase behavior. Hence, based on previous findings, there seems to be a possibility of increasing both consumer acceptability and purchase intentions by increasing the understanding of product labels by, for instance, introducing label claims that consumers are more familiarized with (Carneiro et al. 2005; Gifford and Bernard 2011; Grunert and Wills 2007; Lenhart et al. 2008; Van Wezemael et al. 2012).
Food and drink international events include in several countries Alimentaria fairs, an international leader in agro-food fairs. Alimentaria Brazil is one of the world’s most important food and beverage trade fairs, including different segments, products and company profiles of companies, including importers, distributors, purchase centers, major retailers, cash and carry, restoration and hotel, catering, wholesale and retail. Agrobusiness in Brasil represents almost one fourth of GDP and is the leading trader of the world. Hence, to follow and maintain close contact with Brazil agro-food evolution is important not only because of Brasil market relevance for Portuguese oliveoil and wine but also because of Brazilian dynamics and innovation in the sector. Alimentaria has also an important fair in Barcelona targeting consumers and agro-industry companies with two specific fairs. Other European fairs and events of Germany, France and Spain also require Portuguese participation not only because of trade and market share but also because ofconsumer behavior and market taste, sophistication, research and development trends.
(Halewood and Hannan, 2001), ghosts (Inglis and Holmes, 2001) or the geographic locations mentioned by different literary works (Herbert, 2001). Within the tourist routes related to gastronomy, the routes related to wine, and to the activities related to vitiviniculture in general, stand out. For this reason, it is interesting to make a brief reference to the articulation of the wine routes as a reference element and as a starting point for the configuration of the oliveoil tourism (De Salvo et al., 2013). Thus, we can define wine tourism, following Getz and Brown (2006), from a triple perspective; Firstly, as a consumer behavior; secondly, as a strategy to develop the geographical area and the wine market in this area; and thirdly, as an opportunity for the promotion of the wineries to sell their own products directly to consumers. Hall et al. (2000) state that wine tourism is the experience of visiting vineyards, know wineries and attend festivals and wine demonstrations in which the wine tasting and/or attributes of the wine experience are the main reason for the visitors.
In the overall quality ofoliveoil, the aroma plays an important role in directing consumer preference. Some components present in low concentration, contribute to the pleasant aroma note in olive oils, but when they are present in higher concentrations their con- tribution seems to be negative . So it is important to determine, at least, the relative amounts of the aroma components ofoliveoil. Compared to several techniques of sample preparation for gas chromatographic (GC) analysis of aroma compounds, headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) shows some advantages such as solvent-free extraction, low sample volumes and low cost. SPME is an equilibrium method, which does not require exhaustive extraction of a volume of sample .
Consumers’ expectation towards shopping experience is changing, shoppers are becoming more independent, confident, empowered and increasingly connected. As a way of responding to these changes, retailers started to introduce new stimuli in their stores. The purpose of this thesis is to understand how future trends influence consumer behavior in the supermarket environment, more specifically in the oliveoil sector. This dissertation met the research aim through an extensive study of relevant literature and empirical research. Research in the experimental plan domain was developed in Intermarché, with the support of Sovena, a Portuguese company specialized in the production and commercialization of oils. The study was based on stimulus changes at point of sale and examination ofconsumer behavior through observation, interviews and sales analysis. Findings suggest that shoppers consider useful the implementation of an informative tablet on point of sale, even though they did not have the impulse of using it. Most buyers did not pay much attention to the implemented elements that aimed to create a differentiated zone for the oliveoil section, while others found it pleasant and appellative. It is important to note that the results were influenced by several adjacent limitations. Managers should target consumers with a high optimum stimulation level (OSL). Subsequently, retailers should acknowledge the importance that new trends have on consumer behavior and adapt their stores accordingly. Suggestions for future research on the influence of new trends in store atmosphere are posteriorly discussed.
chosen for analysis and comparison with oliveoil. The soybean oil is the most widely consumed, reaching 5,680 million tons that is 85% of the total consumption of vegetable oils. Next on the ladder is the palm oil with 7% of the total consumption that is 500,000 tons, followed by the cottonseed oil with 6% of the total consumption and finally oliveoil, only detaining 1% of total consumption – 90 thousand tons. The main conclusion to draw from Table 7 – see appendix 7 – is that currently in Brazil other vegetable oils like soy and palm oil, are still largely consumed when compared to oliveoil. In addition, they are also widely produced in Brazil – see appendix 8 – presenting a lot of expertise and credibility among the consumer, while oliveoil still has no significant developed production yet. Consequently oliveoil faces huge competition from other types of oils in the Brazilian market and its presence is still minor. Furthermore, its consumption is more concentrated in some specific states – like Rio de Janeiro or São Paulo – while the consumption of the top 3 vegetable oils is spread all over the states but more focused on the northern regions due to cultural factors. The latter are less developed regions, have lower awareness and access to better developed products, and consequently consume more typical oils from their own region like the palm oil widely used in typical Brazilian recipes.
As discussed in the context chapter, the targets of these formations are professionals of the HORECA sector, journalists who advertise the product, dieticians, clients, and potential clients (such as school education). These educations occur in a room, at points of sale (where the customer can sometimes try the product), or through the organization of events. For example, the "Heart Challenge", an event organized by the Portuguese Cardiology Foundation, which consisted of a walk guided by health professionals. Casa do Azeite participated by having a stand where the participants tasted oliveoil and listened about its benefits to the heart. In addition to the Programs, CdA provides information on their website useful to the consumer, with relevant information such as how oliveoil is produced, what characteristics define a quality oliveoil, how to choose the right oliveoil, the different denominations of origin, etc.
Contrary to the results obtained in the OxHLIA assay, the COP ex- tracts were more effective than the EOP ones to inhibit TBARS forma- tion. In this assay, the reaction mechanisms occur in a lipophilic environment, where the presence of fat will not lead to the possible bio- accessibility issues mentioned for OxHLIA. However, it has been re- ported that thiobarbituric acid (TBA) not only reacts with malondialdehyde (MDA), which is a secondary oxidation product of lipid peroxidation, but also with other aldehydes that can be generated in the system, especially from fat-containing samples. Thus, substances that overlap with the MDA-TBA complex absorption peak are generated and may lead to an overestimation of the antioxidant capacity ( Semeniuc et al., 2016 ). On the other hand, gamma irradiation im- proved the antioxidant capacity of the EOP extracts, with particular ef ﬁ- ciency at the lowest assayed doses (5 kGy), whereas no improvement in the antioxidant effect was observed after irradiation in COP samples.
Oliveoil composition and olive trees productivities are strongly influenced by edaphoclimatic conditions, olive tree density, olive grove age and olive tree variety. In this work, the possibility of assessing oliveoil production year based on physicochemical quality attributes, fatty acids and tocopherol profiles, total phenols contents and radical scavenging activities (DPPH and ABTS)
Extra-virgin oliveoil is a product appreciated for its flavor, which is distinguished from that of other vegetable oils, and is used in various culinary practices worldwide. Extra-virgin oliveoil is obtained from the first cold pressing of olives, which produces a special volatile compound composition that pr ovides its much -appr eciated characteristics of taste and aroma (OLIVEIRA et al., 2008). Since no refining process is employed, extra-virgin oliveoil contains a number of nonglyceridic constituents, which are believed to account for its beneficial health effects due to their considerable antioxidant activity (VISIOLI et al., 2006). In addition, extra-virgin oliveoil has been reported to have anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antiatherogenic activities (BERGER; JONAS; ABUMWEIS, 2004). Furthermore, its high monounsaturated fatty acid composition has been associated with the prevention of
Generally, the peroxide values decreased over time (Figure 2). Peroxide values on day 1 of the assay were substantially higher when compared to the remaining days (Figure 2) and practically around or slightly superior to the maximum allowed by EEC Regulation (1991). On the first day and for sunflower oil, frying cow meat triggered the forma- tion of hydroperoxides more extensively than oil alone and more in oil with T. capitata essential oil addition. On the last sampling date, cow meat fried in sunflower oil plus essential oil had the lowest peroxide value, in contrast to that registered at the beginning (Figure 2b). Sunflower oil plus essential oil heating alone induced a higher accumulation of hydroperoxides than the remaining treatments, particularly in the last three days of the experiment. In oliveoil samples, these differences were not so evident despite the decrease of the peroxides over time (Figure 2a). This diminution of the peroxides did not mean that heating or frying prevented the primary oxidation because, when p-anisidine was evaluated in our assay, it was possible to record the increase of these values over time, while that of peroxide diminished (Figure 3). In fact, the peroxide value is related to the hydroperoxides, the primary oxidation products, which are unstable under heating or deep-fat frying conditions and readily decompose into mixtures of mainly volatile aldehyde compounds (Vieira & Regitano D’arce 1999; Yaghmur et al. 2001; Farhoosh & Moosavi 2009).
Today, the Andalusian autonomous community alone, is responsible for 75% of the Spanish oliveoil production, which is about 35% of the global production. Despite the region shifting to more sustainable oliveoil farming production modes, especially integrated and organic (Mili et al. 2017), it is still facing major problems related to soil loss (Scheidel, Krausmann 2011). In a 2002 study carried out in the Andalusian region, reported topsoil losses in olive groves were on average around 62 tons per hectare/year. Although, in certain areas of the region topsoil losses reached 92 tons per hectare/year. The lowest rate of topsoil losses was estimated at 36 tons per hectare/year. Such rates are considered to be very high compared to soil regeneration rates presented for the region, which vary from one to 12 tons per hectare/year (Scheidel, Krausmann 2011). This issue brought major concerns to the Spanish local government that resulted in the implementation of the National and Andalusian Action Plan against Desertification, meant for the application of good farming practices (Neves, Pires 2013).
lution, esterification with BF 3 /MeOH and extraction with n-heptane. The fatty acid profile was analyzed with a Chrompack CP 9001 Chromatograph equipped with a split-splitless injector, an FID, an au- tosampler (Chrompack CP-9050) and a 50 m x 0.25 mm i.d. fused silica capil- lary column coated with a 0.19 µ film of CP-Sil 88 (Chrompack, Middelburg, The Netherlands). Helium was used as carrier gas at an internal pressure of 12 kPa. The temperatures of the detector, injector and oven were 250°, 230° and 185ºC, respectively. The split ratio was 1:50 and the injected volume was 1 µL. The results are expressed as the relative percentage of each fatty acid, calculated by internal normalization of the chro- matographic peak area (OLIVEIRA et
The presence of residual pesticides in food have gained increasing public concern and moreover in the last years has become one of the hot global food safety issues. Organophosphorus compounds are extensively applied in agriculture throughout the world to enhance agricultural productivity and improve the quality of agricultural products. In particular, organophosphorus com- pounds are widely applied in olive groves, thus increasing the likelihood of the presence of these residues in olive-derived foods. In fact, recent studies have shown that these residues (mainly in- secticides and fungicides) can be found in olives and oliveoil, mainly due to the lipophilic nature of these contaminants [ 1 ]. Aware of the harmful effect of pesticide residues, European Union and the Codex Alimentarius Committee on Pesticide Residues and the Agriculture Organization of the United States (FAO) have established maximum pesticide residue limits (MRLs) for oliveoil [ 2 ]. The attainment of the desired low MRLs enforced by the legislation, has prompted the development of more sensitive and robust analytical techniques that enables an accurate determina- tion of pesticide residue levels. Huge improvements have been performed on the development of more appropriate analytical methodologies for pesticide detection, mainly based on chro- matographic techniques, like GC/MS and LC/MS, nevertheless these techniques are expensive and dependent of specialized laboratory staff [ 3 ]. Thus, the availability of a straightforward, reliable and sensitive methodology that enables the quanti ﬁcation of trace levels of pesticide residues in a very complex matrix-like oliveoil, is highly desirable. Due to the considerable complexity of this food matrix, it is mandatory the integration of a sample preparation step in the analytical methodology, which provides a pre-concentration and/or enrichment of the analyte. It allows one to reduce the quantity of interferents in the background, improving the sensi- tivity of the analytical methodology. Sorbent materials are often used, in these pre-treatment procedures, they constitute the core of the sorption-based extraction techniques, playing a determinant role on the analyte retention process [ 4 , 5 ]. Consequently, the sor- bent material will determine the selectivity and ef ﬁciency of the analytical methodology. However, commercially available sorbent materials, are limited and not effective for all types of analytes. In
The cytological examination (Figure 3) showed de- creases in all cell counts in both groups. No statistically significant differences were observed between the groups, except with regard to the neutrophils, which were significantly lower in the TO group compared to the TL group at time point M1 (p=0.036) and in the TL group compared to the TO group at time-point M6 (p=0.029). The histopathological examination (Figure 4) showed that both groups exhibited decreases in the inflammatory cell counts, with the neutrophil count (p=0.0016) in the TL group being significantly lower than that in the TO group at M6. An overall increase in the number of goblet cells (p=0.012) was observed in both groups, with no statistically significant differences between the two (p=0.6). However, significant diffe- rences were seen between time points M0 and M6 (TO: p=0.012, TL: p=0.005).
The third essay was sub divided into three phases, related to the time the substrate was maintained inside the reactor, i.e., the hydraulic retention time (HRT), as shown in Table 1.2. The first phase corresponds to HRT of 5.7 days, the second phase was 3.0 days, and the final phase was 1.0 day. A hybrid anaerobic reactor, designed and tested in LNEG, was used in this essay (Figure 2.1.). It has 1.7 L of useful volume, with a total of 2 L, and it’s equipped with a packed bed on the upper 1/3 of the reactor height, which was selected from previous studies (Marques, 2001). Also, it had no solid/liquid/gas separator device nor substrate recycler installed. For the substrate a mixture of BWW and PE was made (40% PE and 60% BWW, v/v) to feed the reactor. The reactor was fed with substrate in up-flow mode through peristaltic pump, and digested in fed-batch conditions. The reactor’s temperature was maintained at 37ºC, by using a water jacket, throughout the experiment. Before the experiment, PE was only used in the start-up phase of the reactor (data not shown). To measure the biogas production a wet gas meter was used, expressed to standard conditions of temperature and pressure (STP: 0ºC, 1 bar). Additionally, some samples were collected during the essay from the inside of the reactor to determine its profile.
The system boundary is defined knowing that the input of recycled materials to a product system is included in the data set without adding the data on environmental impacts caused in earlier life cycles. In the waste case the environmental impact connected to the treatment of wastes rests with the generator of the waste whereas the environmental impact connected to the processing of the waste into a resource for a subsequent user rests with the user of the resulting resource. The delineation between two product systems is considered to be the point where the waste has its “lowest market value”. This means that the generator of the waste has to carry the full environmental impact until the point in the product´s life cycle where the waste is transported to a scrap yard or gate of a waste processing plant (collection site). This approach is called the “Polluter-Pays (PP) allocation method”  and this is what we used in this work. The inputs are allocated on the various production steps according to defined procedures. Where possible, the allocation is avoided or at least follows a procedure based on the mass criteria. Allocation should reflect the physical relationship between the environmental burdens imposed, and the functions delivered by the system.
In recent years, very relevant advancements in sample preparation and purification processes emerged mainly due to the design and development of selective sorbent materials for application in food matrices, namely, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) [2,3]. These polymeric materials are tailor-made to bind template molecules with high selectivity, even in the presence of structurally analogue molecules. In this synthetic procedure involving polymerization reactions, several entities are involved, like functional monomers, crosslinkers, porogen and the template molecule. Thus, MIPs are synthesized by copolymerization of functional monomers and cross-linkers in the presence of template molecules, using a porogen. In this process, a highly cross-linked polymer matrix possessing recognition cavities was produced. After removal of the template molecules, these recognition sites that are complementary in shape, size and spatial arrangement to the template molecules are able to rebind the template molecule [4,5]. In recent years, several works attempted to develop MIP-based sorbents aiming to enhance the selectivity of the sample preparation step on the trace analysis of pesticides in food samples. Therefore, application of MIPs in pesticides residues detection covers several classes, namely, organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs), triazines, carbamates, sulphonylurea and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) [6–10]. Nowadays, an extensive research on the improvement of the sample preparation step based on MIP-based sorbents has been carried out. Sorbents are being designed and implemented, which in addition to being able to selectively retain the pesticide also exhibit a controllable release of the target analyte by means of external stimulus . Indeed, the design of stimuli responsive molecularly imprinted polymers (SR-MIPs) as sorbents for solid phase extraction (SPE) seems to be a promising tool in sample pre-treatment, representing a step forward in the development of