is made of self, society, and the myriad interactions that inform social practices (Fiske, 1989). Therefore, the ways in which the institution of schooling is represented in a popular text reflect, at least to some degree, popular conceptions of governmental institutions, schooling, teachers, the larger public sphere, and the ways in which they interact. It is important to note that both Fiske and Helfenbein offer that a film can be read as text, and that this text is not scholarly in nature but, rather, one of popular culture—a term acknowledged as problematic at best and persistently debated amongst culturalstudies scholars (Johnson, 1996). The ways in which dominant ideologies are at work in texts like the film Waiting for Superman provide insight both into the power of the logic of educational reform but also into what representations of school and schooling resonate with a larger public (regardless of political leanings). However, because of the dependence on the pleasure of the reader, popular culture texts must necessarily be popular. This simple a priori statement compels culturalstudies scholars to attend to a diversity of readers/readings and at least opens the possibility that some readings may be resistive. In other words, while dominant ideologies may be at work in the creation of popular texts, their dominance is in no way guaranteed as one considers the ways in which they are read. As Fiske (1989) states, “there is always an element of popular culture that lies outside social control, that escapes or opposes hegemonic forces” (p. 2). In this way, popular culture always operates on the level of the semiotic and reflects the tension between ideological forces in its production and the unpredictable possibilities in the reading of texts. This paper explores precisely those spaces of escape or opposition in relation to the forces in education that may be hegemonic.
The greater intercultural contact between different groups, such as what we witness, for example, in European context, also turns collective memories or social representa- tions of history (Licata & Klein, 2005; Liu & Hilton, 2005) into more plural phenomena, challenging representations that are already known within the same group (Liu & Hilton, 2005). This is the case, for instance, of supranational groups, such as the European Union. Although the different countries that comprise it have their specific characteris- tics and, although there are marked power asymmetries between them, it seems impor- tant that they share some elements in common within the social representations of this group’s history and that political leaders take these representations into account when formulating policies that are commonly accepted among those involved and consist- ent with a common reality (Liu & Hilton, 2005). Social Psychology and CulturalStudies have interesting theoretical resources to analyse the (re)constructions of these collective memories and the relations of coloniality that may be involved in these negotiations based on present-day intergroup relations.
dedicado quase inteiramente ao pensamento da autora. Por que essa negligência, principalmente em um momento que tanto se fala em Estudos Culturais? Sem considerar as especificidades do mercado editorial, ainda mais específicas quando se trata de livros técnicos e editoras universitárias, alguns fatores certamente contribuíram para tanto, como a complexidade da obra e sua suposta obsolescência. Isto nos remente à pergunta inicial deste artigo: DecodingAdvertisements é uma obra “datada”? Quando faz esta afirmação, Wells está pensando no conjunto de circunstâncias acadêmicas, políticas e pessoais que tanto facilitaram quanto limitaram a repercussão de DecodingAdvertisements: por um lado, a obra de Williamson aproveita-se do repentino interesse por cultura popular demonstrado por estudantes recém-ingressos no Center for Contemporary CulturalStudies(CCCS); por outro lado, ela concentra-se por demais em debates (anti-)estruturalistas q ue hoje são “assunto de história acadêmica” (WELLS, 2004, p.167-168). Contudo, a crítica de Wells parece reforçar aquilo que França indica como uma das dificuldades das teorias da comunicação, o modismo: “quadros conceituais, temáticas e vertentes explicativas se sucedem ao longo dos anos, sem alcançar o necessário aprofundamento e maturação” (FRANÇA, 2001, p.50). Não é preciso repassar os caminhos levantados pela pesquisa de Williamson para perceber como muitos encontram-se incompletos, principalmente aqueles que resultaram em críticas: Williamson e outros autores nos mostraram a estrutura da publicidade, agora precisamos avaliá-la enquanto processo. Este é o caminho que, para citar um exemplo, Piedras tenta percorrer em Fluxo publicitário (2009).
outcomes. At the same time, the bifactor approach also supports the validity of Keyes’s (1998) broad model of mental health as comprised by three components (i.e., emotional, psychological, and social). Regarding the applied perspective, it is useful to know whether the MHC-SF could be used as a screening test measuring mental health in different cultural contexts. Given that nowadays many young people study and work in different countries, it is necessary to have a valid instrument to assess their mental health across countries. Finally, in cross-culturalstudies the issue of measurement invariance is crucial to evaluate the possibility of generalizing findings across cultural contexts and comparing the levels of mental health across populations.
are, two dimensions to culturalstudies as it emerged: Williams refers to them as the project and the formations. I think that the heart of culturalstudies is a project – a radically contextual, anti-universalizing intellectual practice that is committed to complexity, opposed to any and all forms of reductionism, etc. This project remains constant across various “conjunctural” or contextual moments. But the particular formation – the political struggles and possibilities at stake, the questions that need to be asked, the theoretical and empirical resources that are available to begin to construct answers – all these things have to be continuously challenged and reconstructed in ways that make culturalstudies responsible to its context. Culturalstudies is not defined by any particular formation – whether from England, or Mexico or Colombia, whether from Hall, or Williams, or Canclini or Barbero or the Centre for Contemporary CulturalStudies . . . These are exemplars of attempts to actualize the project in response to particular conjunctural demands. But it is important to remember that the reduction of history to either the old (everything is the same) or the new (everything is different) is another forms of reduction: for culturalstudies, the starting point – and maybe the ending point – is always what is old, what is new, and what is rearticulated. Only in this way can you begin to understand the context in its complexity and relationalities.
daquela geração de sul-africanos. A própria juventude africânder já se sentia intimada a rebelar-se contra os absurdos daquele sistema racista que regia seu país. Algo interessante é o fato de os seus álbuns conterem pouca informação sobre quem era ou de onde era o que reforçou ainda mais a aura de mistério em torno do artista por parte da população. Os consumidores daquela música contestadora queriam saber quem era o autor daquela obra tão representativa para aquele contexto cultural, mas não tinham acesso nenhum acesso a ele a não ser a pouca informação contida em seus discos (o segundo lançado em 1971 Coming from Reality se proliferou junto com o primeiro disco) e que pouco revelava sobre o artista.
In the following text, “Intercultural dialogue and intergroup relations in Europe: contributions from CulturalStudies and Social Psychology”, Julia Alves Brasil, Federal University of Espírito Santo, Brazil and Rosa Cabecinhas, University of Minho, Portugal, pull together contributions from different disciplines in order to analyze the challenges that are being raised nowadays in the field of Intercultural Communication. The authors discuss these challenges by means of the articulation of theoretical perspectives about the processes of identity, alterity, social representations, collective memory, colonialism and power asymmetries. Advocating the importance of a critical perspective in the un- derstanding of interculturality, the authors emphasize the necessity of transforming so- cial, institutional and epistemic structures, so as to (re)create ways of thinking, feeling and relating to others, which implies not only the simple recognition and tolerance of the “other” but also to active listening, dialogue and mutual transformation.
This paper aims to discuss the up-to-dateness and episteme of Bakhtin’s studies about popular culture, based on performance theory and culturalstudies. The focus of this study is the cultural productions of Quilombola communities in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, such as Ticumbi, Jongo, and Reis de Bois. Verses from the Ticumbi de São Benedito performance were selected for the analysis. Bakhtin ’s studies on popular culture indicate that popular festivities, processions and performances have transformative and ambivalent potential, with emphasis on the concept of carnivalization. In the streets of the city, ambivalent laughter, hyperbolism and a subversion of hierarchies and social order celebrate the possibility of the recognition and the struggle of old African kingdoms subdued by the Atlantic Diaspora.
CulturalStudies (Introdução aos Estudos Cognitivos da Cultura), editado por Lisa Zunshine (2010). Ao mesmo tempo, é preciso admitir que, infelizmente, a dimensão sociocultural está quase totalmente ausente dos trabalhos de Stockwell e Hogan. Isso não surpreende, uma vez que as origens das ciências cognitivas estão na psicologia, na linguística, na neurobiologia e na ciência da computação. Sendo assim, as ciências cognitivas têm focado na análise das formas como a mente humana percebe, estrutura e interpreta a realidade – e, ao fazê-lo, muito pouco levam em conta o contexto social em que ocorrem essas atividades. O livro editado por Lisa Zunshine difere das monografias de Stockwell e Hogan, pelo fato de que certos artigos aprofundam uma concepção mais multidimensional da realidade, ou seja, uma concepção que busca considerar a especificidade da realidade sociocultural. Isso significa que, em princípio, as ciências cognitivas poderiam ser uma ferramenta útil para a sociologia da literatura, embora, em sua fase atual, ainda não tenham integrado adequadamente as ciências sociais e os estudos culturais em método de análise do funcionamento da mente humana.
Firstly, we can gain important views on human cognitive abilities from patients and their experiences; as for example does Oliver Sacks who actually called himself a neuroanthropologist [3; p.27]. A study of patients with damaged language centres shows the important fact that mathematical reasoning does not depend only on language. It is, basically, an additional and independent part of our cognition. Furthermore, with cross-culturalstudies of mathematics, the so-called ethno-mathematics , we gain the knowledge about how our development in specific environment shapes our cognition. For further investigation it would be interesting also to study patients with same lesions raised in different environment. Presented research and views on human mind and cognition also provide new views on education. Further findings in the presented field might also change our educational systems and bring some novel ideas into it.
and whether to adapt the product portfolio for exports or foreign investment operations. Often, these decisions are driven by assump- tions about the host and home country qualities and cultural differences, and influ- ence firms’ performance (Calof and Beamish, 1994; Hofstede, 1980, 1991). Miscalculated strategic decisions may create future hazards, lowering the likelihood of survival and suc- cess of international operations. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the factors underly- ing firms’ strategic decisions, in particular, aspects of home and host country qualities and conditions that facilitate these decisions. Despite prolific research on firms’ inter- national strategies, which stem from the multiple areas of industrial organization, economics, management, and cross-culturalstudies, the area of international management is still ill informed as to the impact of home and host country cultural values on firms’ choice of internationalization strategy. Scholars have predominantly utilized Hof- stede’s (1980) cultural dimensions (collec- tivism–individualism, uncertainty avoidance, power distance, masculinity–femininity), and, to a lesser degree, Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner’s (1998) classification of culture (e.g. universalism vs. particularism, communitarianism vs. individualism, achieve- ment vs. ascription, and the human–time relationship), or Perlmutter’s (1969) typology of management approaches (i.e. ethno- centrism, geocentrism, and polycentrism) to examine the impact of culture on firms’ strategy (e.g. Hennart and Park, 1993) and performance (e.g. Li et al., 2001). The effect of culture and cultural distance on foreign entry modes (Brouthers and Brouthers, 2000; Kogut and Singh, 1988; Makino and Neupert, 2000), joint ventures’ performance (Pothukuchi et al., 2002), performance out- comes in alliance negotiations (Teegen and Doh, 2002), multinational management teams utilized in international joint ventures (Salk and Brannen, 2000), and business failures (Li and Guisinger, 1991) are some of
The following is a draft proposal to establish a culturalstudies centre in Gondar town. This centre is supposed to be established at the Ras Sihule Mika’el Palace, which is one among the Gondar UNESCO World Heritage Site's monuments. The Palace is currently under direct possession of the Department of Culture, Tourism & Information for North Gondar and is presently not in service, although it has become a visitable place in the recent months. The owner of the alleged cultural study centre should be a Foundation, with a board of administrators comprising representatives of local and regional authorities, private patrons and international representatives.
The arguments presented in this article suggest firstly that some of the general accounts of new forms of selfhood made by sociologists such as Beck and Beck- Gernsheim (2001) and Rose (1996) do not adequately engage with how these subject positions are translated within different media and cultural forms. The focus of this article has been specifically on gender and its centrality in re-configuring selfhood within media forms such as women’s magazine culture. The injunction to understand one’s life as an autonomous individual is governed through very different concepts, discourses and broader argumentative contexts, creating very different dilemmas and conflicts for men and women. The dialogic context of these discourses is also very different showing how the kinds of generalist accounts of subject formation do not engage with how they intersect across the designations of race, class, gender and sexuality. This work also suggests that studies of media consumption have for too long reified audiences as cognitivist subjects, primarily engaging with the media through linguistic structures and codes. This does not explore how certain cultural discourses and practices, such as self-help, condense or bring together a range of cultural anxieties, bodily tensions, emotional economies and forms of psychopathology which are ‘already-constituted’ lived realities for many of the readers engaging with these magazines. This is an approach to psychology which considers its cultural production through social and cultural practices, and also how media and cultural forms work alongside or in conjunction with these ‘already constituted’ fears and desires. The psychological dimensions of media and cultural forms are central to understanding how they work, particularly in terms of audience’s investment or subjective commitment to certain practices and understandings. More engagement with Critical psychology by cultural theorists will enable culturalstudies to bring the body back into cultural theory, to consider its regulation as well as the myriad of ways in which the dialogic nature of discourse creates the very dilemmas, conflicts and ambiguities which enable resistance and new forms of identity to emerge.