Therefore, evaluating the quality of such courses in distanceeducation becomes a task of paramount importance. The Ministry of Education, with the proposal of the ENADE - Exame Nacional de Desempenho de Estudantes 2 - progresses in a conception of measuring results, considering the formation that different higher education institutions provide their students when they graduate from their courses. Associated with the external evaluation of courses, this process serves as a good starting point for the higher education institutions to modify internally the pedagogical projects of their courses, toward higher quality standards and better results.
The participants of the study were teachers from the Letras DistanceEducation Programs, who have worked or are currently working for Letras Inglês and/or Letras Espanhol, offered by DLLE (Departamento de Língua e Literaturas Estrangeiras) at CCE (Centro de Comunicação e Expressão), at UFSC. Although the questionnaire was sent to 10 teachers, in fact there were only 6 respondents, who became the participants of this study. They teach at the same time in regular and distance programs, having experience in DistanceEducation for 2 years or more. In a first moment, the intention was to apply the questionnaire only to teachers who work in the Letras Inglês program. However, in the replies, it was noticed that some of the respondents considered their experiences in the Letras Espanhol as well, since most of them have taught or are currently teaching in both programs.
The debate about the relationship of these two areas has intensified in the last years for several reasons. They have been developing separattely but there has been recently a clear and natural overlapping. Continuing Education (CE) has increased its importance due to social and cultural evolving attitudes towards education and lifelong learning, thus demanding wider access and flexible learning materials. DistanceEducation (DE) has been shifting its focus from the technological issues and innovations to the application of its capacities and tools to a general learning environment. This paper tries to analyze recent events that establish connections between these two strands, to establish objective links and to reflect about the possibilities of promising future evolution of joint activities. Some conclusions are drawn proposing measures that could be advantageous to both educational sectors.
Até o final do século XX a mídia predominante em diferentes partes do mundo na EaD era o material impresso. Estudos de Carmo (1997) sobre a EaD em diversos países entre os quais China, Austrália, Sri Lanka, Ilha Fidji, Papua/Nova Guiné, mostram a preponderância do material impresso complementado pelo uso do rádio e da televisão. Na comunidade européia o relatório do Projeto Teeode - Technology Enhanced Evaluation in Open and DistanceEducation - indicou que o material impresso era o principal meio de suporte para a EaD, mas nessa época começava a aparecer o uso das TIC e da web, embora os alunos tivessem dificuldades de acesso à internet (BARTOLOME; UNDERWOOD, 1999).
Brazil is in a consolidation phase of distanceeducation in all sectors and levels of education. After a phase of experimentation, where there was an intense learning and searching for more appropriate models for each institution, we are in a phase of maturity, more government regulation, more concern about growth , infrastructure, methodology of teaching and learning. The main models are “tele- class” (class satellite), online, video-class with more or less local support. A current legislation in Brazil favors the bimodal model, with close monitoring of students and shows the pattern of mistrust the online monitoring, especially in undergraduate courses. Distanceeducation is becoming an important reference for a change of higher education as a whole. It uses increasingly hybrid methodologies, making more flexible the need for physical presence, rearranging the spaces and times of teaching and learning.
This is the more clear-cut situation for the so-called “pure” distanceeducation learning regime: students use their homes to study their learning materials, to watch and listen to video and audio didactic units, to operate their computer equipments and related courseware, to write assignments, questions or comments to be mailed to the teaching system. Due to the trivialization of recording equipments, the student is frequently no longer subject to strict broadcasting hours and may be totally free to establish his own studying schedule. Exceptions to this are the allotted times for telephone consultations with tutors and other agents associated with the teaching system and the infrequent compulsory assignments requiring the student’s physical presence, like in final examinations or to attend summer courses.
The target population for distanceeducation is composed of various adult groups that seek different conditions and opportunities and high school graduates who, for various reasons, could not receive or continue their university education. In addition to awarding bachelor's (four-year) and pre bachelor's (two- year) degrees Anadolu University has provided opportunities for improving academic or professional proficiency to people who are already engaged in professions (Ozkul, 2001). Therefore, there is a large range of student age groups, from 17 years to 80 years old. The students' characteristics vary from program to program in Anadolu University OEF. The majority of adult students are married and the family average is three children. Their incomes are less than the average equivalent to $1200 USD per year income (Ozkul, 2001).
Step one was to outline most of the requirements for the intended online learning environment and for that a significant number of brainstorming meetings were made with some continuing education offices of the University. At the moment in U.Porto there is no regulation for distanceeducation and each continuing education office has its own procedures, gather all the specifications and trying to make them all converge into common objective has been, and continues to be, a difficult task.
The ICDE is the world organization of distanceeducation systems, with a membership of many hundreds, both individual and institutional, including many regional associations, from Europe, Asia, South America, etc. Among many of its initiatives, the ICDE has invited to meet in my country, in Lisbon last year, the Presidents of all its member institutions, for the purpose of creating a collaborative strategy of worldwide reach, to deal with problems of global nature. The decision was taken, on that occasion, to institute the Standing Conference of Presidents (which we have christened in short as the ICDE-SCOP). You may be interested to know that its next Conference will be held in the United States, in Saratoga Springs, N.Y., next October 23rd. The agenda will include points such as the defense of environment, the potential of the new wideband communication networks in distanceeducation and the relations between single and dual-mode teaching systems; I hope to find many of you in Saratoga Springs.
Neder  discussed the academic instructor formation in EAD projects, indicating that she/he must have a background of especial knowledge about political-pedagogical aspects of distanceeducation and the theoretical- methodological aspects of the proposal that she/he will pursue. The author indicates that the selection process and the background of the instructor combined guarantee the quality of the educational work that is intended to obtain. His criticism is focused on the conception that some authores consider that once assured the least conditions to deliver the course (dialogicity,
With this aim, a doctoral program in Multimedia in Education was organized, and is currently starting, that will address research issues in distanceeducation in HE such as pedagogical and organizational frameworks, curriculum development, on-line tutoring and evaluation, tutor training, Web 2.0 technology deployment and management. This doctoral program will promote advanced studies and research taking advantage from the direct experience participants have in designing, organizing, deploying and managing distanceeducation. This will provide an opportunity for further study and discussion of past, current and future options, contributing to the development and consolidation of contextualized knowledge.
Indonesia was struggling to establish its own education system and to provide access to primary education for its people in a very dispersed area, after one decade of independence. Correspondence-based teacher training was the chosen alternative by the Indonesian government to address this national need at that time. A formal distanceeducation institution at tertiary level, Universitas Terbuka (UT), was established in 1984. Along with the government's efforts in accelerating human resources development in Indonesia, UT was also seen as the most capable higher education institutions for providing access to higher education for those who previously has been denied access to higher education due to economical, geographical and/or time constraints. For many people, UT was also the most feasible higher education institution for providing continuing education for wider intellectual exercises and interests.
Different distanceeducation courses employ different learn- ing environments. In order for the proposed approach to not be restricted to any specific environment, and after carrying out a study on the data available in these environments, we have developed a set of default tables for internal use. As a result, data from various environments can be converted into this structure to be imported. Some of the data required to be included in these tables are the learning environment access records and data concerning the courses, such as usage of available resources, number of views and comments in forums, etc. Optional data include final (which can be used for training) and partial grades.
These two pais of teachers – Anabela and Isaura, on one side, and Julia and Maria, on another – showed to have a rather different relationship with information and communication technologies but also, and more importantly, in their professional stance. Anabela and Isaura were interested in getting some more ideas for their classroom practice. Julia and Maria wanted to explore the possibilities of distanceeducation for their professional development and wanted to reflect on classroom issues but also in the curriculum and on wider professional issues. The teacher education course tried to match the interests of each group, according to curriculum and professional orientations and concerns. In a course like this, it would have been unlikely to see striking changes in these teachers; however, we witness how several aspects of their professional identities relate and in some cases are fostered by this kind of virtual teacher education setting .
Paulo Freire  has already talked about autonomy as one of the teaching pillars, independent of the modality it is part of. But, even at the distanceeducation, this autonomy presents itself as primordial.The student must have the capacity to discern btween the valid information and the invalid one, he must question what is offered to him as truth, he must reflect and establish links to go beyond the rough data and arrive at the level of the apprehended and pertinent knowledge , acoordinlgy to the following excerpts:
All the universities agreed that students should attend campuses for the final test. However, not all authorized universities provide complete full-distanceeducation programs (see Table 4). There are two universities that have adopted the Blended System in e-teaching: Saudi Electronic University (SEU) and Arab Open University in the KSA. Students at SEU have to attend 25% of classes in the form of direct lectures, and another 25% as virtual classes. The rest (50%) are distributed among educational forums and following up on the digital learning content. Students at the Arab Open University in the KSA have to attend 25% in the form of direct lectures, and the rest (75%) are distributed among educational forums and following up on the digital learning content.
To that end, learning happens both through self-learning or independent learning strategies and through dialogue and interaction with peers, resorting to cooperative and collaborative learning strategies. Independent learning is achieved through auto- nomous learning on the part of the student based on activities, materials, bibliogra- phy and guidance provided by the teacher. Collaborative learning results from wor- king together with other students, sharing experiences and perspectives, common goals and working processes negotiated in the group. The creation and organization of groups of students provides a social context for learning, according to the perspec- tive that learning has a strong social dimension, and prevents the appearance of feel- ings of isolation and demotivation, characteristic of traditional models of distanceeducation. Furthermore, team work prepares the students to function in modern organizations, where tasks are more and more interdependent and the sharing of information and knowledge has become a key factor, together with a concerted pro- fessional action.
Types of membership also changed: two new categories of institutional members, Educational Authorities and Corporations, were meant to answer the expression of interest shown, on the one hand, by Governments, in many countries, wishing to get reliable information on the development of ODL systems; on the other, by large organisation in the private sector, operating in the fields of modern communications, computer and telematics, radio and television broadcasting and even news and entertainment, which are considering their potential for intervention in distanceeducation and training, given the huge potential clientele in this field.
Communication mediated through technical media remains mediated communication and cannot replace an actual discussion, an actual argument, the discourse of a group gathered at a particular location. Mediated communication and actual communication stand in relationship to one another like a penciled sketch and an oil painting of the same subject. What takes place in a discussion between two or more people can only be transmitted in part electronically. ... A virtual university that does without face- to-face events by referring to the possibility of videoconferencing can only ever remain a surrogate university. ... There is no doubt that to a certain extent [videoconferencing] will improve the structure of communication in distanceeducation – but it cannot ever take the place of personal communication in distanceeducation. (p. 155) be developed cooperatively by the