Abstract. This research presents the results of a study whose theme was the reading in earlychildhoodeducation, since the contact of children with some objects that may lead them to reading can bring contributions to the reader's formation. Thus, issue of the investigation was: to identify how the New School Magazine (RNE) in the period of 2010-2014 discussed the reading in earlychildhoodeducation? We aimed also: to reflect on reading in earlychildhoodeducationand collect in editions of RNE's the treatment that was given to the theme. The methodology was inspired by the state of the art, for we carried on the survey in the magazine just the way the subject was discussed with further analysis of data. Fifty copies were analyzed and, considering that this magazine is distributed throughout the national territory and is easily accessible by teachers, it was noticed that nine articles on the subject were published. The results showed that encouraging kids to read is really important, however, the magazine is neglectful on this theme.
participatory observation and interviews. The research was based on ideas from authors like Regina Zilberman, Marisa Lajolo, Fanny Abramovick who emphasize the pedagogical practices of children's literature. It was concluded that the presence of children's literature with in school environment encourages and awakens the taste for reading from an early age, becoming a link of learning and values built and tied to their development
Recognizing the importance of early stimulation in earlychildhoodeducationand with the legal framework of the Educational Guidelines on Early Stimulation published by MEC in 1995, it developed a bibliometric study of quantitative and qualitative nature in the Brazilian digital journal Scielo, looking for articles to submit data interventions in the context of earlychildhoodeducation by the children who need early intervention. In order to check the development of research and actions elapsed between the period 1995-2016 were used as generating words the terms "essential stimulation," where he met 1 item; "Early stimulation" 6 articles and "early intervention" 29. After wide reading were selected 13 articles that met the previously established criteria of early stimulation approach as a program geared to children with some kind of commitment that the light to be public target Special Education. Critical and in-depth reading of these articles was possible to observe an interval of eight years between the first publication and the Guidelines of the MEC, and that 11 of the works bring early stimulation in a medical perspective over the school and only 2 bring guidance to the studies are estentidos schools. Qualitative analysis of the work emerged the importance of actions and stimulation practices experienced by the family such as touch and the basic and effective care, recognizing the importance of access and children stay at school and the teacher's role as early stimulator which shall receive initial and ongoing training to meet adequately the children understand their important role in the multidisciplinary team intervention for early stimulation can thus implement the guidelines proposed by the MEC.
On the one hand, the relevance of these federated entities is rec- ognized to implement evaluation, since “[…] the evaluation of children’s education is a State duty, due to the child’s legal right to education from zero to five years old” (Sousa, 2014, p. 71), constituting a means capable of “[...] support future referrals, based on a commitment to continuous improvement of this educational stage, respecting its purposes, as well as the peculiarities of the education of children in the age group up to five years” (Sousa, 2014, p. 71). On the other hand, given the privileged focus, there are indications that support questions about the potential of the ongoing proposals to promote quality of education for all chil- dren. It seems that what has been dominant in ongoing initiatives is the evaluation of children’s learning, in particular readingand writing skills. There are authors who associate the outlines of these initiatives with those of large-scale assessments aimed at elementary and middle/ high school education, in which the application of tests that measure students’ proficiency in certain areas of knowledge has a central role, interpreting this movement as assimilation, in earlychildhood educa- tion, of management models that are preponderant in other stages of basic education.
Teachers spend a great deal of time gathering information for the purpose of conducting on-going assessments in the classroom. The literacy development of young children should not be determined by one formal (or standardized) assessment tool. Rather, should involve gathering data from multiple instruments, daily observations, and work samples that measure progress. Often, schools have a data-gathering system in place that reflects the child’s growth and development in the area of literacy skills. As a parent of young children, it is important to ensure that your child is enjoying the reading process and at the same time, that the child is developing his literacy/reading/writing skills to maximum potential. Not all children learn the alphabet by a specific age, and children often learn to ‘sing’ their abc’s before they can identify letters in isolation, or tell you what sounds a letter makes, or what words start with a specific letter. It is an on-going developmental process that takes time, and this is why assessment is important in earlychildhood. We assess to determine how well a child is progressing at a specific time, and to document a specific aspect of learning. Keeping careful progress records helps teachers adapt the curriculum to make it meaningful and child-centered. Furthermore, if assessment is to be effective, parents need to be kept informed in order to help support the child’s learning at home.
There are very strong evidence that maternal labor supply has a negative impact on the skill formation of their children, as for instance, Carneiro and Rodrigues (2009) and Agostinelli and Sorrenti (2018). The latter article also shows that childhood family income matters - increasing by thousand dollars the family income improves cognitive development by 4.4 percent of a standard deviation - but this effect is dominated by parental quality time. Using large longitudinal survey data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study, Bono et al. (2016) estimates that maternal time is a quantitatively important determinant of skill formation and that its effect declines with child age. The article finds evidence of long-term effects of early maternal time inputs on cognitive skill development 29 . The Perry Program, and many similar programs of early intervention, include visits to the parents’ houses as a form of increasing their participation in the education of their children. The evidence, hence, on parenting time and family environment having positive impact on the skills of their children is solid. It is not clear, however, how these factors have evolved, or even improved, in the recent times. In the introduction and parts of the article, we argued that the variable x is a reduced form variable that includes or represents factors affecting earlychildhood human capital. In this section, however, we add a separated and stylized variable representing effective parenting time ( a proxy for quality and total parenting time) to the human capital function. Our objective is to evaluate how the addition of this variable changes the main results of Sections 5 and 6.
In an action research project about the acquisition of written language in a very deprived area of Lisbon, Manuela Neves and Margarida Martins (1994) tell us about how difficult it was when children were asked to bring to school something with a written message from home. Children could not find any printing at home. The few children who brought something, were the ones with the most structured family environment, they brought pieces of paper with written messages for the teacher. For this group, written language is a school matter and school is a separate world (sometimes lack of success) from their every day life. The teacher decided then to ask them directly to bring empty boxes of food or any house-hold products. When they discovered in the class that they could read the labels and that those written words were part of their every day life, they changed their attitude completely towards written messages. Written language became after all something that was already part of their worlds (although in a limited way) and a code about which they already knew something. “Beyond the function of expression, communication and information we consider the use of writing as a way of registering a memory of the group, organizing the class and the activities.” (Almeida, 1987)
In the present study we found that both Cr and CysC values were lower in children with slower and consistent weight gain (trajectory I) whilst eGFR was higher in these children. In contrast, children with persistent or during childhood weight gain (trajectories II and III) presented lower eGFR values. Additionally, prepubertal children with excessive weight gain during childhood (trajectory III) showed significantly lower values of GFR estimated by Filler, Le Bricon and CKD-EPI formulas, independently of children’s current age and sex, class of birthweight for gestational age and class of BMI. We also found that, in a subsample of children, absolute CrCl values were lower in the group with consistent weight gain (trajectory I) whereas the highest values were found those with persistent excessive weight gain (trajectory II).
Therefore, in recent years, a few electrophysiological studies have explored the effects of task demands (e.g., could involve grapheme-phoneme decoding or simple visual recognition) on the processing of surface features (e.g., word form; Wang and Maurer, 2017; Sánchez-Vincitore et al., 2018) and of lexico-semantic properties of a word (Chen et al., 2015; Mahé et al., 2015; Strijkers et al., 2015) at the earliest latencies. For instance, Strijkers et al. (2015) observed an effect of word frequency as early as 120 ms after stimulus onset when readers consciously retrieved the meaning of the words (semantic categorization), but not until 100 ms later (at around 220 ms), when participants categorized the colored font of the same words (ink color categorization, where no linguistic processing is necessary). Recently, Wang and Maurer (2017) extended these findings by showing that task demands influence coarse neural tuning for print in the (late part of) N1, i.e., the letter-symbols difference was more pronounced in delayed naming and color detection compared to repetition detection. Taken together, these findings suggest that, though word recognition processes are largely automatic in the brain, very early on (N1 time window) visual-orthographic processing is flexible and penetrable to top-down influences. But very little attention has been dedicated to examining how these findings extend to the intentional and conscious skill of reading, a more ecological task.
The purpose of this conference was to develop a research agenda that will leverage new discoveries and lead to innovative approaches to reduce caries in high risk populations. An esteemed group of internationally recognized scientists representing cariology, behavioral sciences, bioengineering and microbiology were invited to present research on topics aimed at understanding the
transplacental chemical exposures (quinone- based chemicals) (38,40). The probability of the secondary event arising within a short time would be enhanced if the genetic back- ground conferred greater susceptibility of the individual to chemical damage. In this context, constitutive genetic vulnerability may not only act as a predisposing factor for the induction of MLL gene fusion but may also increase the risk of the occurrence of further mutations. For most leukemias, and also IALs, multiple genetic polymorphisms of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes may interact with environmental, dietary, mater- nal, and other factors to modulate the devel- opment of acute leukemia. For example, quinones, which have been shown to cleave both the MLL gene and its frequent fusion partner AF4 at topo-II cleavage sites (50), may be poorly detoxified depending on the activity of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreduc- tase 1 (NQO1), an enzyme that detoxifies chemicals with quinone rings including ben- zene metabolites and flavonoids. The NQO1 gene is subject to polymorphisms that gener- ate an NQO1 protein with a significantly decreased enzymatic activity. Studies of Caucasian and Japanese patients have shown that the occurrence of alleles conferring low- activity variants of NQO1 was associated with an increased risk of IAL, especially with MLL /AF4 fusion genes (51,52). Sirma et al. (53) demonstrated that in pediatric ALL without MLL rearrangements, the null genotype of the NQO1 gene is not associated with the etiology of the disease. Recently, in a series of Italian IAL cases, contradictory results were obtained, with this polymor- phism appearing to be associated with infant ALL without MLL rearrangements, but not with MLL-positive infants (54). In the Bra- zilian series, preliminary results also did not show a significant increased risk (OR = 1.10; 95%CI = 0.62-1.95) of developing leukemia with rearrangements of the MLL gene in those individuals with low-activity variants of the NQO1 enzyme (Amorim MR, Silva
Abstract: Several authors who have been reflecting on the environmental crisis understand that this would be the result of a civilization crisis, a consequence of a worldview that promotes current patterns of relationship between society and society, society and nature. Being part of the coping process of this crisis, the environmental education has been increasingly present in schools and other spaces, since the educational process is presented as one of the possibilities to reverse the current degradation framework installed. Considering the importance of including the construction of values in education in general and the difficulties to achieve that evaluative work by the teacher this question, in the case of environmental education, presents itself as an important theme for the continuing education of teachers and managers of EarlyChildhoodEducation, which will be presented and discussed in this paper.
The quality of classroom interactions with an emphasis on the teachers’ interactions with children has been shown to be a critical mechanism by which children develop (Pianta, Belsky, Houts, Morri- son, & the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Child Care Research Network, 2007). Domains of classroom in- teractions (e.g. instructionally supportive interactions, organizational interactions, emotionally supportive interactions) have been positive- ly related to children’s academic gains (Curby, Rimm-Kaufman, & Po- nitz, 2009). A possible explanation on the highest ranking of “Inter- action” in the six participating countries could be that interpersonal relationships, the socio-emotional support and development of chil- dren have traditionally been a basic element of the European culture. For example, the Nordic countries paradigm is focused much more on the socio-emotional development of children, their autonomy, their self-regulation and the development of their social skills in comparison with the Northern American earlychildhoodeducation. An addition- al reason could also be attributed to the teachers’ higher level of ed- ucation (bachelor degree), as many studies revealed the merit of hav- ing a bachelor degree for ECE educators (Boyd, Goldhaber, Lankford, & Wyckoff, 2007; Burchinal, Roberts, Riggins, Zeisel, Neebe, & Bryant, 2000; Croninger, Rice, Rathbun, & Nishio, 2007; Early, Bryan, Pianta, Clifford, Burchinal, Ritchie, Howes, & Barbarin, 2006).
The data collected made it possible to identify certain practices developed with animals, which were sometimes problematic for children (eg. abandonment and neglect of animals, sale of animals in stores, use of animal skins for clothing and footwear) and sometimes necessary (eg. the need to invest more in promoting animal and nature rights, to think on the place of pets in their lives and to develop projects to learn more about a particular animal or situation involving them). The conflict between individual and group visions is an issue to be emphasized in the present data analysis, as well as the fact that children, especially in nursery, reveal blurring boundaries between human and non-human worlds.
Extant reviews have focused on specific methods to gather children’s voices, children’s participation in specific countries, children’s participation in health settings, or school-aged children’s participation. To the best of our knowledge, there is currently no systematic review mapping international empirical research on young children’s right to participate in ECE settings. We aim to address this gap, acknowledging the importance of the early years, often underestimated and overlooked. We acknowledge the initial assumptions most likely to influence our analyses and interpretation of findings: (1) the field needs a comprehensive evidence-base on participation-related ideas, practices, and outcomes, and their mutual associations and effects; (2) the field needs strong evidence building on quantitative and qualitative studies and transversal and longitudinal high-quality research designs; (3) the field needs to consider the perspectives, experiences, and outcomes of multiple agents, maintaining a strong focus on children.
Regarding observed process quality, we conﬁrmed the mediating role of Emotional Support. Speciﬁcally, decreased Decision Making by the Adult, as perceived by ECE teachers, was associated with increased Emotional Support, which was associated with increased Perceived Participation by children. This ﬁnding is consistent with research fo- cusing on the associations between participation and ECE quality (e.g., Correia & Aguiar, 2017; Houen et al., 2016; Sheridan, 2007; Sheridan & Samuelsson, 2001). Particularly, teachers in high-quality settings seem to promote more opportunities for children’s decision making (Sheridan, 2007) and initiative (Houen et al., 2016). It is also consistent with research emphasizing the importance of teachers’ sensitive and respectful attitudes (e.g., Bae, 2012; Freitas Luís et al., 2015; Mesquita- Pires, 2012). Emotional Support measures the extent to which teachers promote a positive climate in the ECE classroom, through positive re- lationships, aﬀect, communication, and respect. Further, this dimension captures teacher sensitivity, involving teachers ’ awareness of and re- sponsiveness to children ’s needs, assurance of children’s comfort. Im- portantly, however, it also captures teachers’ consideration for chil- dren ’s perspectives, through ﬂexibility, child-centeredness, and support for child autonomy, leadership, and expression (Pianta et al., 2008). Therefore, this study provided evidence that teachers’ subjective re- ports of Decision Making by the Adult (which re ﬂect the levels of re- ciprocity in the classroom) were associated with children ’s subjective experiences of participation, through observed (i.e., objective) high- quality proximal processes involving positive relationships, sensitive- ness, and ﬂexibility ( Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 2006).
Investigating BMI trajectories over time requires large samples and accurate anthropometric measurements. Although several studies explored weight trajectories in childhood, some studies used categorical measures of overweight and obesity, which leads to classification bias, and others used “crude” BMI values, which do not account for growth (13). Since normal growth results in an expected increase in BMI, age- and gender-specific BMI standard deviation scores (Z-scores) are often considered the gold standard for the analysis of anthropometric data at an epidemiological level (15). In fact, the Z-score has a linear scale that allows comparison between age groups and gender. Furthermore, it can be analyzed by summary statistics: the mean Z-score reflects the nutritional status of the entire population, and the standard deviation (SD) of the Z-score reflects the quality and accuracy of the data (15). On the other hand, most of these studies explored a small subset of covariates, such as gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status, leaving out important factors like birthweight and breastfeeding duration that are well-known to influence weight status, and even fewer studies have included early family environment, general parenting, and parenting practices.
Teachers’ ideas are permeable to the cultural values of the society or groups they belong to. For instance, teachers from western societies that promote individualism and intergenerational independence seem to value more autonomy, independence, assertiveness, and self-sufficiency than teachers from oriental societies, more inﬂuenced by collectivistic philosophies (Marchand & d’Orey, 2008). Similarly, teachers with child-centred beliefs hold more democratic perspectives, are more sensitive and responsive to children’s interests and actions, and promote more opportunities for children to choose and exert influence (e.g., Koran & Avci, 2017). These beliefs are aligned with constructivist views of learning (i.e., children seen not as passive recipients, but rather as active participants in acquiring knowledge, with teachers emphasizing children’s enquiry, giving them opportunities to develop their own solutions and problems, and allowing their active role in activities), in opposition to direct transmission ideologies (i.e., teachers’ main role is communicating in a clear, structured way, explaining correct solutions and providing children with clear, solvable problems thus promoting teacher-child hierarchy and expecting children to comply with adults’ decisions) (OECD, 2009). These views are well established in educational research, at least in western countries (Kim, 2005).
Misreporting of food consumption is a possible limitation that needs to be addressed. Yet, dietary intake was assessed by 3-day food diaries. Considering that food diaries have been described as the most suitable method for assessment of intake at the individual level, particularly in children (48), and that instructions were given to parents in order to minimize misreporting and increase quality of dietary assessment (e.g., food diary given to day-time caregiver), misreporting is expected to be diminished. Selection bias may have occurred, since there is a high burden inherent to collection of information by food diaries (49) which resulted in a high number of undelivered, incomplete or incorrectly filled records. Comparison between this sample and the remaining cohort showed no statistically significant differences relatively to maternal BMI and child’s sex, although mothers included in this analysis were slightly more educated (mean=11.5, SD=4.22 vs. mean=10.8 complete schooling years, SD=4.30; P<0.001). As food diaries require literate respondents (49), this difference was expected. However, given that Cohen’s effect size values are low (<0.2) (50), differences are likely due to large sample size rather than to substantial differences between participants.
This article is related to the daily of children in earlyChildhoodEducation in regard to social interactions established in that school environment in relation to the black child. It presents an analysis of a survey carried out in an earlyChildhoodEducation Institution, which aimed to investigate how social interactions and race relations took place between black and white children and the teacher’s room. Understanding that the school environment should be an environment that respects the child in their individualities and assist in the development of interaction skills and respect for others, it is important to discuss racial ethnic diversity in school. For the study we used as data collection instruments interviews and observations of school space and classroom routine. The results showed that children