The challenge that national higher education faces today, particularly in terms of the teaching processes, necessarily involves knowing how look at itself critically and radically. It is becoming increasingly necessary to reorient the competences of law teachers so that they can intervene effectively thereby contributing to a society capable of thinking and exercising greater social justice. Teaching, in this sense, is not a simple act of transmitting knowledge, but also of mental and social construction, allowing the articulation of a process that begins with the precept of research, development of ethical, critical-reflexive autonomy that, in turn, should stimulate the creativity and humility needed to motivate student learning. In return, employing these tools provided by the teacher, the student should deepen his knowledge of the different subjects. Thus would the institutions be creating an enabling environment for resources and relationships that reinforce learning and the achievement of the desired quality.
problems related to the environment are treated as information, not necessarily invol- ving the subjects in their actions, in the waysof acting upon the environment. Baptista, (2011, p.8) warns us that “there is no use having content and projects that deal with the defense of life if life is not defended in school dynamics itself”. The perspective of enation advances the debate in cognitive sciences and intends to preserve the relation between the actions and the actor. For Varela, the action is incarnated, embodied, linked to a subject that does not exist outside of it (being = doing). In this direction, we understand that knowing in Environmental Education implies not only interacting with contents, information coming from outside, the environment, because all knowing emerges in the actions of a body through different modes of language. Every moment we are building the realities that we want to live with our waysof acting in the world.
gle umbrella—the Lifelong Learning Programme, for 2007 to 2013—that stands as a “European strat- egy and co-operation in education and training.” As asserted by the EC this learning programme is aimed at enabling individuals at all stages of their lives to pursue stimulating learning opportunities across Europe. The Erasmus sub-programme, especially aimed at higher education, shelters the Waspolls Intensive programme that gave room to this article 1 . As referred to by the EC, this strategy for education and training stands on the recognition by “politicians at the European level ... that educa- tion and training are essential to the development of today's knowledge society and economy. The EU's strategy emphasises countries working together and learning from each other.” These policies have been largely implemented since the adoption of the Lisbon Strategy in 2000 and focus “on growth and jobs. The strategy recognized that knowledge, and the innovation it sparks, are the EU's most valuable assets, particularly in light of increasing global competition.” Therefore, to bring about an intensive course within this educational/political context, surely brought a great deal of challenges both for teachers and for students, as it involved serious social responsibility (Wildemeersch, Finger and Jansen, 2000). The group was constituted by degree students from four different countries, varied cultures and scientific backgrounds, and by their respective tutors, who also had to open themselves to the experience to learn to teach in differentways (Ramsden, 1992). Not only was there a need to deal with the students’ and teachers’ high level of diversity, but a compromise had been assumed to cover a lot of topic work in a short period of time. The main question was how to make the experience meaningful to the group and to each individual. This had to be achieved, in spite of, or especially be- cause each person brought different experiences, diverse perspectives about reality and human rela- tions, various expectancies towards the course and dissimilar views about the learning-teaching proc- esses that added value to the programme’s experience. That was why the planning and development of the learning pathway assumed large relevance, as we will try to clarify in the next sections.
Two weeks later Melissa's group is up first. They have created a shark project home page with hot links for each of the topics. The presentation is projected onto a screen at the front of the class as the girls talk. They have video clips ofdifferent types of sharks and also a clip from Jacques Cousteau discussing the shark as an endangered species. They then go live to Aquarius-an underwater Web site located off the Florida keys. The class can ask questions of the Aquarius staff but most inquiries are directed at the project team. One of the big discussions is about the dangers posed by sharks versus the dangers to sharks posed by humans.
This article is part of a research carried out by a Group of Studies and Researches about Educational Technology and Distance Education (GETED) and it aims to enrich the theory about how to learn at the virtual context reflecting at the students learning conceptions from this modality. With the objective of analysing the relation between the Distance Education and the new forms oflearning, if we can consider them as new, we start the work articulating the concepts of information and knowledge and the new waysof knowledge with the participants excerpts of a graduation course offered at the distance modality. After that, we discuss the question of autonomy at the distance learning process, also with some exemplifications of the collected data at the offered course. The next theme in discussion is the collaborative learning with focus on the interaction. We end the article pointing at some conclusions about how the students see the new learning at the distance education context.
In fact, this view of the link between education and citizenship is strongly influenced by an attempt to replicate the processes of nation building at a European level. The political vision that goes beyond this conception can still be illustrated by the famous words of Rousseau: “It is education that must give souls a national formation, and direct their opinions and tastes in such a way that they will be patriotic by inclination, by passion, by necessity” (cit. in Miller, 2000, p. 87). Reflecting on the construction of a European Demos, Lars-Erik Cederman says that “public education serves a central function not just as knowledge producer but also as a creator of citizens” (2001, p. 140). In truth, Brussels’ effort to imagine a European identity can be compared to the fabrication of the nation-states in the 19 th century. Images put forward in some of the educational documents reflect an old fiction, that more closely resembles “an imaginary liturgy” (Lourenço, 1994). But, this is a misleading perspective. As, “democratic legitimacy within the EU cannot be obtained by modeling its institutions on those of the nation-state” (Bellamy & Warleigh, 2001, p. 10), it is likewise useless to expect education systems to accomplish the same kind of missions as they did in the past.
As the world evolves, it seems likely that we will be con- fronted with ever more choice. Previous research has shown that an increase in choice makes choosing more difficult and can result in choice deferral or even avoid- ance (e.g., Iyengar & Lepper, 2000). Accordingly, one might expect the expansion of choice to yield negative consequences. This study adds to the literature indicating that humans are more adaptable than such theorizing sug- gests (Gigerenzer, Todd, and the ABC Group, 1999): We adjust to an increasing number of options by changing our decision-making strategies. This adjustment means we experience no differential affect or meta-cognition, whether we face the prospect of choosing among as few as four or among as many as 64 potential mates. Thus, strategy use is context-dependent in mate choice, just as it is in consumer choice (Bateson & Healy, 2005). Alterna- tively, perhaps the similar affect and meta-cognition ex- perienced by those facing limited versus extensive choice is due to statistical chance: for this article reports the re- sults of a single study. Still, the earlier study on which this one was based (Lenton et al., 2008) also found no significant influence of the number of options on mate choice satisfaction. Perhaps, then, these particular results are due to the particular choice context: mate choice. Un- like jams or even 401ks, for example, we venture to say that the average single person spends a significant amount of time considering the attributes that are important to them in a potential long-term mate. As we mentioned ear- lier, the distinctions between extensive and limited choice are fewer in important domains (Klayman, 1985), per- haps for this reason.
use by the target cell. In different subcellular locations, the retinol binding orientation is reversed. When the body is in need of vitamin A, retinol dissociates from CRBPs and is converted into retinoic acid and then bound by CRABP. CRABP then transports retinoic acid to the nuclear receptors, thereby activating gene transcription. This process involves many protein-protein interac- tions, and conformational changes may be an integral part of the retinoid transfer mechanism. Moreover, the dissociation of retinol from CRBP appears to require the assistance of an external factor. The targeted release of retinol in vivo is likely to be promoted by the properties of the microenvironment near the membranes where the enzyme molecules that are involved in its metabolism are embedded. In conclusion, although the crystal and solution structures, as well as the backbone dynamics of various intracel- lular retinoid carriers in the apo- and holo-form provide fundamental information, they do not lead to a common mechanism of ligand exchange. In particular, the different levels of accessibility to the cavity might be the result of fine tuning of the protein conformation, which is made possible by the limited differences between the sequences and is likely to be required to optimize each carrier protein’s physiological function .
The economic competitiveness ofdifferentwaysof pasture utilization was studied based on the processing price of green feed obtained from pastures. Under the given economic conditions, a higher processing price of feed may be expected in cattle fattening. Thus, from the economic standpoint farms involved in cattle fattening would have a justifiable production. However, due to the changing market conditions it was necessary to determine the processing prices at different price levels of fattened cattle, animals for fattening and the production value per breeding ewe. A special diagram was constructed enabling a rapid and easy determination of the processing price of feed in practice taking into account different market conditions of sheep breeding and cattle fattening.
Assuming that the construction is possible, we specify the chosen direction Dn of (say) PQ by ∠CPQ, which we name ∠I. Given this angular measure between ∆PQR and ∆ABC and the choice of angles to be placed at its three vertices, ∆PQR is unique relative to ∆ABC and some unit of measure. For each line parallel to PQ and placed above or below the one shown in the diagram will lead to the third vertex that indeed lies on CR but is inside or outside the ∆ABC; so conditions of continuity suggest only one triangle. Alternatively, ∆PQR is unique for the location of one of the points on a side (for instance, for P on BC) and choice of angles. The scrupulous can specify continuity rigorously by, for instance, the usual Cantorian or Dedekindian procedures.
In this sense, the problematizations presented in this text about the emphasis of the pedagogical discourses in socialization processes, coex- istence and respect — in other words, the humanization of men — intend to show how such discourses wickedly exclude other individuals, putting them in a position of disability and social shadow. Precisely these speeches glorifying the inclusive approach as more humane and fraternal are caught in a perverse process of exclusion. While seeking to exalt inclusion processes as those that enable the construction of more human individuals, they also mark separated places for people in school, determining who is able to learn and who is only able to socialize and coexist. The analysis developed in this text intended precisely to denaturalize the benevolent air that accompanies such discourses in school inclusion, observing the effects they produce be- yond good and evil.
The authors deal with a question, which is hard to answer considering the context of the future of the social evolution. The authors suppose that one should ask rather about overcoming the current wave of individualism than about overcoming the current form of capitalism. Individualism dismantles any society and it is necessary to react by building stable dual relationships. It highlights the key role of a family. Collectivism, as well as indi- vidualism, are not able to create any kind of social structure and lead the society into the liquid of chaos or into the motionless totality. It states that the economic security of various societies is to certain extent affected by all possible production factors and that the reason of the success of their functioning is a balance between power, wealth and public support. It points out that it is necessary to keep a couple and its relationship as a basic element in theory as well as in practice. In legitimate cases of a production practise, it is possible to con- sider the human individual as the element. It condemns inhumane artificial terms such as “homo economicus”, human resources or human capital. In the conclusions, the authors appeal to restore humanity in society by the contribution of each individual and his interpersonal relationships.
Objective: This in an article of caregiving ways in cardiac surgery as a mean of establishing a practice based on scientific knowledge. Methods: To carry out this study the following phases were done: identification and localization of data to be studied through searches in sites such as Lilacs, Medline, Scielo and Pubmed; printing, collection and file of data related to the aim of this study; results analysis and interpretation based on Coelho’s referential. Results: The results showed 12 different and specific waysof care involving subjectivity with objectivity in a continuous and individualized process. Conclusion: Nursing in heart surgery includes a thousand ways to do that require agility, skill and sensitivity to implement the care process. Descriptors: Nursing, Nursing care, Cardiac surgery.
Waysof getting funds are multiple, depending on individual needs.To develop tourism activities it is necessary to require some funding that can come from various sources: auto-financing, loans from various banks or from third parties and grants offered by the European Union. There are many programs designed to support the development of tourism, such as ROP that allows people to access grants in order to implement projects for the establishment and the development of the activity in the touristic field. The purpose of this article is to highlight funding opportunities for the tourism operators and to assist them in choosing the appropriate form of financing of the current activity or the activity they want to implement in the future and description of how to obtain the necessary funds from various sources.
Moving across different types of representations is essential for the recognition that each representation presents a different perspective of rational numbers, and students’ understanding develops as the number of perspectives increases (Ponte & Quaresma, 2011; Tripathi, 2008). Gravemeijer (1999) reinforces that a model emerges when it is underpinned by representations. In this emergent modelling process, representations become models, as they allow a direct modelling of a contextualized situation and support the development of more formal mathematical knowledge (Gravemeijer, 1999). Consequently, learning rational numbers through models, at the elementary grades, may be a dynamic process required to co-develop representation and conceptual understanding. Contexts, within which representations can be perceived as models, are fundamental to understand and establish complex and meaningful relations (Brocardo, 2010). The number line, with an implied measure meaning, and the decimat (Roche, 2010) that emphasizes a part-whole meaning, are useful representations that highlight the multiplicative structure of rational numbers. Post, Cramer, Behr, Lesh, and Harel (1993) highlight the role of representations in understanding rational numbers, relating it to the flexibility with transformations between and within rational number representations. Thus, students’ flexibility in making transformations involving different representations can show their understanding of the rational numbers involved (Post, Wachsmuth, Lesh, & Behr, 1985).
the article conducts the study of the state of inancial provision of industrial development under modern conditions and justiies main waysof improvement and prospects of investment inancing of technical development of the production potential. Classical theses and fundamental works of foreign and domestic scientists, statistical indicators and results of author’s studies of the problems of inancing of technical development of industry became the methodological basis of the study. Using the conducted analysis of the state of inancing the industrial development in Ukraine, potential sources of inancial resources of development of the production potential (proit, depreciation, means of inancial institutions and leasing), condition of the state inancial support of technical development of the industrial sector and taking into account the modern experience of foreign countries, the article justiies main waysof improvement of the inancial provision of industrial development. the proposed waysof improvement of inancial provision of industrial development are based on: orientation at the modern model with attraction of all potential investment sources; state-private co-inancing of investment projects of production development; de-centralisation of the state support through the use of various channels of support of the processes of industrial development; and formation of the market infrastructure of ensuring of inancing of the innovation and investment process in industry.
After learning examinations, animals were decapitated after ether anesthesia and the brains were removed for histological verification, at first the brains fixed in formaldehyde 10% and two week later impregnated with paraffin wax. After histological processing, slices of 7 µm coronally (anterior to posterior of hippocampus) were produced with Leitz rotary microtome (One of 10 sections was selected for staining and morphometeric measurements). For astrocytes staining, we used PTAH (Phosphotanguestic Acid Haematoxylin) staining  because it is the special staining method for astrocyte cells and their processes. In this method the astrocytes appeared blue and the neurons appeared pink.
of those who read”. The activities performed by the CB were based on the nationally-known experience of O Povo (in Fortaleza, State of Ceará). O Povo has a council to evaluate the entire newspaper and a readers’ opinion page. The Fortaleza daily maintains a model adopted by CB, following the international inspiration provided by the Mexican newspaper La Reforma. The solutions presented are diﬀ erent but do not happen at the same time. Everyone tries to contribute to the development of a more unbiased and fair media. As credibility is one of the greater goals of communication institutions, participation, correction and mistake prevention by users are part of newspapers’ internal campaigns. “Ethics sells” – that is, sales may also be aﬀ ected when symbolically invested with trust and credibility. Principles such as veracity, honesty, accuracy of information, respect for intimacy and the correction of mistakes are present in the great majority of journalistic ethics codes around the world. Obviously, the consolidation of rules alone does not make the media institutions perform their activities respecting ethical principles. In any event, the creation of professional ethics codes establishes a path to be followed and subsidizes the action of instruments that promote and safeguard the established principles, ideally with the cooperation of businessmen, professionals and the public.
Plenty ofdifferent classifications and methods concerning the differences in learning styles have been used in the studies. For example the Gregorc Style Delineator is a self- report tool used to measure cognitive learning styles (thinking and learning processes), while the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classifies students according to their pref- erences on scales derived from Jung’s theory of psychological types. Kolb’s Learning Style Model classifies students as having a preference for 1) concrete experience or ab- stract conceptualization (how they take information in), and 2) active experimentation or reflective observation (how they internalize information). Honey and Mumford’s Learn- ing Style Questionnaire (LSQ) has been proposed as an alternative to Kolb’s LSI. The LSQ was developed to report management trainees’ learning style preferences and has subsequently been applied to a wide range of subjects, including students in higher educa- tion. Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument (HBDI) classifies students in terms of their relative preferences for thinking in four different modes based on the task-specialized functioning of the physical brain. These examples show that all of these models highlight both the differences and the similarities of the dimensions oflearning style.