coral reefs

Top PDF coral reefs:

Habitat use by fishes in coral reefs, seagrass beds and mangrove habitats in the Philippines.

Habitat use by fishes in coral reefs, seagrass beds and mangrove habitats in the Philippines.

ularly due to poor environmental governance and lack of effective, coherent monitoring programs. This situation eventually led to increased overfishing and other forms of environmental deterio- ration, which consequently became the topmost increasing concern regarding the proper management of fishery resources and MPAs [44–46]. From 1967 to the present, nearly 1,000 MPAs have been established in the Philippines [46]. Upon careful review, most of them focus on coral reefs, and those that incorporate multiple habitats number relatively few. In addition, the implica- tions of connectivity among different habitats have been under- explored and are poorly understood [47,48]. In the Philippines, several studies have evaluated the effectiveness of MPA manage- ment in terms of fishery regulations (e.g., [49,50]). Furthermore, the effectiveness of fishery resource conservation was verified by a series of studies in the Sumilon and Apo islands (e.g., [51–53]). These studies documented the effects of MPAs on the enhance- ment of fisheries components; however, they only focused on one type of ecosystem (i.e., coral reefs) and disregarded important effects of the multiple habitats used by some commercially important fish species. If the present study can determine the
Mostrar mais

10 Ler mais

Prioritizing land and sea conservation investments to protect coral reefs.

Prioritizing land and sea conservation investments to protect coral reefs.

Marine conservation. We used the global coral reef atlas [22], compiled by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre at the United Nations Environment Programme, to determine the location of coral reefs with each ecoregion. Data indicate the presence/absence of coral reefs for each 1 km 2 cell. Mora et al. [18] provided an assessment on the extent and effectiveness of coral reef protected areas. Each protected area was classified by its regulations on extraction (no-take, take, or multi-purpose) and risk of poaching (low, medium, high). For each ecoregion, we calculated the proportion of coral reef protected under two scenarios: 1) Pessimistic scenario, where only areas with no extraction (no-take, low poaching) are effective at protecting the reefs and 2) Optimistic scenario, where areas with limited extraction (no-take or multipurpose for any level of poaching) are effective at protecting the reefs.
Mostrar mais

8 Ler mais

Environmental and biotic correlates to lionfish invasion success in Bahamian coral reefs.

Environmental and biotic correlates to lionfish invasion success in Bahamian coral reefs.

The rugosity of coral reefs can be shaped by wave exposure, where coral reefs in sheltered locations are usually more structurally complex than reefs on wave-exposed environments [44–47]. However, we found that the rugosity on the reefs around San Salvador island appeared to be unaffected by wave exposure (Fig. 4). Two non-mutually exclusive hypotheses might explain these results. First, the relationship between habitat complexity and wave exposure might have been undetected due to our marginal sample size (n = 3). Second, benthic structural complexity is affected by wave exposure but also by depth, which can have a positive effect on reef rugosity [48]. The depth of our sites in San Salvador ranged from 13 m to 17 m, which might have been sufficient to buffer the differences in reef rugosity between exposed and sheltered environments ([48], Fig. 4). In fact, while swimming and diving around some of our wave-exposed study sites we noticied that the reef structure was visibly flatter in shallower areas than at the depth range where we were performing our surveys. Nonetheless, reef rugosity was unrelated to lionfish density and biomass, implying that structural complexity does not seem to facilitate lionfish invasion success (Table 1 and Fig. 4). These results agree with a recent study [43] that shows no correlation between habitat structural complex- ity and lionfish density. Reef rugosity in the [43] study was determined by visually assessing a substratum complexity category [49], which provides a limited qualitative estimation of habitat complexity. Our measurements of topographic complexity using the ‘‘chain and tape’’ method represent a fine scale quantification of reef rugosity [50–52]. Hence, our observations in San Salvador support the hypothesis that structural complexity is not a proximate driver of lionfish abundance.
Mostrar mais

10 Ler mais

Can reef conservation programmes help reducing SCUBA diving damage to coral reefs? A case study in Thailand

Can reef conservation programmes help reducing SCUBA diving damage to coral reefs? A case study in Thailand

According to Phongsuwan & Chansang (1992), in the Andaman Sea, the factors that affect the reefs may differ depending upon the location and in some places it may be a combination of effects. Outbreaks of Acanthaster planci, damage from sedimentation, tourism activity resulting in boat anchoring and eutrophication, along with an intense period of dynamite blasting, can be identified as the possible causes for the deterioration of those particular reefs. The impact of the 2004 tsunami, for example, was assessed in 174 sites covering the six affected provinces and resulted in 13% of the sites showing severe impact, 47% showing low to moderate impact and 40% had no visible impact. Apparently this damage is less significant than that resulting from major threats such as the ones produced by humans (Phongsuwan et al., 2006). A localized assessment of a National Park in the west coast (Mu Koh Surin) indicated that areas of high tsunami- related coral damage, correlated with areas that did not have substantial live hard coral cover prior to the tsunami and that the overall loss in coral cover as a result of the tsunami averaged at about 8% (Yeemin, 2005). Therefore, most of the coral reefs did not suffer serious damage and it is estimated that they will naturally recover within the 5 to 10 years, if effective management is implemented to reduce damage from human activities (Phongsuwan et al., 2006).
Mostrar mais

89 Ler mais

Integrating structure-from-motion photogrammetry with geospatial software as a novel technique for quantifying 3D ecological characteristics of coral reefs

Integrating structure-from-motion photogrammetry with geospatial software as a novel technique for quantifying 3D ecological characteristics of coral reefs

Reef structural framework and reef-building capacity of biogenic components are primary drivers of the coral reef ecosystem functionality (Done, 1997; Fisher et al., 2007; Alvarez-Filip et al., 2009; Zawada, Piniak & Hearn, 2010). These factors have a reciprocal relationship with one another: the high level of architectural complexity provides a diverse range of microhabitats that support high biodiversity, productivity, and resilience; in turn, biogenic calcification is responsible for the reef-building processes that create the complex physical structure (Risk, 1972; Luckhurst & Luckhurst, 1978; Crowder & Cooper, 1982; Idjadi et al., 2006; Wilson, Graham & Polunin, 2007; Goatley & Bellwood, 2011; Graham & Nash, 2013). Furthermore, the extraordinary reef building capacity of scleractinian corals, enabled by their symbiotic partner Symbiodinium, is greatly influenced by physical characteristics of coral colonies. This is because physical characteristics of coral colonies like overall shape and topographic complexity influence key metabolic processes such as photosynthesis, respiration, calcium carbonate deposition, and reproduction (Smith, 1978; Crossland, Hatcher & Smith, 1991; Fisher et al., 2007). An accurate evaluation of the physical characteristics of coral colonies and coral reefs, involving 3-dimentional (3D) metrics, is critical in advancing our understanding of functionality of not only coral biology but also habitat availability, biogenic flux, and productivity of the entire coral reef ecosystem (Goatley & Bellwood, 2011; Pittman & Brown, 2011; Graham & Nash, 2013).
Mostrar mais

19 Ler mais

Spatial distribution of fifty ornamental fish species on coral reefs in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden

Spatial distribution of fifty ornamental fish species on coral reefs in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden

he spatial distribution of 50 ornamental ish species from shallow water habitats on coral reefs were investigated using visual census techniques, between latitudes 11−29°N in the Red Sea, in Jordan, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen, and in the adjacent Gulf of Aden in Djibouti. One hundred eighteen transects (each 100×5 m) were examined in 29 sites (3−8 sites per country). A total of 522,523 ish individuals were counted during this survey, with mean abundance of 4428.2 ± 87.26 individual per 500 m² transect. In terms of relative abundance (RA), the most abundant species were Blue green damselish, Chromis viridis (RA=54.4%), followed by Sea goldie, Pseudanthias squamipinnis (RA= 34.7), Whitetail dascyllus, Dascyl- lus aruanus (RA= 2.6%), Marginate dascyllus, Dascyllus marginatus (RA= 2.0), Red Sea eightline lasher Paracheilinus octotaenia (RA=1.0), and Klunzinger’s wrasse, halassoma rueppellii (0.7%). he highest number of species (S) per 500 m² transect was found on reefs at the latitude 20° in Saudi Arabia (S=21.8), and the lowest number of species was found at the latitude 15° in Djibouti (S=11.11). he highest mean abundance (8565.8) was found on reefs at latitude 20° in Saudi Arabia and the lowest mean abundance (230) was found on reefs at latitude 22°, also in Saudi Arabia. Whereas, the highest Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index was found in reefs at the latitude 22° (H`=2.4) and the lowest was found in reefs at the latitude 20° (H`=0.6). his study revealed marked diferences in the structure of ornamental ish assem- blages with latitudinal distribution. he data support the presence of two major biogeographic groups of ishes in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden: the southern Red Sea and Gulf of Aden group and the group in the northern and central Red Sea. Strong correlations were found between live coral cover and the number of ish species, abundance and Shannon-Wiener Diversity indices, and the strength of these correlations varied among the reefs. A conclusion was done that environmental diferences among the reefs and the habitats investigated were important components of abundance variations and species diversity of orna- mental ish along latitudinal gradients in the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden.
Mostrar mais

32 Ler mais

Assessing coral reefs on a Pacific-wide scale using the microbialization score.

Assessing coral reefs on a Pacific-wide scale using the microbialization score.

The majority of the world’s coral reefs are in various stages of decline. While a suite of disturbances (overfishing, eutrophication, and global climate change) have been identified, the mechanism(s) of reef system decline remain elusive. Increased microbial and viral loading with higher percentages of opportunistic and specific microbial pathogens have been identified as potentially unifying features of coral reefs in decline. Due to their relative size and high per cell activity, a small change in microbial biomass may signal a large reallocation of available energy in an ecosystem; that is the microbialization of the coral reef. Our hypothesis was that human activities alter the energy budget of the reef system, specifically by altering the allocation of metabolic energy between microbes and macrobes. To determine if this is occurring on a regional scale, we calculated the basal metabolic rates for the fish and microbial communities at 99 sites on twenty-nine coral islands throughout the Pacific Ocean using previously established scaling relationships. From these metabolic rate predictions, we derived a new metric for assessing and comparing reef health called the microbialization score. The microbialization score represents the percentage of the combined fish and microbial predicted metabolic rate that is microbial. Our results demonstrate a strong positive correlation between reef microbialization scores and human impact. In contrast, microbialization scores did not significantly correlate with ocean net primary production, local chla concentrations, or the combined metabolic rate of the fish and microbial communities. These findings support the hypothesis that human activities are shifting energy to the microbes, at the expense of the macrobes. Regardless of oceanographic context, the microbialization score is a powerful metric for assessing the level of human impact a reef system is experiencing.
Mostrar mais

10 Ler mais

Potential contribution of fish restocking to the recovery of deteriorated coral reefs: an alternative restoration method?

Potential contribution of fish restocking to the recovery of deteriorated coral reefs: an alternative restoration method?

In the present study we propose the approach of restocking grazing fish as an additional CRR method, and examine its possible efficiency and economic value. Restocking (also termed re-introduction or biomanipulation of fish populations; Angeler, 2010; Cowx, 1999) is a common tool in the applied management of non-marine aquatic ecosystems, aimed at restoring water quality and vegetation characteristics (Angeler, 2010; Cowx, 1999; Cowx & Gerdeaux, 2004). Although less used in the marine environment, restocking has recently been applied to coastal marine ecosystems, mainly as a fishery management tool aimed at recovering the yields of target commercial fish populations (Leber, 2013; Lindegren, Mollmann & Hansson, 2010; Lorenzen et al., 2013; Lorenzen, Leber & Blankenship, 2010). Moreover, there have been some attempts at restocking in coral reefs, mostly of invertebrate species (e.g., the grazing gastropod Trochus sp.; Castell, Naviti & Nguyen, 1996; Villanueva, Edwards & Bell, 2010), but also fish stock enhancement (e.g., rabbitfish and parrotfish; Bowling, 2014).
Mostrar mais

16 Ler mais

Positive Feedbacks Enhance Macroalgal Resilience on Degraded Coral Reefs.

Positive Feedbacks Enhance Macroalgal Resilience on Degraded Coral Reefs.

In the habitats where we worked, light is high and turbulence and flow are often consider- able, meaning that light resources may be plentiful and nutrient replacement high, which would minimise intraspecific competition. Hence, our results could be different in lower light (deeper) conditions or habitats with less flow to break down diffusion gradients. However, it is also possible that Sargassum crowding produces direct positive effects for members of the group. Possible hypotheses include: 1) shading within the bed reduces light shock or photores- piration in these shallow waters (e.g., [43]); 2) baffling of wave force reduces damage due to sand scour or other physical processes [44]; 3) retention of DOC or other leached metabolites within the bed enhance beneficial microbes or suppress damaging microbes and increase the net growth of Sargassum individuals in the group [45]; or 4) other unknown benefits generated by positive feedbacks from Sargassum density. Although additional work is needed to clarify the mechanism of protective benefit from conspecifics, our data indicate that established Sar- gassum beds act as a positive feedback, or stabilising mechanism [6,46], that promotes algal growth and persistence and potentially also expansion. These positive effects on Sargassum likely enhance the resilience of macroalgal dominated reefs and suppress recovery of the coral dominated state [1,6].
Mostrar mais

17 Ler mais

Leipanthura casuarina, new genus and species of anthurid isopod from Australian coral reefs without a "five-petalled" tail (Isopoda, Cymothoida, Anthuroidea)

Leipanthura casuarina, new genus and species of anthurid isopod from Australian coral reefs without a "five-petalled" tail (Isopoda, Cymothoida, Anthuroidea)

Pereopod 2 more slender than i rst, 1.3 times as long (measured through main axes of articles), proxi- mal articles bearing few setae; merus overlapping carpus and base of propodus on [r]

10 Ler mais

High macroalgal cover and low coral recruitment undermines the potential resilience of the world's southernmost coral reef assemblages.

High macroalgal cover and low coral recruitment undermines the potential resilience of the world's southernmost coral reef assemblages.

Subtropical reefs lie on the latitudinal limit for coral reef growth [29], and support a unique diversity of tropical and temperate taxa [30,31]. To date, subtropical reefs have largely escaped the extreme effects of increasing seawater temperatures that have impacted tropical reefs globally [32,33]. This apparent stability, coupled with evidence of climate-induced poleward shifts of coral reef taxa over both geological [5,34] and ecological time scales [35–37] has led to suggestions that these subtropical reefs may perform an important role as refugia from the impacts of climate change. While not exposed to the frequency or intensity of events affecting tropical reefs, subtropical reefs are nonetheless subject to a range of disturbances, including coral bleaching, disease, and crown-of-thorns starfish outbreaks (e.g., [32,38–40]). The suscep- tibility of subtropical reefs to climate change may depend on their regenerative capacity following these relatively infrequent distur- bances, rather than their ability to resist multiple extreme events. The objective of this study was to assess the potential resilience of benthic reef assemblages at Lord Howe Island, southern Australia. The specific aims of this study were to i) provide a comprehensive assessment of the benthic community structure of Lord Howe Island, ii) quantify the herbivorous fish communities in order to examine the relationship between herbivory and benthic composition, and iii) quantify rates of coral recruitment. This study will facilitate predictions about the likely recovery and resilience of these coral reef habitats following episodic disturbances associated with climate change or other anthropogenic stresses. This is a critical and timely goal given the stressors to which coral reefs are currently being exposed.
Mostrar mais

9 Ler mais

Matheus Oliveira Freitas 1,2 , Vinícius Abilhoa

Matheus Oliveira Freitas 1,2 , Vinícius Abilhoa

According to our data, this mesopredator plays an important role on the trophic ecology of the Abrolhos Bank coral reefs, because it is an important reef predator with a wide range of food resources. Despite classified as vulnerable in the IUCN red list of endangered species (Huntsman, 1996), L. analis is a commercially important species in the Brazilian Northeastern coast, and previous stock assessments in the study region (Klippel et al., 2005) indicated that it is moderately overfished. Impacts of chronic overfishing are evident in population depletions worldwide, and the removal of predatory fishes is also likely to have significant indirect effects on marine ecosystems (Farmer & Wilson, 2010), influencing a range of ecological processes (Babcock et al., 1999; Pinnegar et al., 2000; Willis & Anderson, 2003).
Mostrar mais

8 Ler mais

Seaweed reproductive biology: environmental and genetic controls

Seaweed reproductive biology: environmental and genetic controls

The phenology of sexual repro- duction by green algae (Bryopsidales) on Caribbean coral reefs. Aury and J.H. The Ectocarpus genome and the independent evolution of multicellularity in b[r]

20 Ler mais

Estud. av.  vol.24 número68

Estud. av. vol.24 número68

To cite some examples, coral reefs have been attacked by a mysterious decimating illness around the world; many species of native Hawaiian birds are becoming extinct after being affect[r]

12 Ler mais

Sediment and turbidity associated with offshore dredging increase coral disease prevalence on nearby reefs.

Sediment and turbidity associated with offshore dredging increase coral disease prevalence on nearby reefs.

Sedimentation and turbidity, associated with both weather events and anthropogenic activities, are also frequently proposed to contribute to increased coral disease prevalence [16], although empirical evidence is lacking. Hodgson [21] suggested sedimen- tation as a potential mechanism for the transmission of coral pathogens from marine or terrestrial substrates onto nearby corals. Silt-associated bacteria were identified as a possible cause of necrosis in sediment-damaged corals, since antibiotic-treated water reduced tissue damage in experimentally silted corals. In field- based observations, Haapklya¨ et al. [22] noted a correlation between seasonal coastal runoff, including increased sedimentation and turbidity, and the prevalence of coral disease on inshore reefs. Elevated turbidity reduces the amount and quality of ambient light available for photosynthesis by the corals’ endosymbiotic algae (Symbiodinium) and excess sedimentation inhibits the heterotrophic feeding efficiency of corals, reducing the energy intake of both symbiotic and asymbiotic corals [23,24]. While corals are able to shed some sediment through mucus production and ciliary action, these mechanisms are energetically expensive and further burden the corals’ already reduced energy budgets [25,26]. Despite a wealth of circumstantial evidence indicating sedimentation and turbidity as potential coral disease drivers [15,22,27], no studies have directly linked sedimentation, turbidity and coral disease in the field. Given that nearly 40% of coral reefs are located adjacent to large population centers and coastlines under rapid develop- ment to accommodate expanding urban activities [28], effective coastal management will increasingly depend upon a comprehen- sive understanding of the impacts of sediment, turbidity and associated water quality decline, on all aspects of coral reef health. Here, we describe the first study to examine the influence of elevated sedimentation and turbidity on coral disease levels in situ. We performed detailed coral health assessments along a gradient of exposure to a sediment-laden dredge plume within the Montebello and Barrow Islands off the northern coast of Western Australia. The otherwise relatively pristine conditions of these offshore reefs enabled an empirical examination of the relationship between sedimentation, turbidity and coral disease prevalence in the absence of other confounding influences. Our results indicate that elevated sedimentation and turbidity can significantly increase coral disease prevalence and highlight the urgent need to manage coastal development near coral reef ecosystems.
Mostrar mais

9 Ler mais

Quantifying shark distribution patterns and species-habitat associations: implications of marine park zoning.

Quantifying shark distribution patterns and species-habitat associations: implications of marine park zoning.

First, most BRUVS could not be deployed directly on coral reefs or inside reef lagoons due to logistical constraints, which may have underestimated the abundance of species that commonly use these habitats such as blacktip reef sharks C. melanopterus [69,70]. Nevertheless, estimates of habitat cover based on reference images revealed a high proportion of coral cover and the presence of structurally complex habitats (e.g. seagrass beds, soft-sediment inter-reef habitats, and rocky shoals dominated by diverse groups of octocorals, including soft corals, sea fans, sea pens) near reef sites. Second, the small field of view of BRUVS may have underestimated the number of sharks abundances recorded. For example, diving observations have revealed that species like C. amblyrhynchos can dominate the bait for the full period of the BRUVS recording while conspecifics maintained their distance outside the viewing areas of the cameras, and thus were less likely to be sighted [71]. Third, the quality of video recordings from BRUVS is affected by environments with high turbidity/low visibility (e.g. inshore/coastal bays and estuaries), which may have underestimated common shark species in these areas [11,36,72]. Fourth, although shark reference images were examined and identified by experts in the field, correct identification of some species using only video footage can be difficult. Moreover, species such as C. limbatus and C. tilstoni are known to hybridize in northern and eastern Australia [73]. Therefore, for analyses, closely related species that could be misidentified were excluded,
Mostrar mais

17 Ler mais

Recording reefs with darwinian questions: historical studies on the brazilian northeast coast

Recording reefs with darwinian questions: historical studies on the brazilian northeast coast

The explanation emerged from Branner’s interpretations regarding the flourishing of the reefs and coral reefs by this time were centered on dynamic events that made this particular formation possible. This was a question from his mentors who attempted to find evidence of glaciation in the tropics. Harrt and Agassiz intended to find drifts in rocks to prove the Ice Age, but the erosion in tropical areas with hot water and the strong solar incidence caused a quick decomposition of the rocks. It was impossible to distinguish if the rocks were sculpted from the action of the ice or the climatic tropical events. Branner began an interpretation of the reefs from observation of the erosion and other geological dynamic agents, especially the chemical agents. His explanation of the reef formation and the difficulty in distinguishing the redstone reefs from the coral reefs of Brazil was based on these dynamic geological components.
Mostrar mais

5 Ler mais

The importance of coral larval recruitment for the recovery of reefs impacted by cyclone Yasi in the central Great Barrier Reef.

The importance of coral larval recruitment for the recovery of reefs impacted by cyclone Yasi in the central Great Barrier Reef.

Tropical storms are among the most significant disturbances for coral reefs [30]. Indeed, recent studies demonstrated that tropical storms on the GBR accounted for 48% of coral mortality between 1985 and 2012 [31], and impacted more reefs and were responsible for larger declines in coral cover between 1995 and 2009 than coral bleaching and disease combined [32]. Impacts from storms of weak to moderate intensity are patchy over small spatial scales so recovery via the supply of larvae from non-impacted patches, combined with the re-growth of injured colonies or propagation from live fragments can be relatively rapid. However, the last three decades have seen the frequency of severe cyclones (category 3–5) almost double [33] and this trend is expected to continue as oceans warm in response to increasing levels of greenhouse gases [1,2] (but see [27] for an alternative view). Severe tropical storms tend to kill rather than injure colonies and damage occurs over large spatial scales [30], possibly reducing the potential for and/or rate of recovery. Studies have evaluated the effects of severe tropical storms on coral diversity, abundance and community structure [29,30,34–36] and have demonstrated that severe tropical storms can reduce subsequent coral recruitment on Caribbean reefs [37–39]; however, there have been no studies examining the impacts that cyclones have on coral larval supply for the GBR, particularly following severe category 5 cyclones. This study quantifies the impact of cyclone Yasi on benthic communities on fringing reefs of the Palm Islands in the central GBR and compares coral larval recruitment to experimental substrata by broadcast spawning Acropora in the year before and after the cyclone.
Mostrar mais

11 Ler mais

Modeling the Impact of White-Plague Coral Disease in Climate Change Scenarios.

Modeling the Impact of White-Plague Coral Disease in Climate Change Scenarios.

Coral reefs are in global decline, with coral diseases increasing both in prevalence and in space, a situation that is expected only to worsen as future thermal stressors increase. Through intense surveillance, we have collected a unique and highly resolved dataset from the coral reef of Eilat (Israel, Red Sea), that documents the spatiotemporal dynamics of a White Plague Disease (WPD) outbreak over the course of a full season. Based on modern statistical methodologies, we develop a novel spatial epidemiological model that uses a maximum-likelihood procedure to fit the data and assess the transmission pattern of WPD. We link the model to sea surface temperature (SST) and test the possible effect of increas- ing temperatures on disease dynamics. Our results reveal that the likelihood of a suscepti- ble coral to become infected is governed both by SST and by its spatial location relative to nearby infected corals. The model shows that the magnitude of WPD epidemics strongly depends on demographic circumstances; under one extreme, when recruitment is free- space regulated and coral density remains relatively constant, even an increase of only 0.5°C in SST can cause epidemics to double in magnitude. In reality, however, the spatial nature of transmission can effectively protect the community, restricting the magnitude of annual epidemics. This is because the probability of susceptible corals to become infected is negatively associated with coral density. Based on our findings, we expect that infectious diseases having a significant spatial component, such as Red-Sea WPD, will never lead to a complete destruction of the coral community under increased thermal stress. However, this also implies that signs of recovery of local coral communities may be misleading; indica- tive more of spatial dynamics than true rehabilitation of these communities. In contrast to earlier generic models, our approach captures dynamics of WPD both in space and time, accounting for the highly seasonal nature of annual WPD outbreaks.
Mostrar mais

22 Ler mais

Show all 385 documents...