reach developed countries (Escobar, 2011; Cooke, 2004; Banerjee & Linstead, 2001). This contested imperative question and respective North-South transfer of management knowledge and managerialist institutions (Srinivas, 2010; Dar & Cooke, 2013) are interrogated, in the fourth section, through the investigation of specific impacts triggered by compliance-resistance dynamics experienced by participants of a joint organization-academy action learning program in Brazil within the realm of developmentadministration. In this sense, we observe how DevelopmentAdministration is being shaped within a major state-owned development organization in Brazil, identifying enduring Third World dynamics within contemporary Global South, especially in emerging economies. Our qualitative action research, developed in the third section, has a focus on a specific action learning program and engages with on- going action research principles and practices in interconnected levels to understand how agents and practitioners, to a major extent, and academics, to a minor extent, are dealing with impactful resistance-compliance dynamics within the realms of DAM. In detail, we embrace political and emotional impacts over participants of an action learning program called “Leadership for Development”, an engaged scholarship project involving BNDES, a public/governmental development bank, FGV-EBAPE, a renowned school of public and business administrations in Brazil, and the IMPM, a twenty-year-old international program championed by a network of five academic institutions around the world. Nowadays, the Brazilian Bank is facing a profound crisis underpinned by attacks from media, the decreasing of public funding due to the federal administration deficit (Lazzarini et al., 2015; Torres Filho, 2017). Such specific action learning program reinforces IMPM’s objective of pursuing an alternative action-learning developmental education worldwide together with academic institutions and organizations of emerging economies (Mintzberg & Gosling, 2002; Gosling & Mintzberg, 2003).
jobs which presume developing IT applications, web programs and IT administration. Secondly, there are the engineers. Mechanical engineers are the most wanted. It is about the graduates from Electro-technical colleges. Construction engineers are also highly wanted, like the ones who have knowledge in the medical fieldă andă whoă cană workă ină theă medicală system:ă doctors,ă nursesă oră technicians‖,ă saidă Rudolfă Fedorovici,ă consultant for Advice Human Resources. In Germany, for example, they must fulfill the communitarian aquis regarding the number of doctors/number of residents. That is why they want as many pediatricians, neurologists, surgeons as they can get. Moreover, there are very many requests from the automobile productionăarea.ăTheăresearchăshowsăthatămostăofătheădoctorsăwhoăworkăabroadăareăresidents.ă―Mostăofătheă offers for the Romanians come from Italy, Belgium, France, Cyprus. Outside of the European Union, the top countriesăwhichăappreciateăRomanianăworkforceăareătheăArabăEmirates,ăYemenăandăCanada.‖ăMostăofă the Labor Inspection jobs refer to: doctors (one person in 2005 and 5 people in 2006), economists (79 in 2005, 3 in 2006), engineers (125 in 2005, 74 in 2006) and one psychologist (in 2006). In general, every country has its own lack of workforce on certain sectors of activity. As the countries which undertake a reform process need engineers, the rapidly growing areas need many IT specialists. Romanian IT specialists are highly wanted in the highly industrialized countries, in which certain development programs are undertaken, such as the United States of America, Canada, Germany, France or even Israel. Then, there are also the British companies which hire people to work in the former Yugoslavian republics. In these cases, they mostly want mechanical engineers and the jobs are mostly for Project Management. The doctors can also find jobs in the Arab countries, France or Italy.
The researcher would like to thank Dr. Galicano V. Del Mundo, Dean of College of Business Administrationand Dr. Conrado I. Dotong, Dean of the College of Engineering for allowing him to teach Operations Managementand to carry out this study to BS Business Administration (BSBA) students. Sincerest gratitude also goes to the Lyceum of the Philippines University (LPU) – Batangas City for providing the financial assistance to make this research possible and for honing the potentials and research skills of the author to contribute something beneficial to the university and community of educators at large. Deepest thanks also given to the staff of Research and Statistics Center of LPU for their unwavering assistance and support to the author. To the ever dearest Dr. Norma L. Meñez, who always ready to provide her knowledge and expertise in the field of research is also given here due recognition. Heartfelt appreciation is also given to all the students of BSBA – Human Resource DevelopmentManagement for supporting this worthy endeavor. Most of all, warmest gratitude goes to the Divine Providence for giving the right direction, strength and apa it to fulfill a d ealize the autho s aspi atio and passion in research writing.
3. INDIAN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY SYSTEM- RELATION WITH DISASTER MANAGEMENT Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India, is established with the objective of promoting new areas of Science & Technology and to play the role of a nodal department for organizing, coordinating and promoting S&T activities in the country. Figure 3 presents Indian S & T system in graphic mode while focusing on central government S & T structure & its functioning hierarchy. Based on this, the present study tries to establish disaster management as an integral part of mandate / objectives of the planning commission & mentioned S & T ministries. Corresponding organizations down in the hierarchy to these ministries and the planning commission are not explored further due to the limited scope of this study as well as considering the same mandate as of ministries & planning commission. In addition to the ministries mentioned in the above S & T system, it is important to describe the role of Ministry of Water Resources, River Development & Ganga Rejuvenation and Ministry of New & Renewable Energy as a part of Indian S & T system due to its scientific & technological activities as well as their role in Indian Disaster Management activities. The role of Department of Atomic Energy and Department of Space, which is directly under Indian Prime Minister, is also described. Gautam P. K., 2013, mentioned nodal ministries for disaster management which is referenced from National Disaster Management Authority website, accessed on June 23, 2011. It includes many ministries mentioned in our S & T System as nodal point for particular disasters grouped under broad classification.
Second, there is an increasing concentration of financial and human resources at the federal level, though the bulk of services is in the hands of states and municipalities. The constitution of 1988 aimed at political and administrative decentralization and gave autonomy and power to states and municipalities, but they face increasing challenges to deliver quality public services. Even though the constitution and other reforms aimed at decentralization, most of the public budget stay at the federal level. In 2014, the federal, state, and municipal levels had, respectively, 68.5, 25.3, and 6.2% of the total government taxes (Receita Federal 2015). States and municipalities now deliver the bulk of public services but are strangled financially. Most of the municipalities do not have their own revenues and depend largely from transfers form the federal and state governments. Moreover, even though all municipalities have the same responsibilities, there is a huge difference in administrative and financial resources among them (the same for the states), both in terms of quality and quantity. There are very different municipalities, like Sa˜o Paulo city (*12 million inhabitants) and Bora´ (825 inhabitants), both with the same constitutional responsibilities. As their sizes and capacities vary significantly, this leads to an unequal capacity to delivery public services effectively, such as health and education (Avallaneda and Gomes 2015). There are also some conflicts of jurisdiction over certain responsibilities (Puppim de Oliveira 2005).
Results and discussions. A management exists since then, when the first organizations appeared i.e. actually since appearance of the world. One of the first theories of management was worked out by Confucius, after that a noble man is formed not by origin, but by education. On the modern stage of community development there are considerable transformations related to the changes of priorities in functioning of enterprises needed for providing of sufficient level of competitiveness. A competition in our time becomes a fight during that enterprises send investments to creation of key competences and providing strategic potential for further development.
Booming recognition, classification, and assessment of risk factors that arise in the joint software development domain are key challenges to software projects. Even though the mainstream of the customary risk factors apply to CSD and some additional factors have been recognized in the literature, there is a further need to systematically recognize, differentiate, and classify them and to support their efficient treatment in RMMM plans for large-scale, high risk Centralized development. Differences in culture are principally a risk source (an origin for problems), whereas trust is principally a risk driver (a demonstration of an existing problem). Communication can be a source (e.g., mistranslation of requirements) or a driver (manifesting lack of administration sup-port), or both. Each of these three factors is described in some detail below.
The root reasons of the contradiction between environ- ment and economy are the public goods feature of environment and the externality feature of economic. Public goods are defined by two factors; (1) Non-rivalry that consumption of the good by one individual does not reduce availability of the good for consumption by others, (2) and non-excludability that no one can be effectively excluded from using the good (Hal, 1991; Mas-Colell et al., 1995). Environmental problems are seen as exam- ples of 'market failure': cases where markets fail to achieve their otherwise socially optimal result. This failure arises because environmental goods are not priced and consumed collectively. If private organizations do not reap all the benefits of a public good which they have produced, their incentives to produce it voluntarily might be insufficient. Consumers also can take advantage of public goods without contributing sufficiently to their creation (Michael, 1997).
Even though SCM has become subject of increasing interest in recent years, its concept is not yet effectively divulged and practiced in some industries. An important example is the sugar and ethanol industry that is rapidly evolving due principally to international agreements for exports. Many efforts have been done and technological innovations have been implemented in order to improve quality and reduce costs with significant gains in industrial efficiency and strong optimization of agricultural operations. On the contrary, this is not observed within the businesses process management area mainly in relationship improvement and supply chain integration where higher level of cooperation is required.
Nah et al. (2001) explored critical success factors for ERP implementation by accompanying a literature review. They found that key management disputes were teamwork, adaptability, top management support, plan and vision, business process managementanddevelopment, project management, monitoring, effective communication, software developmentand testing, the role of the project champion and appropriate business and IT legacy systems. According to Nelson and Cheney (2005) ‘Effective training’ is also an important factor that should be considered for the study, our study also speaks about the importance of training irrespective of age and qualification. Their study shows that the composite organizational change issues must be broadly addressed and that they cannot be overwhelmed by using technical solutions alone. Similarly, Huang et al. (2003; 2004) propose that in addition to emerging technical aspects of ERP, more effort is essential in understanding the more complex organizational issues involved. The frequent speed of change in firms and their atmospheres has ensued in difficult technical organizational, racial and dogmatic disputes that have made the incorporation process a challenging task.
information (general, environmental, economic and social) of the local governments in Nordic countries. Esteller and Polo-Otero (2008) find that in the Catalan municipalities fiscal transparency is mostly determined by political competition, the number of inhabitants, and the accumulation ofdebt. Caamaño et al. (2011) examine budget transparency for 33 municipalities in Galicia and find that unemployment is negatively correlated with fiscal transparency while the institutional variables are not. Bastida et al. (2011) show that municipalities collecting more taxes and receiving more transfers disclose more financial information. Moving from the analysis of fiscal transparency’s website content of the Portuguese and Italian local governments, Jorge et al. (2011) find that the size of the municipalities and the rate of abstentionism in the last local elections are the only significant determinants of transparency. Using a measure of municipal transparency in New Jersey, Bertelli and Piotrowski (2010) find that, among several economic, social and institutional determinants, only the level of education, the percentage of elderly people and the size of the budget are significantly correlated with transparency. Alcaraz-Quiles et al. (2015) provide evidence that socio-economic factors such as education, population density, access to internet as well as e-government factors such as the provision of public information online, the percentage of procedures completed after online start, the level of online services provided and broadband availability, are all relevant to the disclosure of information by the Spanish regional governments. Albalate (2013), drawing on the 2010 transparency indexes constructed by Transparency International for Spanish Municipalities, finds that large municipalities and left-wing local government leaders are associated with better transparency indexes. Ferraz Esteves de Araújo and Tejedo-Romero (2016) analyse the determinants of transparency in Spanish municipalities using the same Transparency International indexes and find that transparency level is associated with unemployment rate, investment, electoral turnout, political ideology, political competition and size of the population, while public debt and gender are not.
Knowledge has been used as a resource for intelligent and effective action planning in organizations. Interest in research on knowledge management processes has intensified in different areas. A systematic literature review was accomplished, based on the question: what are the contributions of Brazilian and international journal publications on knowledge management in health? The sample totaled 32 items that complied with the inclusion criteria. The results showed that 78% of journals that published on the theme are international, 77% of researchers work in higher education and 65% have a Ph.D. The texts gave rise to five thematic categories, mainly: development of knowledge management systems in health (37.5%), discussion of knowledge management application in health (28.1%) and nurses’ function in knowledge management (18.7%).
Genetic testing should not be used as a screening tool when imaging diagnosis is clear. It is only indicated in speciic situations: diagnosis of exclusion in younger at-risk individuals with a family history of ADPKD (such as a potential living-related kidney donor), patients with cystic disease but without afected relatives, individuals with early onset of PKD in families with ADPKD, and couples who wish a prenatal or preimplantation genetic diagnosis. 17
Based on FAO data on agri-environment worldwide, we choose ten major countries to analyse agri- environment situation anddevelopment worldwide. The results showed that China has the greatest agricultural area, seconded by Australia and USA, and third by Brazil and India. USA is the largest country in arable land area, seconded by India, and third by China. Since earlier 1990s, China has become the largest country in the area of permanent crops, seconded by India. Brazil is the largest country in the annual growth of arable land area, seconded by China, and third by Australia. In the area of permanent meadows and pastures, China grows mostly and seconded by Brazil and third by India. India has the largest harvested area, closely seconded by China, and third by USA. Australia is the most fast growing country in area harvested, seconded by Brazil and third by India. China and India are the two countries with most emissions of agricultural CO 2 and equivalents,
When direct administration was replaced by manage- ment by Social Organizations, the hospitals contracted new employees without any labor bond under the public admin- istration statutory system (even though a substantial por- tion of public hospitals already used temporary contracts). heir employment bond was established under the work system guided by CLT, which difers from the statutory system in terms of hiring, termination, and rights. he CLT system does not encompass stability as a statutory position. In addition to the change in employment bond, the nursing assistant at the hospital managed by a Social Organization told us about recurring delays in payment and about payments after pressure from the union. At the time, the professional was very conscious of speaking in a low voice so that other people would not hear her. Labor rights under the CLT regime were also applied poorly.
Regarding the currency of issue, among all bonds quoted on Catalyst since its opening only two series of PKO Finance AB have been issued in EUR (the first are three-year fixed interest bonds of the value of EUR 800,000 issued in 2012, with the redemption date in 2015; the second are five-year bonds of the value of EUR 500,000 issued in 2014, with the redemption date in January 2019). The remaining bonds have been issued in PLN. It is worth mentioning that among all issuers of bonds on Catalyst there have been three foreign entities. They were: Warimpex Finanze und Beteiligungs AG from Austria (six issues of the total of PLN 130,500,000), Ronson Europe N.V. from the Netherlands (five issues of the total of PLN 204,000,000) and Polkomtel Finance AB from Sweden (one issue of the total of PLN 1,000,000,000). All issues of those entities were carried out in the Polish currency.
The study aims at identifying the new elements that the Insolvency Code in Romania, Law 85 of 2014, brings in what concerns entailing the liability of the managing body as well as that of other persons having contributed to the debtor's state of insolvency, compared to the previous regulation provided by Law 85 of 2006. The identification of these elements is carried out by making reference to the types of deeds that, following taken legal action, can entail liability and the coverage of the debts by the members of the managing body as well as by other persons having contributed to the debtor's state of insolvency. The analysis of the deeds concentrates around two connected centers of interest: The analysis of the deeds such as they are regulated by the two regulations and the case where for certain deeds there need to be identified the elements of repeatability in the two regulations and then the relevant case-law applicable for the respective deed is analyzed. In conclusion, in this way are identified the case-law variations met by the regulations applicable to the respective deed, in the judgments grounded on Law 85 of 2006. These variations represent landmarks for the regulations comprised by the Romanian Insolvency Code – Law 85 of 2014. Following the analyzed legal precedents – a number of 30 case-law judgments issued by courts of appeal being at the highest level of jurisdiction, there are identified in concreto, the type of acts which may entail the liability of the managing body for the insolvency of the enterprise. Through the present study we aim to guide the local administrators, as well as the future foreign investors who engage in foreign direct investments (FDI) in Romania with regard to the liability of the managing body in within the insolvency proceedings.
We also run another counterfactual with a family planning demand policy in which we reduce the utility cost of abortion. This is a much harder policy to implement in real life: Besides emotional side effects after an abortion, which may be able to be mitigated through counseling or other therapeutic help, there can also be adverse physical conse- quences associated with it. Therefore, although we think it worthwhile to execute and report on the counterfactual experiment in which the utility cost of abortion is reduced to zero, we know that it would be difficult to implement in practice. However, the utility cost of abortions can also be related to the fact that abortions are largely illegal in Kenya, as well as to taboos and social stigmas, which can prevent pregnant women from seeking abortion facilities. Given that this estimated cost in our model is much higher than the cost associated with the use of modern contraceptives, it is straightforward to observe that the potential effects on reproductive behavior and the economy are stronger for a reduction in the utility cost of abortion than a reduction in the utility cost of contraceptives. The percentage of pregnancies aborted when the utility cost of abortion is set at zero doubles relative to the baseline. Given the relative price of contraceptives, we can observe that no woman would choose to use modern contraceptives to control family size. They would rely only on abortion to prevent unwanted births. The average unwanted fertility de- creases by 0.4 of a child, and moreover, it decreases for all education categories. Realized fertility decreases by 0.19 of a child, which suggests that households adjust wanted fertil- ity upward. Output per capita increases by 5 percent relative to the benchmark economy and inequality is roughly unchanged. The decomposition shows that the wanted fertility margin and the investment education margin are the key channels in driving the over- all results. 43 For obvious reasons, it is difficult to price the cost of such demand policies, which explains why we do not report the costs associated with them, as well as why we will mainly focus on supply–side reforms.
that are influenced by environment and have low polymorphism (SMITH; SMITH, 1992). More recently the more reliable DNA markers generated by PCR-based methods that are reproducible and fast (Varshney, Graner et al., 2005) have been used. Markers such as restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), random amplification of polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs), amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers and microsatellites or SSRs have been used in mango. SSRs have become the preferred marker for plant analysis because of their reproducibility, multiallelic nature, co-dominant inheritance, relative abundance and good genome coverage (Phillips e Vasil, 2001). In mango SSR marker analyses has revealed genetic relationship over a wide cross-section of the mango and Mangifera genepoole through a series of studies undertaken by (EIADTHONG; YONEMORI et al., 1999; DUVAL; BUNEL et al., 2005; HONSHO; NISHIYAMA et al., 2005; SCHNELL; OLANO et al., 2005; VIRUEL; ESCRIBANO et al., 2005; UKOSKIT, 2007; GÁLVEZ-LÓPEZ; HERNÁN- DEZ-DELGADO et al., 2009). Studies on the Phylogenetic relationships among Mangifera L. species (EIADTHONG; YONEMORI et al., 2000; YONEMORI; HONSHO et al., 2002; HIDAYAT; PANCORO et al., 2011) are revealing some large diversity within species and new and unrecognised relationships between species previously not revealed in traditional taxonomic models of the genus.