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Evaluation and Management of Early Childhood Education in Brazilian Municipalities

Evaluation and Management of Early Childhood Education in Brazilian Municipalities

ABSTRACT – Evaluation and Management of Early Childhood Education in Brazilian Municipalities. Studies that elucidate how the themes of eval- uation and management of early childhood education have been treated in national literature show that there are still few studies that analyze propos- als aimed at the evaluation of this segment of basic education, neither the interface between this theme and educational management. This finding was the motivation for this study, which re-identified academic produc- tions that used the themes of management and/or evaluation of early child- hood education as research objects, whose contributions support analyses of municipal proposals directed towards the evaluation of this basic educa- tion segment, whose results are treated in the present article. In conclu- sion, the potential and limits of these initiatives, which provide clues to support the construction of assessments potentially capable of serving an education project that gives substance to the right to a quality education for young children.
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A avaliação na educação infantil: em discussão o uso do portfólio / Evaluation in early childhood education: discussing use of the portifolio

A avaliação na educação infantil: em discussão o uso do portfólio / Evaluation in early childhood education: discussing use of the portifolio

In the context of basic education the assessment of learning is constant, the child is evaluated in different situations and by different evaluation mechanisms. Child education aimed at contemplating the development of the child as a whole can use the portfolio as an evaluation tool because it distances itself from the traditional means of evaluation, since it has clear and objective characteristics both for the teacher and for the child and his family. The portfolio has the potential to represent child development in the physical and social emotional domains considering that it can be accompanied by both the child, the family and the teacher, since everyone has access to it, which allows for greater interaction among these people. With such an understanding, we will discuss the use of this evaluation tool in the area of early childhood education, conceptualizing, characterizing and reflecting on its use and contributions, analyzing its importance and relevance for the development of the child and the teacher. It is justified to contemplate something revealing in the pedagogical scope and to enable an evaluative means that guides the referral of the work of the teacher and at the same time helps it to reach its objectives, allowing the evaluation of the teaching and learning process of the child as a whole. In this sense, we will present selected materials that deal with this subject in a first moment to characterize and conceptualize the portfolio, and then to discuss the importance and relevance of the same to the development of the child and the pedagogical practice of the teacher.
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Evaluation and quality culture in Italian Early Childhood Education and Care services

Evaluation and quality culture in Italian Early Childhood Education and Care services

A experiência da Emília Romana e a elaboração dos indicadores para as creches regionais A região da Emília Romana, assim como a anterior, também contratou de uma equipe de especialistas uma pesquisa de formação com caráter avaliativo, com o objetivo seja de difundir uma cultura da evaluation nos serviços da infância em seu território, ou de elaborar indicadores contextuais capazes de refletir o ethos e a cultura pedagógica das creches regionais (Bondioli & Ghedini, 2000). No percurso de três anos (1993 a 1996), os operadores e os coordenadores de 16 creches foram envolvidos, segundo a modalidade análoga àquela da pesquisa avaliativa feita na Umbria, resultando um total de 57 seções, que avaliaram a própria realidade, valendo-se da SVANI, em que discutiram com especialistas a implantação e a filosofia da qualidade para se aproximar ao máximo de expressar a identidade e a fisionomia educacional dos próprios serviços. Duas ideias-chave emergiram deste processo: a ideia de "qualidade negociada" e o valor de um dos "movimentos" do processo de avaliação acionado, o de "restituição", entendido como um momento de negociação e diálogo em que os pontos de vista dos participantes são capazes de discutir os procedimentos, as ferramentas e os métodos utilizados, bem como os dados de avaliação coletados para alcançar a conscientização e uma leitura coletiva (Becchi, 2000b).
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Mathematical Tasks for the Development of Space Perception in Early Childhood Education: potentials and limits

Mathematical Tasks for the Development of Space Perception in Early Childhood Education: potentials and limits

This article aims to analyze the potentialities and limits of mathematical tasks, elaborated based on the didactic suitability criteria, to favor the development of space perception in children of Early Childhood Education. The criteria of didactic suitability, theoretical tools of the ontosemiotic approach, serve for analysis and evaluation of teaching and learning processes. This qualitative study was developed with the children of Group 3 in the Federal University of Bahia day-care center, through the implementation of task sequences. The results showed that, overall, the task ’s sequences had a level of didactic suitability from medium-high to high and, although they did not reach a high level of suitability, they played a coherent interrelationship, contributing with a favorable
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O trabalho em parceria na educação inclusiva: experiências na Educação Infantil (Working in partnership in inclusive education: experiences in Early Childhood Education)

O trabalho em parceria na educação inclusiva: experiências na Educação Infantil (Working in partnership in inclusive education: experiences in Early Childhood Education)

The present article is a research clipping whose general objective was to understand how the organizational structure of a public school made possible the work with students with disabilities for the realization of the truly inclusive education proposal. In this work we discuss the collaboration/partnership in a perspective that articulates the different segments of professionals of the school in the interlocution with the family, perspective that seeks to potentiate the learning of a student’s with disabilities. We present an experience developed with a student of Early Childhood education, in the context of a municipal school in the interior of the state of São Paulo, where the vice-director/researcher presents collaborative processes developed between teacher regent, a teacher of Specialized Educational Assistance (AEE) and an educational agent, subjects who were responsible for preparing and developing projects, activities and teaching materials for the referred student. The data produced for this work are: Teacher's Diary, student’s Individual Development Plan (PDI), evaluation record of the student’s mother, daily register of the vice-director and the reflective register of the teachers and educational agent about their experiences with the student with disabilities. The production of the data was analyzed from the indexing paradigm. Collaboration/partnership was made possible through the constitution of a group of individuals who support each other, experienced joint actions and had feelings of productive belonging, around the common goal of guaranteeing student’s learning. The participation of the family was paramount to the achievement of the objectives proposed with the student with disabilities.
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The influence of Vygotsky in Movimento da Escola Moderna Early Childhood Education Curriculum

The influence of Vygotsky in Movimento da Escola Moderna Early Childhood Education Curriculum

The Classroom Diary is a register of things that happen, desires, conflicts, or accounts of events that any group member wants to register. It consists of four columns: “We liked”, “We didn’t like”, “We did” and “We wanted”. The first three columns enable the group to do a sociomoral evaluation of the week and the fourth to plan the following week. During the week, any child or adult can register what they want in the diary. They can draw or ask an adult to write for them and the child can illustrate this afterwards. At the end of the week, during the Friday afternoon council, the contents are analyzed. One child is invited to read (usually the one who wrote the sentence) and everybody takes part in the discussion. Negative events like “I don’t like it when John kicks me” or “I don’t like it that Jane spoils my drawings” are briefly but seriously discussed with all the children implicated speaking. Sometimes they give rise to a new social rule, written in the Social Rules Chart. The social rules chart is a register of the rules that are agreed to regulate the classroom group. They are always discussed with the group and arise from a real need for the rule. Working in a group is not unproblematic so, some rules have to be explicit in order to help children to work and to solve problems. They are written and illustrated by the children and are fixed upon the wall in order that they are not forgotten. Another instrument used by MEM classrooms is the responsibilities chart . Classrooms are places were a lot of work has to be done. The sociocentric approach of the MEM classes gives the children from a very young age the responsibility for certain duties like taking care of materials, preparing meals, watering the plants or feeding the animals, cleaning the tables, etc. These routines are assigned weekly to the children rotatively in the council meeting of Monday morning.
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Public Prosecution’s Office extrajudicial performance and the right to early childhood education:

Public Prosecution’s Office extrajudicial performance and the right to early childhood education:

Therefore, the general scenario of services offered in 2015 corroborates the idea that ECE in this municipality has a level of high-quality standards, despite the lack of data to evaluate that thoroughly. Even though 573 children remained in the waitlist in 2016, the collected data – based on quantitative indicators and the contact with stakeholders – indicate Telêmaco Borba might be a case of success, with a partial streamlining of the ECE services’ reach, maintaining high-quality standards. All interviewees agree the situation was improved, but each of them underscores his own role in such advancements. That raises up questions concerning the evaluation of the CATs’ effects, being complex to determine if the expansion of enrollment is due to the CAT signing or other initiatives by stakeholders. Therefore, we analyze the different and contradictory narratives in the following session. Those narratives show disagreements regarding what caused improvements in the enforcement of the right to ECE, pointing to the intensification of disputes between administration and PPO.
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Working with Space and Shape in Early Childhood Education: Experiences in Collaboration

Working with Space and Shape in Early Childhood Education: Experiences in Collaboration

This report shows the experience of a work conducted with the Meli-Melo puzzle in two early childhood education classes at two different schools in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. With the work’s activities as a starting point, aspects related to space and shape, as well as quantities and measures, were approached. Children from two and a half to five years old participated in the playful activities, which had the following goals: to develop spatial and geometric skills, to allow measuring actions, to favor dialogue and to boost group work experience. There were several activities, like handling the pieces, assembling images free- ly or according with outlines and models, assembling three-dimensional figures, and the length game. The following questions were considered in the evaluation of the work: how was the children’s participation in large groups and small groups? How did children of dif- ferent age groups engage in the different proposals? Which activities were easier or more difficult for each group? Which behaviors and conversations showed us new knowledge? The fulfillment of the planned activities showed that the children had several hypotheses regarding shapes and that they were able to identify similarities and differences, use ge- ometry vocabulary, and discuss their thoughts, particularly when working in small groups, which favored the participation of nearly all children. We believe the work reported has allowed learnings and a contact with mathematics in early childhood education.
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The role of practicum for early childhood teacher education: the perspectives of student teachers

The role of practicum for early childhood teacher education: the perspectives of student teachers

Following what occurred at the European Higher Education Area in Portugal, the model of organization of teacher education that qualifies for teaching at the various levels of education has undergone profound changes in recent years, ensuing the suitability of the courses to the Bologna process. Starting in 2007, following the new legal framework for higher education, a new legal framework for preservice teacher education is introduced, which definitively changes the configuration of the training that enables professionals to perform the teaching function, namely in pre-school education and in the 1st and 2nd cycles of basic education. The preservice programs for teachers at these levels of education are organized according to the guidelines of the general legislation governing higher education, namely the Legal Regime of Higher Education Institutions [39] and by the specific legislation that regulates the initial teacher education - Legal Regime of Professional Qualification for Teaching [40], [41].
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Impact of Low Maternal Education on Early Childhood Overweight and Obesity in Europe

Impact of Low Maternal Education on Early Childhood Overweight and Obesity in Europe

The DRIVERS for Health Equity research programme included a European cross-cohort study of inequali- ties in early child health and development. The pre- sent analysis draws on this component of DRIVERS, and is based on 11 European birth cohorts (in ascending order of child’s age at measurement): the Gene and Environment Prospective Study on Infancy in Italy, Italy (IT-GASPII, N = 543); the Environment and Childhood Project, Spain (ES-INMA, N = 1726); the Generation XXI Study, Portugal (PT-G21, N = 5686); the Millennium Cohort Study, United King- dom (UK-MCS, N = 14 186); the All Babies in South- east Sweden Study (SE-ABIS, N = 6494); the mother– child Study of Pre- and Post-natal Determinants of Child Growth, Development, and Health, France (FR- EDEN, N = 1139); the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development Study, Netherlands (NL-ABCD, N = 3245); the European Longitudinal Study of Preg- nancy and Childhood, Czech Republic (CZ-ELSPAC, N = 3665); the Family and Children of Ukraine Study, Ukraine (UA-FCOU, N = 925); the Greek Birth Cohort, Greece (GR-GBC, N = 1843); and the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1985/1986 Study, Finland (FI-NFBC8586, N = 5961). Details of participating cohorts including eligibility criteria have been previously reported. 15 Participants consisted of 45 413 children born between April 1983 and October 2006, and for whom compara- ble data of maternal education, height and weight dur- ing early childhood were available.
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Acute leukemia in early childhood

Acute leukemia in early childhood

Ross et al. (43) suggested that maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy re- sults in an increased risk for infant ALL (OR = 1.43; 95%CI = 1.00-2.04) and for infant AML (OR = 2.64; 95%CI = 1.36-5.06). The mechanism is explained by the ethanol in- duction of microsomal enzymes, such as cytochrome P450, which subsequently acti- vate pre-carcinogens (43). The same study showed that paternal smoking one month prior to pregnancy was associated with an increased risk (OR = 1.56; 95%CI = 1.03- 2.36) of infant ALL. High-birth weights were also shown to be correlated with higher rates of infant ALL and AML. Concordant results were observed within the Brazilian Collabo- rative Study Group of Infant Acute Leuke- mia (BCSGIAL), using birth weight infor- mation obtained from the questionnaires of 202 IAL cases and 440 controls (45). Since insulin-like growth factor-1 is important in blood formation and regulation and has been shown to stimulate the growth of both my- eloid and lymphoid cells in culture, it was postulated that high levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 might produce large babies and contribute to the development of leuke- mia (46). A maternal history of fetal loss has also been associated with a five- to 12-fold increased risk of developing ALL or AML (47). However, Ross et al. (48) later showed that the relationships between birth weight, prior fetal loss, and risk of infant leukemia appear to be complex, and that only high- birth weight was in fact a significant risk factor of developing childhood leukemia.
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Salivary Biomarkers and Early Childhood Caries

Salivary Biomarkers and Early Childhood Caries

Materials and methods: This thesis aim was to perform a bibliographic review of scientific literature published in the last 10 years on the importance of assessing salivary biomarkers to the prevention of ECC. To this end, during the months of September to February 2017, a bibliographic search was carried out in PubMed, B-on and PMC databases using the following keywords : “early childhood caries”, “ salivary factors”, “ salivary biomarkers”, “pediatric dentistry”, “caries prevention”. In the search the following limits were used: articles published in the last 10 years, abstract and full text available, studies in humans and articles in English, French and Portuguese. A total of 98 articles obtain and then selected, firstly by the titles, followed by the reading of the abstracts and, finally, by reading the whole article. Thus obtaining 22 articles for review (Table 1).
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Children’s right to participate in early childhood education: from rights to empirical evidence

Children’s right to participate in early childhood education: from rights to empirical evidence

Further, both the Proposal for Key Principles of a Quality Framework for Early Childhood Education and Care (European Commission, 2014) and the European Framework of Quality and Wellbeing Indicators (Moser, Leseman, Melhuish, Broekhuizen, & Slot, 2017) prioritize participation as a key principle of high-quality ECE. Both documents propose children’s active, meaningful participation in the life of ECE settings, recognizing and valuing participation as key to achieve high-quality. Even more recently, the Council Recommendation on High-Quality Early Childhood Education and Care Systems stated that ECE settings need to be child-centred, based on children’s participation and interest in learning, providing choice of activities and objects for learning, in safe, nurturing and caring environments, providing a range of possibilities for children to develop their potential (European Union, 2019). Still at the European level, a network of ECE associations and non-governmental organizations (e.g., Eurochild, European Early Childhood Education Research Association), which includes the Associação de Profissionais de Educação de Infância (i.e., the national Association of Early Childhood Education Professionais), established ten key principles in which services for children should base their work: from access to establishing partnerships, one of the principles refers to participation as an essential value allowing the expression of democracy and the promotion of inclusion, towards the construction of shared projects (Mussati, 2016).
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Tecnologias e práticas educativas no ensino infantil / Educational technologies and practices in early childhood education

Tecnologias e práticas educativas no ensino infantil / Educational technologies and practices in early childhood education

The advancement of technology in today's society has contributed significantly to social development, in this context it is important that the school appropriates the technological benefits in the classroom to raise the process of teaching learning in education. The present work is a bibliographical research and had as objective to discuss the importance of the use of technology in the classroom of children's education, choosing as research question the following question: What is the contribution of the use of technology in the educational practices of children's education? Observing initially, the advancement of technology in the course of history, as well as the positions of theorists regarding the use of technology in early childhood education. We also analyze what technological resources are available and accessible to the teacher, as well as the contributions that such resources can provide to the process of teaching learning. Finally, we present a possible proposal for a didactic sequence to work in the classroom. Therefore, we believe that the results of this research will serve as subsidies for the discussions about the importance of using pedagogical practices for early childhood education.
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Travel through the oceans: augmented reality to enhance learning in early childhood education

Travel through the oceans: augmented reality to enhance learning in early childhood education

“one of the most interesting emergent technologies for educa- tion, being a powerful and motivating tool which can involve sev- eral of the student´s senses by means of the proper and correct com- bination of sound, sight and touch. Application of AR technology in education is only just beginning to be explored, especially using it with preschoolers” [14].

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Literacy in early childhood education

Literacy in early childhood education

Teachers spend a great deal of time gathering information for the purpose of conducting on-going assessments in the classroom. The literacy development of young children should not be determined by one formal (or standardized) assessment tool. Rather, should involve gathering data from multiple instruments, daily observations, and work samples that measure progress. Often, schools have a data-gathering system in place that reflects the child’s growth and development in the area of literacy skills. As a parent of young children, it is important to ensure that your child is enjoying the reading process and at the same time, that the child is developing his literacy/reading/writing skills to maximum potential. Not all children learn the alphabet by a specific age, and children often learn to ‘sing’ their abc’s before they can identify letters in isolation, or tell you what sounds a letter makes, or what words start with a specific letter. It is an on-going developmental process that takes time, and this is why assessment is important in early childhood. We assess to determine how well a child is progressing at a specific time, and to document a specific aspect of learning. Keeping careful progress records helps teachers adapt the curriculum to make it meaningful and child-centered. Furthermore, if assessment is to be effective, parents need to be kept informed in order to help support the child’s learning at home.
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THE READING IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION: A STUDY ON NEW SCHOOL MAGAZINE FROM 2010 TO 2014

THE READING IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION: A STUDY ON NEW SCHOOL MAGAZINE FROM 2010 TO 2014

Abstract. This research presents the results of a study whose theme was the reading in early childhood education, since the contact of children with some objects that may lead them to reading can bring contributions to the reader's formation. Thus, issue of the investigation was: to identify how the New School Magazine (RNE) in the period of 2010-2014 discussed the reading in early childhood education? We aimed also: to reflect on reading in early childhood education and collect in editions of RNE's the treatment that was given to the theme. The methodology was inspired by the state of the art, for we carried on the survey in the magazine just the way the subject was discussed with further analysis of data. Fifty copies were analyzed and, considering that this magazine is distributed throughout the national territory and is easily accessible by teachers, it was noticed that nine articles on the subject were published. The results showed that encouraging kids to read is really important, however, the magazine is neglectful on this theme.
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From early childhood interventions to adult outcomes

From early childhood interventions to adult outcomes

14 interventions and programs identified target one specific aspect or dimension that is meant to be improved. The most important descriptive features are presented in Table 4. Whether it is oral health, parenting skills or nutrition, these interventions have a limited scope, a clear targeted group and very clear objectives. Most of them target mothers at risk and the programs start prenatally. Average period of these interventions is 2 to 3 years and participants are screened periodically during the intervention, and, in some cases, a few years after the interventions are over. Some follow-up studies were conducted in the short-term and very interesting data can be analysed that can provide valuable insights on the importance of investing in childhood healthcare and development programs. Below, the information on the targeted interventions can be found.
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Growth trajectories and kidney function in early childhood

Growth trajectories and kidney function in early childhood

Our study has led us to conclude that children with persistent or during childhood weight gain present significantly lower eGFR, when compared to children with slower and consistent weight gain. Our results support the influence of growth patterns in kidney function, which might be in line with other previously reported associations of excessive weight gain growth trajectories with higher risk of developing obesity and cardiovascular risk factors later in life 2,5,6 . Since the children included in our study are very young, still
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Teachers’ practices mediate the association between teachers’ ideas and children’s perceived participation in early childhood education

Teachers’ practices mediate the association between teachers’ ideas and children’s perceived participation in early childhood education

Recently, Portugal ranked second on the Kids Rights Index 2019 (Kids Rights Foundation, 2019), which considers the right to life, health, education, protection, and an enabling environment for chil- dren’s rights (e.g., including respect for children’s views and children’s participation). Nonetheless, the European Commission (2013) has pointed to the lack of visibility and awareness of participation rights in several countries, including Portugal (Eurochild, 2015). In addition, existing studies have suggested low to moderate (Aguiar, Aguiar, Cadima, Correia, & Fialho, 2019; Pinto, Pessanha, & Aguiar, 2013) mean levels of quality in Portuguese ECE settings. These levels might prevent Portuguese ECE classrooms from positively impacting chil- dren ’s development ( Abreu-Lima et al., 2013), and given the proposed associations between ECE quality and child participation (Sheridan & Samuelsson, 2001; Sheridan, 2007), they might also compromise the implementation of this right.
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