On the other side, the great technological advances in the last years have made the hearing aids (devices used to amplify the sound) smaller and of better quality such as the digital audiphones, used to select the sound frequencies of the human voice to make it more intelligible to persons with hearing impairments. Nevertheless, there are also cases in which this is not recommended. Infections or malformations of the ear, or a profound hearing loss, will make these hearing aids useless. The deafcommunity is also opposed to these hearing aids as the deaf have their own language and cultural identity.
A further distinction needs to be made between being “deaf” and “Deaf” (with a capital D). Once again, if we are to return to audiological parameters, then it is feasible to consider “deaf” anybody who has a hearing impairment over 60dB, in other words, people with severe and profound hearing loss. As before, figures might be misleading and must be cautiously used in this context. However, the true difference between deaf/Deaf lies in the realm of sociology and culture. Basically, “deaf” simply refers to someone who cannot hear well enough to process aural information conveniently. Considering somebody “Deaf” means accepting the fact that that person belongs to the Deafcommunity that, even if a minority, has rules and codes of conduct that differentiate it from all others 25 . The element that is most often referred to as that which best defines a community is its language, “a code whereby ideas about the world are represented by a conventional system of signals for communication” (Bloom and Lahey 1978:4). Most human languages are made up by conventional systems of signals which are grammatically structured and voiced through spoken words. Many deaf people use a language which also has a structured grammar that governs conventionalised movements that convey messages visually: sign(ed) language. Just as there are variations among spoken languages, there are wide varieties of sign languages – different visual/manual modes of communication. There is no clear notion of the number of sign language varieties that may exist in the world. Further to the fact that people from different countries have different sign languages, one sign language, BSL (British Sign Language) or PSL (Portuguese Sign Language, in Portuguese, LGP – Língua Gestual Portuguesa) for instance, may have numerous regional varieties or SL pidgin or creoles. Kyle and Allsop (1997:71-72) have cautiously forwarded that “[t]he most realistic estimate of sign users […] is that 1 in 2000
METHODS: The methodology proposed by the World Health Organization (WHOQOL-BREF and WHOQOL-DIS) was used to construct instruments adapted to the deafcommunity using Brazilian Sign Language (Libras). The research for constructing the instrument took placein 13 phases: 1) creating the QUALITY OF LIFE sign; 2) developing the answer scales in Libras; 3) translation by a bilingual group; 4) synthesized version; 5) ﬁ rst back translation; 6) production of the version in Libras to be provided to the focal groups; 7) carrying out the Focal Groups; 8) review by a monolingual group; 9) revision by the bilingual group; 10) semantic/syntactic analysis and second back translation; 11) re-evaluation of the back translation by the bilingual group; 12) recording the version into the software; 13) developing the WHOQOL-BREF and WHOQOL-DIS software in Libras.
Language policies enforcing linguistic rights through official documents have been key in defining and guiding education policies aimed at the schooling of deaf people in Brazil. More specifically, the deaf communities’ struggles over the past four decades have paved the way for introducing Libras as both a right and language of instruction in Brazil. Rodrigues and Beer (2016), like other scholars, acknowledge the centrality of Libras in deaf education and the importance of both language rights and Libras-oriented language policies. Even though there is no undisputable approach to deaf education, policies targeting the deafcommunity need “to rely on linguistic human rights by recognizing and prioritizing human dignity, which can be grasped as quality of life, social welfare and citizens hip” (RODRIGUES; BEER, 2016, p.676). 2
The study is based on a small sample size. The number of students studying in the colleges of the deaf in Pakistan is no more than 200. The sample is about 15.5 % of the total population which is acceptable sample size if randomly drawn. The generalizability of the findings of the study is not very promising. Yet some alarming indicators have surfaced. Firstly, ICT is equally popular among the deaf in Pakistan although curriculum is not very supportive. Secondly, ICT provides an effective mode of communication with hearing population and English language is not seen as a barrier. Thirdly, the deaf students are very wise users of ICT and it is less likely that ICT will invade their value system. Fourthly, ICT giant and service providers are not paying attention to the ICT needs of deafcommunity in Pakistan although there is great potential in the market for expansion of their business.
a common basis, on the description of the levels of the language (as a L1 and/or L2). In line with the above, and in terms of methodology, SL teaching focused more on interaction and the development of users’ communicative competence in SL (i.e. linguistic, sociolinguistic, discourse), adopting communicative language teaching (CLT) approaches, as the latter were employed and applied in MFLs. This development was supported with more research from sociolinguistics that informed about cultural norms within deaf communities and families of deaf children. Thus, the focus of SL teaching was the creation of communicative scenarios, in which the learner uses the language in the way deaf people do. For instance, in the SL programme (for the learning of British Sign Language – BSL) of the Centre for Deaf Studies (CDS), of Bristol University, one of the learning objectives was to immerse students into the deafcommunity, having frequent extra-mural contacts and not just the hourly sessions that SL courses were offering (CDS, 2001). Currently, following tested paradigms from MFL and, inventing new ones, CLT is the method that dominates most adult learning classes (Mertzani, 2010).
The difficult communication between the deaf and health professionals is clearly perceived when they seek health care. Constraints to adapt to the system are strong, and when they fail, they are absolutely excluded. The need of the deaf for being understood by health professionals becomes visible in their reports. The lack of LIBRAS interpreters is a barrier in health institutions in Brazil, which makes the lives of people with hearing loss, seeking assistance or requesting help in these institutions, even more complicated 13 .
The Human Figure Drawing (HFD) and the Test of Pfister (PT) are two non-verbal projective techniques with playful characteristics as well as of rapid application. These instruments permit to know peculiarities of the examinee related to his/her affective dynamics and cognitive aspects. Both instruments can help the evaluation of deaf children. Professionals who work with deaf children relate many difficulties to comprehend how they feel and organize their thoughts. In the present study, the aim has been the search of evidences of validity for PT and HDF tests in deaf children. Participation comprised 37 hearing and 81 non-hearing children of both sexes, aged between 6 and 12, students from elementary to sixth-grade classes. Deaf children were separated in three groups according to the educational philosophy to which they were exposed. After ethical procedures, their parents filled a closed questionaire with information about their children and their families. Children afterwards executed PT and HFD tests. In order to codify the Pfister Test, indicators taken in consideration were frequency of colors, chromatic syndromes and formal aspects, while at HFD emotional and cognitive indicators were checked. As result, on the PT the deaf children depicted increase in frequency of violet color of the rug formal aspect and lowering of pyramids structure in comparison with hearing chidren, indicating, for the former, less sophisticated cognitive organization than for the latter. As for comparison among the groups of deaf in the PT, the statistically-significant differences took place in the formal aspect. Comparison of HFD-Koppitz indicators and HFD-Sisto scale of mental maturity level between non-hearing and hearing presented no significant differences. As for the comparison among groups of non-hearing, there were differences only in the emotional indicators of Koppitz. The stuck-to-the-body arms indicator, transparency, three or more figures spontaneously drawn and clouds helped to differentiate the groups. These findings corroborate with literature about deafness. In addition, several indicators of PT and HDF presented correlation among them.
classically defined as ‘early onset’, yet is still within the scope of maturations of the retina to take place. This participant’s results show similarity to the other deaf participants and therefore this raises interest for when these retinal changes may be occurring. The visual field advantage in deaf individuals is later to arise than expected, first identified at 11 years old by one study  and 13 years old by another . Therefore if hearing loss occurred after 4 years old, although current theory would suggest that retinal maturation is complete, continued development of peripheral vision suggests that a peripheral visual advantage may be possible even in those whose onset of deafness is beyond 4 years old. The mechanism for this continued development is yet to be investigated, but may include post-receptoral and LGN and cortical development as well as improved attention to peripheral space. A longitudinal case study, performing OCT on deaf and hearing children in association with visual field testing is suggested in light of these findings.
Community Health Agents (CHA) represent an increasing segment of health professionals in the PHC. They take on a remarkable significance considering their work dynamics of monitoring patients registered in the Family Health Strategy (FHS) teams. The CHA act as a link between the health teams and the population, focusing on a gap between scientific knowledge and experience, thus reducing the boundaries between patient and family health team (5-6) . In the national and international litera-
Community succession is one the most important topics in ecology. It was firstly discussed by Clements in 1916. Community succession is suggested to be studied at landscape level (spatial heterogeneity and disturbance, etc.) (Margalef, 1968). The rules and directions of community succession have been disputed among ecologists (Connel and Slatyer, 1977). Major theories on community succession include relay floristic hypothesis, initial floristic composition hypothesis, C-S hypothesis, life history strategy hypothesis, resource ratio hypothesis, Odum-Magelef's ecosystem development hypothesis, McMahon system concept model, shifting mosaic steady state hypothesis, and scale and hierarchical system hypothesis, etc. Research of community succession can be performed in two ways: a long period of survey in the same research plot, or multi-site sampling in a large area to replace time costing survey in the same plot.
This article clarifies the inclusion of the deaf student in regular education, agreeing with the importance of this right, and thus, in a succinct way, highlights the legal bases that ensure this modality, defines what inclusion is, the difficulties faced by the deaf student and / or with deafness in this process, also exposing the role of the school and the teacher. The school's function is to develop resources that help the inclusion of students with special needs in their physical and pedagogical space, developing the Political Pedagogical Project (PPP) without restrictions to these students. On the contrary, they must be included in their pluralities, as well as the short, medium and long-term objectives to be achieved. The teacher, in turn, has a fundamental role as a mediator of the teaching- learning processes in an inclusive school, and the student, with special needs, will be received in the classroom by that teacher. The research was carried out through bibliographic surveys by means of true and legitimate documents. It is considerable nowadays, to defend that education is a right of all, and that it is ensured in the Federal Constitution, taking care not only to guarantee entry, but to structure it so that it remains and is successful in that school path, at different levels of education when it is known that Brazil has advanced in terms of the creation of laws, protection and protection for students with deafness.
This production results from concerns about the teaching-learning process of deaf people in the inclusive education school, in regular education. We seek to present the main concepts among which the differentiation between deafness and hearing impairment, based on Decree 5626/05 (BRAZIL, 2005), through which we emphasize that the sign language officialization and regulation made it possible to understand deaf people beyond finding a deficiency. We seek to highlight the understandings of deaf culture and identities and point out the challenges that are posed for inclusive school when faced with the reality of deaf students. Among these challenges we point to the participation and changes in the organization of the school community and the teacher training so that there is linguistic sharing and to work with differences. We invite readers to observe these factors in the light of the experiences of a deaf author and teacher and two authors who, being teachers and interpreters of Libras (Brazilian Sign Language), live and work with the reality of deafness and inclusion. We seek answers to the following question: Is the school we have prepared for the inclusion of deaf people in mainstream education? To answer it we are based on authors such as: Costa (1994); Lacerda (2002); Lodi (2005); Perlin (2006); Schubert (2012, 2015, 2015b and 2019), Skliar (1998); and others who enter the debate. After the development of the work we consider that the school we have is not the one requested by the deaf and pointed out in the legislation that provides for bilingual education, but it is the one that the system allows and when the subjects request a specific education that is more welcoming to their specificities. It is understood as segregating and even by ghettoization, because political actions disregard what deaf people highlight as important for their own education according to their needs.
ouvintes. Assim sendo, a Cultura Surda é também um fenómeno transnacional, abarcando um sentimento de pertença a uma irmanda- de mundial que partilha não só a modalidade linguística vísuo- espacial como experiências de vida. Chamamos a esta forma especí- fica de vivenciar o mundo e que transcende as fronteiras nacionais Deaf Way (Erting et al., 1994). O Deaf Way é parte integrante da construção da Identidade Surda, quer seja em cada indivíduo quer a nível colectivo, e existe independentemente de fidelidades e fenó- menos religiosos, nacionalistas ou políticos. Este fenómeno transna- cional tem origem nos banquetes realizados em Paris no final do século XIX, em honra do Abade de L’Épée (fundador da primeira escola pública de Surdos), que serviam de local de encontro a uma elite Surda internacional erudita, para debates ontológicos e episte-
Taken together, the fundamental contributions by scientific drilling s by scientific drilling by scientific drilling projects to understanding Earth’s environment and its immense natural ing Earth’s environment and its immense natural Earth’s environment and its immense natural variability over geological time should leave no doubt about their impor- tance. Unfortunately, delays in drilling platform refurbishment and repair, and unavailability of mission-specific platforms—all related to an overheated -specific platforms—all related to an overheated specific platforms—all related to an overheated offshore and shipyard market—have caused an almost three-year-long -year-long year-long -long long drilling hiatus during IODP’s initial five years. Light now appears at the end of the tunnel. The Japanese riser drilling platform . The Japanese riser drilling platform The Japanese riser drilling platform Chikyu, the U.S.-supplied .S.-supplied S.-supplied .-supplied supplied JOIDES Resolution (following complete refurbishment of vessel, drilling refurbishment of vessel, drilling vessel, drilling equipment, and laboratory), and mission-specific platforms for shallow- -specific platforms for shallow- specific platforms for shallow-- water coring will all be active in 2009 (see schedule on back cover). This schedule will set a new high mark for scientific ocean drilling activity and provide a welcome backdrop for preparations for IODP renewal in 2013, in 2013, 2013, which will start in 2009 with a major, community-wide conference (p. 66) -wide conference (p. 66) wide conference (p. 66) addressing the scientific challenges and opportunities for ocean drilling after 2013. The constructive interaction with ICDP and other drilling 2013. The constructive interaction with ICDP and other drilling programs, observatory science, and environmental modeling efforts will no , and environmental modeling efforts will no and environmental modeling efforts will no will no no doubt form the context of this major conference.