Objetivo: Presentar la experiencia de elaboración e implementación del Modelo de Enseñanza Activo para el Desarrollo del Pensamiento Crítico (MEAPC) asociado al Problem-based Learning (PBL) a estudiantes de grado en Enfermería. Método: Reporte de experiencia en la intervención educativa (MEAPC + PBL) con estudiantes de grado en Enfermería, de una materia de 20 horas sobre Soporte Básico de Vida (SBV). El MEAPC fue validado por jueces con el objetivo de orientar el análisis de casos clínicos. Las habilidades de Pensamiento Crítico (PC) fueron evaluadas por el instrumento California CriticalThinking Skills Test. Resultado: La intervención educativa ocurrió en dos fases: la elaboración y la implementación, y permitió no sólo la producción de conocimiento sobre SBV, sino también el desarrollo del PC y el intercambio de experiencias para la enseñanza-aprendizaje. Conclusión: La asociación del MEAPC al PBL en la materia de SBV organizó el aprendizaje, posibilitó la adquisición de conocimientos y el estímulo a las habilidades del PC.
The benefits and difficulties of peer review and feedback provision (Nelson & Schunn, 2009) have been studied for some time (Bijami, Kashef & Nejad, 2013; Boase-Jelinek, Parker & Herrington, 2013; Lundstrom & Baker, 2009). In addition, our previous experience in an engineering course, showed the impact of individual web-based peer review on written documents as a learning facilitator and a promoter of communication andcritical reasoning (Dominguez et al., 2014). Nonetheless, an important drawback regarding the activity was the increase in the teacher workload related to the final feedback provision and the grading of the whole process, which was developed with students grouped in duos. Drawing on from our previous findings, and being aware of the potential of cooperative group learning and of peer review, we decided to analyze the effects of activities involving peer review and feedback provision on the development of criticalthinking (CT) skills when the activities are performed between cooperative groups. Thereby, we aim to contribute to a field that has still much to be explored. Based on the analysis of an experience performed by 15 students in a Master course of Teaching at University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, in which they were challenged to reinforce a set of personal and cognitive skills, using a web- based cooperative writing environment and a cooperative group peer assessment approach, our reflection in this article meets the following objectives:
In order to reverse this situation it is necessary that various components of the education system be in sympathy to the development of a harmonious, coherent and consistent approach. In this way, besides the education curriculum, teacher education and pedagogical practices need to be directed towards the development of students as critical thinkers. In other words, these all integrate knowledge in a criticaland objective manner (Genç, 2008). Within this framework, it is important that those who are responsible for education policy to understand and recognize the importance of promoting CT. Otherwise, they compromise its implementation in school in general and in the classroom in particular. In order to demand effective teaching of CT, in a globally organized and systematic manner, an education policy which explicitly and intentionally contemplates CT is essential. This is already the case in several countries, like Portugal.
Objective: to refl ect on the contributions of Jean Watson’s theory to the nurses’ holistic criticalthinking. Method: This is a theoretical refl ection article, on which scientifi c productions about Jean Watson’s human care theory, published in national and international periodicals, were based. Results: Jean Watson’s theory and its contribution to the nurses’ holistic criticalthinking; the interface of critical holistic thinking in teaching the nursing diagnosis process according to Watson’s theory; contributions of critical holistic thinking to the nursing fi eld. Final considerations: Jean Watson’s theory is based on the humanistic aspects and on the ethical and spiritual dimensions of care, considering the characteristics of each individual and their bio-psycho-spiritual-social needs, which can contribute fundamentally to the development of holistic criticalthinkingand to the role of the nurse in care, teachingand research fi elds
and dispositions, an important question according to Saiz & Rivas (2017). Also, only few papers reported experimental or quasi-experimental studies using control groups or standardized measures to assess the effect size of their interventions (9 out of 46; P1, P4, P9, P10, P12, P16, P18, P28 and P30). Therefore, the reported differences in CT were mainly based in a pre/post statistical assessment or the analysis of the learning artifacts produced by students, excluding other possible explanations for the reported improvements, e.g., maturation, academic experience, social interaction, dropouts, familiarity with the test, desire to improve (Ennis, 2016). Thus, we need to keep mapping the impact of other variables in students’ CT, some of them already explored in previous literature (Franco & Almeida, 2017), as gender, academic performance, teaching experience and type of CT measuring (Tiruneh et al., 2014). Further studies should pay attention to these and other variables (e.g., social class, ethnicity, etc.). Also, different research (and interventions) designs (e.g., longitudinal and experimental studies with control groups) are desirable, along with the adoption of adequate assessment instruments other than the CCTT - Level X (Ennis & Milman, 1985) or the Ennis-Weir Test (Ennis & Weir, 1985), including the evaluation of situations requiring decision making or problem-solving processes, preferably related to the students’ everyday life (Franco & Almeida, 2017).
Feedback resulting from discussion of teammates’ opinions was reported as richer or more complete. All participants, both as authors or reviewers, revealed very positive attitudes and perceptions about the feedback in a cooperative environment and agreed that changing the roles was important. Their opin- ions also positively highlighted the development of cognitive and social skills, which led all students to agree that if they had to choose again to perform the activity they would do it according to this CG framework. Those opinions are in line with other works that discuss the benefits of CG (Dotson, 2001; Johnson et al., 2014). Either as authors, or as reviewers, students used the feedback given by their peers to improve their work. They found it constructive, helped them to reflect on the shortcomings of their own work enabling them to improve it, thus showing their acceptance of the responsibility for teaching each other (Gillies, 2004). With this activity, feedback allowed students to contact with general and specific analysis of their work and the feedback quality was gener- ally considered as good as the one provided by the teacher, as stressed also by Ozogul and Sullivan (2007). In either role, students claimed to have developed CT as a general skill, from giving feedback, and specifically skills of synthesis, argumentation and counter-argumentation, integration and respect for differ- ent perspectives and views, individual accountability, acceptance of different opinions and learning autonomy (Dominguez et al., 2015; Lopes & Silva, 2010; Zimmerman, 2000).
Teachers in the two inner-city schools and the rural area school emphasised two other aspects of the curriculum that define the nature of their work. They referred to its extensiveness and its centralised char- acter. In particular, the teacher in the rural area school explained that it is not possible for teachers in one-teacher schools in rural areas to ad- just the school curriculum to pupils’ needs (he teaches Year 5 and Years 6 pupils in the same classroom). Therefore, these teachers’ time is sig- nificantly limited and so they are forced to focus on the so-called main subjects. The teacher in the underprivileged urban area school makes a similar observation. According to the teacher in the rural area school, due to time constraints, Greek Language and Mathematics are the sub- jects where emphasis is given as they are considered the most critical for pupils’ preparation for the University Entrance Exams. The teacher in the urban area school argues that the volume of the curriculum con- tent for the main subjects is large and there is never enough time for the proper teaching of other subjects.
Historically, the teaching process is mostly linked to the behaviorism theory. It assumes learning as observable and measurable actions and behaviours. Behaviourists claim that the process of student learning as simple “stimulus ->response” reaction. Under this frame, teachers act as the focal point for reinforcing student’s behaviour and assume the central element in new teacher educating and student learning, despite the fact that this approach does little to foster criticalthinking among students and make them as independent critical thinkers and dynamic learners. In other words, behaviorists believe that if teachers provide positive reinforcement, or rewards, whenever students perform a desired behavior, they will learn to perform the behavior on their own. Basically, the cognitivist approach emerged to highlight the focus on learner’s inner mental activities. Cognitivists approach the process of student learning as the following series “Stimulus -> meditation -> response”. Under this flow, students are responsible for gathering, handling, and applying information that they acquire during their classes, and teachers play the role of facilitators of learning, providing their students with opportunities for meditation to be great thinkers and meditators. In this case, teachers are mediators between students and the information that they acquire through their daily life, more precisely, this feature provides them the power to use much of themselves to understand the reasons behind the actions. This meditation is reflective learning and is entirely representative of criticalthinking (Liu et al., 2018).
engineering context is well reported in teachingand learning academic literature. However, much of this is framed within theoretical and conceptual frameworks. Practical approaches of how CT skills are best promoted in engineering curricula are less common. A state-of-art review of practical interventions that target the development of CT in engineering students is presented. The review draws on 25 selected peer-reviewed journal articles in established engineering databases and focusses on teaching strategies where their effects in promoting CT skills in students are measured. Considerable variability in the reviewed literature was apparent. CT interventions and strategies are often reported, but metrics of their success in enhancing students’ CT is often limited to qualitative, subjective inferences. To more robustly and holistically ensure that CT is clearly embedded in university curricula, there needs to be well-funded research programmes that allow different methods to be developed and trialled over extended periods in higher education engineering programmes.
Our experience has shown that much of the process lies in not thinking, not reacting and simply “spitting out” whatever is necessary at teachers’ beck and call. Since we strongly believe that education has become unfocused from their original aims, we intend to gather data related to criticalthinking, what it consists of and different perspectives in the teaching context, which shall be achieved in the first part of this paper. Secondly, we will deconstruct the mainstream current education system based on Ken Robinson’s position, a pivotal figure in education criticism, and specifically on his talk “Changing Education Paradigms”, which follows our discontentment towards education. The teaching context in which our experiment was put to the test will then be elicited, with a view to explaining some of the reasons that led us to integrate criticalthinking skills in the English language classroom, even before we were aware of this fact. Last, but no least, we will attempt to demonstrate the way we made use of criticalthinking materials, by describing the resources used and the plan we devised for implementing them.
The role of criticalthinking in problem solving, evaluating sources of information, understanding a person´s impact on his or her surroundings and directing efforts in a more meaningful way are general reasons for any professional to develop this competence, in engineering however there are even more reasons. The lack of space for discussion and open debate in strongly technical engineering subjects is another issue. While professors place the development of criticalthinking as high priority, few can clearly delimit their teaching practices to promote this ability (Niewoehner, 2006). In the engineering competences discussion, the models presented consolidate the importance of criticalthinking in the profession. According to Duderstadt (2008) some of the desirable characteristics of the profession are having global understanding of their work, working in increasingly multidisciplinary projects, providing end-to-end solution while keeping the commitment to the role of an engineer, and the understanding of the ethical implications and societal impact of their work. The CDIO Syllabus regards criticalthinking in items 2.5 – ethics, equity and other responsibilities, 4.1 – external, societal an environmental context and 4.2 – Enterprise and business context. ABET objectives requires this competence in items (b) - an ability to design and conduct experiments, as well as to analyze and interpret data, (e) - an ability to identify, formulate, and solve engineering problems, (f) - an understanding of professional and ethical responsibility and specially (h) the broad education necessary to understand the impact of engineering solutions in a global, economic, environmental, and societal context.
Contrary to the conception of traditional education, contemporary education which promotes progressive and existentialist philosophies of education, aims to contribute to individuals in order for them to explore their potential and abilities, to improve them and, through this approach, to realize themselves. In contemporary education, schools are the fields for producing critical knowledge. In this sense, schools should promote collective imaginations, namely criticalthinking which mentions establishing social justice for all groups, and ending all discrimination such as exploitation, racism and sexism (McLaren, 2007). In order for this aim to be actualized, qualified teachers are required who are subject to universal values and who can think critically; because, one of the fundamental variables determining the quality of education, and maybe the most important, is the quality of the teachers. It is not only the knowledge and skills related to the teaching profession of pre- service teachers, in other words teachers of the future, but also their values and approaches towards education have a significant influence on each and every aspect of the quality of education (Oguz, Altinkurt, Yilmaz, & Hatipoglu, 2014). In this regard, this study investigates the effect of pre-service teachers’ values on their criticalthinking dispositions.
This study explores innovative ways for promoting and assessing the effectiveness of teachers’ written formative feedback in the context of undergraduate studies. The investigation entails close collaboration with one Biology teacher in the context of teaching ‘evolution’. One of the particular challenges was to encourage 88 first-year biology undergraduates to produce critical analyses of a selected press release related to the topic of evolution (i.e., the advent of genetic diseases). The research approach is based on a critical social paradigm, assuming principles of action- research. All written documents produced by participants and semi-structured interviews (at the end of the semester) were used as part of the content analysis of data. Results show that the teacher’s written comments increased opportunities for students to search for further information, negotiate and take decisions within their group, auto- and hetero-reflect before sending their critical analyses to the teacher.
Regarding CT assessment, all teachers adopt formative and summative evaluation strategies and/or tools, and there is a greater incidence in the formative evaluation type with continuous feedback. However, there is a lack of explanation and clarity on how teachers apply and practice it. In future work, it is recommended to verify if teachers have enough knowledge about how to assess CT development of their students, as well as to better understand in what extent these formative strategies can be integrated within the teaching practice. Also, and attending that the educational interventions reported in this study are short-term, will be important to analyze how CT can be fostered across the curricula, in a more systematic way, attending to the longitudinal and mid-term setting that better enable the development of CT dispositions.
As a result of the research, it has been found that the criticalthinking disposition levels of Turkish Education teacher candidates are low. According to the other studies in the literature, those values were also stated as low or medium. However, the expectation is in the direction of having high level of criticalthinking ability. Because “training students as individuals having ability to think critically” takes place among the main purposes in the prepared teaching curriculum. Teachers will achieve this by their methods to apply substantially. Therefore, it is required that firstly teachers and teacher candidates develop themselves in terms of being able to think critically. The first step for this process is possible as the level of criticalthinking ability increases. For this reason, it is required to determine the reasons of “low” and “medium” level of criticalthinking in details and improve about the deficiencies according to these evaluations. In this situation, teachers can be given in-service training and teacher candidates can be given some courses accordingly as well.
To answer the proposed objectives, the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Porto was selected. The Master Degree Course in Medicine is adequate to the Bologna model, has the duration of 6 years and it is organized in 2 cycles: a first cycle corresponding to Degree in Basic Health Sciences with a duration of 3 years and a second cycle, organized in 2 years of Clinical learning and a last year of Professional Clinical Clerkship, which includes the elaboration of the Master Degree Thesis. The participants consist on the students of the first, fourth and sixth year of the Master Degree Course of Faculty of Medicine of the University of Porto actively enrolled in the 2010/2011 academic year, corresponding to the freshman students, those who concluded the first cycle of studies and those that are concluding the second, respectively. From a total of 805 illegible students, 544 (67.6% response rate) have participated in the study – 231 (75.7% response rate) from the first year, 156 (59.8%) from the fourth and 157 (65.7%) from the sixth. From the respondents, 326 (63.9%) were females and 184 (36.1%) were males, 7 (1.3%) students had already another graduation, 14 (2.6%) have published at least one scientific paper, 45 (8.3%) are or have been enrolled in a research group and 48 (10.6%) have failed at least one year during their studies. The students had received no formal teaching of criticalthinking skills to answer the questionnaire.
The forum established by the 15th Congress made it possible to discuss different questions within the humanities: the identity of the diverse cultures that co-exist in the globalized world; poetic and fictional writing and criticism; literary and cultural translation studies; the critical reception of works in different contexts; regional literatures approached from a comparative perspective; historiographical research about reading practices, and the production and circulation of printed material; themes relating to the teachingand learning of literature; creativity, translation and new technologies; to name but a few.
viewers’ answers, and their dis- cussions touched on the craft of writing and the different ways in which the same story could be understood. Based on their knowl- edge of the student writers, review- ers were able to draw on experi- ences from outside of school in formulating their explanations, but there were also specific dis- cussions of teaching that had taken place in school. For exam- ple, the question “Which charac- ter did you find most interesting?” prompted some students to ex- plain particular writing tech- niques they had been taught in class. One student reported get- ting into a real debate about what made certain characters interest- ing. The student thought that in order for characters to be interest- ing, they had to do lots of things, and he was surprised that his home reviewer had a different opinion. The student explained, “I learned that it’s not so much what the character does, as who the character is inside, that makes for an interesting character. It is like in real life—you have to think about what makes them tick.”
Along such CT "friendly" teaching-learning strategies, there are topics that might be particularly motivating to use in class to initiate an oriented debate or to ignite a "circle of knowledge", for instance. Citizens should have scientific literacy, which includes building scientific knowledge, and developing CT abilities and dispositions (Ossa-Cornejo, Palma-Luengo, Lagos-San Martín, & Díaz-Larenas, 2018; Tenreiro- Vieira & Vieira, 2000). This is particularly imperative in "post-truth times" as today, when fake news proliferate, and anti-science attitudes are modeled by our own polit- ical leaders. At the same time, citizens seem to have a distant relationship with sci- ence and to be unwilling to try to understand how scientific products function in fact. So, not only may individuals benefit from maximizing the quality of their CT abilities, but also will they have gains in their scientific abilities, since they walk hand in hand (Ossa-Cornejo et al., 2018). In light of this, an example of fake news or scientific fraud may be used in class as a starting point to discuss empirical facts versus personal opinions, scientific data versus the use of anecdotes, the dangers of post-truth and anti-science, the improvements created by science and its boundaries, among many other matters.
one in the interrogative. She said the text had an abundance of verbs in the simple past precisely for illustrating this grammar point they were covering that week. When the correction was over participants were invited to do the last 5 exercises of the unit. Task 1 was a passive ‘gap-completion exercise’, where students had to use a word from the box (regular verbs in the base form) for each sentence and adapt as necessary. The adaptation required, although not explicitly stated, was supposed to be a change to the simple past, thereby a rather mechanical task. Task 2 encompassed a ‘matching the columns’, asking the students to identify which past tense (all affirmative) went with which verb and a ‘gap-completion’ where they had to use the past tense forms to complete the given sentences; both being passive tasks since the clues were provided (Tulving & Osler, 1968). Task 3 was also a ‘gap-completion grammar exercise’; a box was provided with regular and irregular verbs in the base form and learners were asked to use a word from the box for each sentence and adapt as necessary. However, here there were affirmative, negative and interrogative sentences to be completed, a factor which surely bore a higher level of cognitive work. Task 4 was another ‘match the columns’ where students had to match the past tense forms from the box with the verbs (in the base form) on the list by writing them in the appropriate spaces. As all the clues were supplied, this seemed to be a recognition task with a low level of abstraction. Finally, in Task 5 students were supposed to complete the given sentences (all in the affirmative) using the past tense forms from the list in exercise 4, which should, by that time, be familiar to the students and therefore destituted of any significant challenge.