Research Design and Methods: The study samples were from a community-based health examination survey in central China. In total 1,780 men and women (18–64 y) were included in the final analyses. Hepatic steatosis was diagnosed by ultrasonography. We created combination of diabetesriskfactors score on basis of age, Body Mass Index, waist circumference, physical activity at least 4 h a week, daily consumption of fruits, berries or vegetables, history of antihypertensive drug treatment, history of high blood glucose. The total risk score is a simple sum of the individual weights, and values range from 0 to 20.
4. Marinho NBP, Vasconcelos HCA, Alencar AMPG, Almeida PC, Damasceno MMC. Diabetes mellitus: fatores associados entre usuários da estratégia saúde da família. Acta Paul Enferm. 2012;25(4):595-600. 5. Xu H, Song Y, You NC, Zhang ZF, Greenland S, Ford ES, et al. Prevalence and clustering of metabolic riskfactors for type 2 diabetes among Chinese adults in Shanghai, china. BMC Public Health. 2010;10:683-90. 6. Lipman TH, Schucker MM, Ratcliffe SJ, Holmberg TBA, Baier SBA, Deatrick JA. Diabetesriskfactors in Children: a partnership between nursig practioner and high school students. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs. 2011; 36(1):56-62.
26 prediabetes do not progress to diabetes, the term may imply that no intervention is needed as no disease is present, and diabetesrisk does not necessarily differ between people with prediabetes and those with a combination of other diabetesriskfactors. Indeed, the WHO used the term ‘Intermediate Hyperglycemia’ and an International Expert Committee convened by the ADA the ‘High Risk State of Developing Diabetes’ rather than ‘prediabetes” (Tabák et al., 2014). However the most conventional way to refer this intermediate hyperglycemic state is prediabetes, and this way will be used in the present work. The transition from the early metabolic anomalies that precede prediabetes to diabetes may take many years; however, recent estimates indicate that most individuals (~ 70%) with these prediabetic states eventually develop diabetes. During the prediabetic state, the risk of develop CVD event is modestly increased. However with the progression to diabetes, there is a large increase in risk for CVD, as well as for long-term complications affecting the eyes, kidneys, and nervous system (Nathan et al., 2007; Levitan et al., 2004). The complications associated with diabetes, which are the cause of major morbidity and mortality, are related to its duration, chronic level of glycaemia, and other riskfactors. As expected, several evidences show that the risk for DM in prediabetic subjects is much higher compared with those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). When several prospective epidemiological studies were analyzed, the incidence of T2D in isolated IFG and IGT subjects was estimated at 4 to 6% per year, and this value was significantly higher than NGT subjects (<0.5% per year). In the subjects who were diagnosed with IFG and IGT in combination, the annual percentage for the risk of developing T2D increased by 10% (Rhee & Woo, 2011). However several studies have demonstrated too that after lifestyle and drug-based interventions, the cases of prediabetes can be reverted to normal glucose tolerance. In a population-based observational study of the natural history of diabetes in England, 55%–80% of the participants with IFG at the initial phase, had achieve normal fasting glucose after a 10-year follow-up (Forouhi et. Al, 2012).
artículo se procedió a una revisión integradora de la literatura producida en Portugal y internacionalmente entre los años 2000 a 2011celebrada en la base de datos del repositorio de acceso abierto de la Ciencia de Portugal y Medline, con los descriptores para la diabetes mellitus tipo 2, factores de riesgo, enfermería en portugués y en Inglés. Resultados: el inicio de la diabetes tipo 2 es una combinación de factores genéticos, ambientales y comportamentales, asociada a estilos de vida, que se caracteriza por la inactividad con aumento proporcional de la ingesta calórica. Conclusión: se puede cambiar la historia natural de la diabetes mellitus tipo 2, con la práctica de estilos de vida saludables. La enfermera debe crear proyectos para la prevención de la diabetes tipo 2, incluso estrategias y actividades para reducir los factores de riesgo y trabajando en conjunto con los ciudadanos y población en general contribuir para la enseñanza, clarificación y formación, mejorando así los niveles de salud. Descriptores: diabetes mellitus tipo 2; factores de riesgo; enfermería.
Present study did not show a significant correlation between the type of abdominoplasty and increased risk of wound complications. These results contradict the finding of Chaouat et al.  who reported in their study of 258 patients a significant increase in skin necrosis in the inverted “T” plasty group  . A similar finding was reported by Dillerud  . In inverted “T” plasty, wound healing problems occur mainly at the junction of the branches of the “T” where three flaps meet  . Being aware of this potential risk, we performed the inverted “T” plasty with minimal undermining of the flaps to allow tension free closure.
This phenomenon is usually caused by the interaction of individual and socioeconomic factors that increased the vulnerability or the risk of social exclusion. Poverty, family breakdown, sexual abuse, violence, mental illness, substance abuse, previous institutional history (e.g. prisons, reformatories or psychiatric hospitals) have been reported as individual factors associated to homelessness (4, 7, 8, 10, 18, 69, 70). The low salaries, employment insecurity, unemployment and lack of institutional support, contribute to difficulties in supporting essential needs such as food, clothing, health or housing (4, 7, 8, 17, 18). As a result, illegal or socially sanctioned activities, such as begging, prostitution or theft are often adopted as a source of income (7, 8, 10, 18). All these factors became also a barrier to the recovery of the work activity, family relationships, health status, and to the restoration of schedules, routines and social norms with obviously implications to social inclusion (4, 7, 10, 18).
A cross-sectional study based on planned sampling was carried out to determine flock-level riskfactors associated with Toxoplasma gondii antibody prevalence in dairy goat flocks in a semiarid region of northeastern Brazil. Serum samples from 975 adult dairy goats from 110 flocks were examined by indirect immonufluorescent antibody test (IFAT), using cut-off point at 1:64 dilution. From the 110 flocks, 77 presented at least one seropositive animal, corresponding to a prevalence of 70% (95% CI: 60.5-78.4%). Out of the 975 animals, 177 (18.1%; 95% CI = 15.8-20.7%) tested positive. The presence of toxic plants (OR = 5.11; P = 0.045) and the fact that goat breeding is not the main activity on the farm (OR = 3.34; P = 0.014) were identified as riskfactors. The results of the present study showed evidence of the presence of T. gondii infection in dairy goats from a semiarid region of northeastern Brazil using planned sampling. Further studies are needed to elucidate the importance of the identified riskfactors in the epidemiology of the infection.
Abstract The scope of this study was to deter- mine the prevalence of anemia and the correla- tion between the concentration of hemoglobin and cognitive factors in an elderly population group resident in Campina Grande, Paraiba, Bra- zil. It was a cross-sectional study with individuals aged 60 or older. Men with hemoglobin levels <13 g / dL and women with levels <12 g / dL were considered anemic. Sociodemographic, cognitive condition and nutritional status variables were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed by means of simple and multiple linear regression. Among the 360 elderly patients evaluated (67.2% women), the prevalence of anemia was 12.5%. The average concentration of hemoglobin found was 13.5 g / dL and was correlated to sex variables (β = -0.44, 95% CI: -1.35, -0.85), age (β = -0.14 ; 95% CI: -0.03, -0.01), nutritional status (β = 0.16; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.06), memory impairment (β = 0.12; 95% CI: - 0.06, -0.01), and dementia (β = -0.13, 95% CI: -0.06, -0.01). Routine blood testing among the elderly makes it possible to de- tect and treat anemia at an early stage. Actions geared towards the elderly who show a cognitive decline should be developed in the Basic Family Health Units in order to improve the quality of life of this population.
The epidemiological association between insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes and cognitive impairment is well established. Several population-based prospective studies and meta-analy- ses have demonstrated an increased risk of dementia in diabetic patients [6,7]. A recent meta-analysis including 6,184 type 2 diabetes subjects and 38,350 subjects without diabetes pooled from 19 studies reported a combined overall relative risk (RR) of 1.51 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31 to 1.74) linking type 2 diabetes with dementia . In particular, the risk of vas- cular dementia was increased in type 2 diabetes subjects with a RR of 1.46 (95% CI, 2.08 to 2.96) and the risk of Alzheimer’s disease was also increased (RR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.20 to 1.77) . Diabetes increased not only the risk of MCI, an intermedi- ate stage between normal cognitive function and dementia [8- 10], but also the conversion rate to dementia in the subjects with MCI [11,12]. Despite this epidemiological evidence, the mechanisms underlying the association between insulin resis- tance and cognitive impairment have not been fully understood so far. In people without dementia, type 2 diabetes patients show slightly decreased cognitive function compared with sub- jects without diabetes in multiple cognitive domains [9,13]. This slight decline in cognitive function of diabetic patients starts from mid-life (about 40 years old) and slowly progresses throughout their lifetime, whereas the incidence of dementia increases sharply after the age of 65 to 70 years [9,14]. There- fore, cognitive decline in type 2 diabetes or insulin resistance and the pathologic process of dementia may be discrete pro- cesses, and insulin resistance seems to make the brain more vulnerable to the pathologic process of dementia. A recent re- view  suggested that type 2 diabetes or insulin resistance re- sults in subtle brain atrophy , disrupted white matter integ- rity , and vascular abnormalities, including cortical and subcortical infarcts [17,18]. These subtle changes accumulate
As discussed above, there are no certainties about the changes in cardiovascular riskfactors with control of acromegaly. Also, there are few studies approaching some riskfactors, specially coagulation status. The aim of this study is to compare the presence of cardiovascular riskfactors between acromegalic patients and a control population (non-functioning pituitary adenomas) and to evaluate the changes in these factors with control of the disease. Body mass index (BMI), blood glucose, BP, TC, HDL-C, LDL- C and TG will be compared among each group. Protein S, Protein C, Antithrombin III, Factor VIII, Fibrinogen and genetics of PAI-1 will also be evaluated and compared.
Bilinen tüm risk faktörleri değerlendirildiğinde, aile hikayesi KAH gelişimi için aterosklerozun her basamağında önemli bir bağım- sız risk faktörüdür . Genetik faktörlerin KAH’ a yol açtığına dair önemli kanıtlar vardır. Genetik etkiye bağlı gelişen KAH ge- nellikle poligeniktir ve sadece çok az bir hasta grubunda tek gen mutasyonları gözlenir. Lipid ve apolipoprotein metabolizması, inlamatuar cevap, endotel fonksiyonları, platelet fonksiyonla- rı, tromboz, fibrinoliz, homosistein metabolizması, insülin sensi- tivitesi ve kan basıncı regülasyonunu içeren birçok biyokimyasal süreç, ateroskleroz oluşumu ve ilerleyişinde etkin rol oynar. Bu biyokimyasal olayların her birinde, birçok gen tarafından kodla- nan enzimler, reseptörler ve ligandlar gibi bileşenler yer almak- tadır. Tabi ki bu bileşenlerin çevresel veya genetik olarak etki- lenmesi hastalık sürecini de etkilemektedir. İkizler ve epidemi- yolojik çalışmalara dayanan kanıtlar, aterosklerotik kalp hasta- lığı ve AKS gelişimi için genetik bir temel olduğunu öne sürmek- tedir. Günümüzde, birçok sorumlu genin güçlü kardiyovasküler risk faktörü olarak etki ettiği, genellikle olgu-kontrol çalışmala- rında gösterilmiş olsa da çok azının net olarak ilişkili olduğu ka- nıtlanmıştır [21, 22].
SNDR, hosting more than 100.000 Saudi diabetic patients, can be the best environment to study DN and its riskfactors. It is a specially designed electronic web-based data system which incorporates demographic data, diabetic and social history with clinical and biochemical parameters. This registry includes the presence of chronic complications, namely neuropathy, retinop- athy, nephropathy, and vasculopathy, as well as associated diseases like hypertension, hyperlipidemia and thyroid disease. The design and development of a web-based SNDR has already been explained in a previously published paper, available at http:// www.jmir.org/2013/9/e202, and the registry website can be accessed from http://www.diabetes.org.sa. This diabetes national registry is one of the Saudi strategic research projects approved and funded by King Abdulaziz city for science and Technology (KACST), which is the official largest funding body in the kingdom.
52.94% of men with primary infertility were both smokers and consumed alcohol. Smoking and alcohol being the important contributory factors to infertility.35.29% of men with primary infertility consumed only alcohol, 11.76% of men were smokers only .In our study we also found out that none of the men had habit of snuffing tobacco and none of females with primary infertility had habit of alcohol consumption or tobacco usage in the form of smoking or snuffing. But 4(100%; n=4) of them had habit of chewing tobacco. We also did not find the use of illicit drugs or smoking marijuana, heroin etc. among our study subjects. (Table 4)
Market share circumstances are present very often across the annual report, where the board states it is a current challenge in EMEA region and it is being handled with strategic actions. The successful or unsuccessful accomplishment of the implemented strategies in EMEA are an important factor analysed in this statement. Regarding a more strategic risk, the eventual inability to meet a key trade customer’s demand requirement represent a strategic risk that could negatively affect company’s volume sales and results. Besides strategic risks, Whirlpool faces operational risks associated with its international operations that represented more than 47% of Total Net Sales in 2018. The political and economic instabilities,
While the adverse impact of diabetes on morbidity and mortality have been widely reported , less is known about work disability associated with diabetes. A recent systematic review identified 8 studies on diabetes and absenteeism, of which only 3 were prospective cohort stud- ies . The majority of studies reported higher sickness absenteeism among people with diabe- tes compared to those without diabetes. Importantly, previous research has examined persons with diabetes as a single group without taking into account possible heterogeneity of the popu- lation with diabetes. For example, major riskfactors of work disability—comorbid chronic dis- eases, obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, and high alcohol use [7–13]–may cause significant heterogeneity in the risk of work disability among people with diabetes. Latent class analysis (LCA)  is a statistical tool to determine naturally occurring subgroups within patient popu- lations, but no such studies have been undertaken in relation to diabetes and work disability.
We conducted an observational study using data from a nationwide survey of geriatric medi- cal and nursing center in Japan. The study subjects included 9930 patients (median age: 86 years, women: 76%) who were divided into two groups: those who had experienced an epi- sode of aspiration pneumonia in the previous 3 months and those who had not. Data on demographics, clinical status, activities of daily living (ADL), and major illnesses were com- pared between subjects with and without aspiration pneumonia. Two hundred and fifty-nine subjects (2.6% of the total sample) were in the aspiration pneumonia group. In the univari- ate analysis, older age was not found to be a risk factor for aspiration pneumonia, but the fol- lowing were: sputum suctioning (odds ratio [OR] = 17.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 13.16–22.62, p < 0.001), daily oxygen therapy (OR = 8.29, 95% CI: 4.39–15.65), feeding support dependency (OR = 8.10, 95% CI: 6.27–10.48, p < 0.001), and urinary catheteriza- tion (OR = 4.08, 95% CI: 2.81–5.91, p < 0.001). In the multiple logistic regression analysis, the riskfactors associated with aspiration pneumonia after propensity-adjustment (258 sub- jects each) were sputum suctioning (OR = 3.276, 95% CI: 1.910–5.619), deterioration of swallowing function in the past 3 months (OR = 3.584, 95% CI: 1.948–6.952), dehydration (OR = 8.019, 95% CI: 2.720–23.643), and dementia (OR = 1.618, 95% CI: 1.031–2.539).
Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disorder, has been determined as an outcome of genetic as well as behavioral conditions. The complete understanding of its generation and progress is yet to be understood. However, there has been a significant progress in the diagnosis and identification of the associated riskfactors of AD. Several of the riskfactors were found connected with cholesterol. Scientists are mainly focusing on the reduction of amyloid β and stabilization of tau protein towards the development of its drugs. To modulate amyloid β, the key components of cholesterol metabolism have been attractive targets and the enzymes involved in the phosphorylation of tau have been tried to stabilize tau protein. This review article briefly highlights the symptoms, riskfactors, and drug targets of AD.