On the one hand, the relevance of these federated entities is rec- ognized to implement evaluation, since “[…] the evaluation of children’s education is a State duty, due to the child’s legal right to education from zero to five years old” (Sousa, 2014, p. 71), constituting a means capable of “[...] support future referrals, based on a commitment to continuous improvement of this educational stage, respecting its purposes, as well as the peculiarities of the education of children in the age group up to five years” (Sousa, 2014, p. 71). On the other hand, given the privileged focus, there are indications that support questions about the potential of the ongoing proposals to promote quality of education for all chil- dren. It seems that what has been dominant in ongoing initiatives is the evaluation of children’s learning, in particular reading and writing skills. There are authors who associate the outlines of these initiatives with those of large-scale assessments aimed at elementary and middle/ high school education, in which the application of tests that measure students’ proficiency in certain areas of knowledge has a central role, interpreting this movement as assimilation, in earlychildhood educa- tion, of management models that are preponderant in other stages of basic education.
In the sixth and final phase, we incorporated external disclo- sure. After performing the research and demonstrating the progress, both in relation to the children, and the educators, it was possible to sys- tematize the production of knowledge and enrich the educational prac- tices, not only in the university and the participating EMEIF, but with other teachers who had already expressed an interest in taking part in a new stage of the study, having perceived the impact of the work on the ongoing training and improving the quality of education offered to the children. The knowledge gained was also disseminated through publica- tions and various appearances at scientific events, which contributed to the construction of pedagogical works directed to the complete develop- ment of the child.
Further, both the Proposal for Key Principles of a Quality Framework for EarlyChildhoodEducation and Care (European Commission, 2014) and the European Framework of Quality and Wellbeing Indicators (Moser, Leseman, Melhuish, Broekhuizen, & Slot, 2017) prioritize participation as a key principle of high-quality ECE. Both documents propose children’s active, meaningful participation in the life of ECE settings, recognizing and valuing participation as key to achieve high-quality. Even more recently, the Council Recommendation on High-QualityEarlyChildhoodEducation and Care Systems stated that ECE settings need to be child-centred, based on children’s participation and interest in learning, providing choice of activities and objects for learning, in safe, nurturing and caring environments, providing a range of possibilities for children to develop their potential (European Union, 2019). Still at the European level, a network of ECE associations and non-governmental organizations (e.g., Eurochild, European EarlyChildhoodEducation Research Association), which includes the Associação de Profissionais de Educação de Infância (i.e., the national Association of EarlyChildhoodEducation Professionais), established ten key principles in which services for children should base their work: from access to establishing partnerships, one of the principles refers to participation as an essential value allowing the expression of democracy and the promotion of inclusion, towards the construction of shared projects (Mussati, 2016).
Our data show that teachers of early-childhood and elementary education of the city of Caçador, SC, Brazil, have a high prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and stress, with predominance of resistance and near exhaustion phases, prevailing the psychological symptoms over the physical symptoms. In diferent domains of the quality of life, teachers were unsatisied with physical and environmental factors, but they are satisied with their general quality of life. In conclusion, the high prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and stress does not alter the quality of life of basic education teachers.
In short, this is an exciting time as ‘earlychildhoodeducation is entering a very positive era in the history of Hong Kong education’ (Rao & Li, 2009, p. 243). The government is providing full support to ensure a high quality of earlyeducation and care. Research studies in this field have blossomed, but they are mostly collecting data and reporting on the current situation and challenges. It is evident that the present need is for the teachers to receive the support they need to put into practice those ideals advocated by the education reform. Therefore, the present project aims to make a difference by improving teaching practice through an action research method. Providing mentorship in supporting teachers has shown to be effective (Chen-Hafteck, 2013b; Tse & Leung, 2010). Thus, my role as the researcher has often included working with the teachers in the field, serving as mentor who facilitates teachers’ observations and reflections, guiding them to discover the teaching approach that is culturally responsive and progressive, that I hope, will eventually lead to advancement of earlychildhood
The issue of the citizenship of the children and adolescents is a so- cial and political fight and not a juridical-legal one. The capitalist State config- ures itself contradictory, but in a structure way it registers itself as a conden- sation of forces with hegemony of the bourgeois-industrial-agrarian export block. These conservative forces domain the Parliament and have hegemony in the Executive. In a process of counter-hegemony, Guardianship Counsels were implanted even precarious, the access to education, even without inad- equate quality, and the system of guarantee of rights even fragmented.
Considering that this relation has not always been found (Burger, 2010; Gardinal-Pizato et al., 2012; Pereira et al., 2011), the results may be associated with the quality of the preschool, as Burger (2010) and Taggart et al. (2011) have pointed out. Although there is no objective data on the quality of ECE in the municipality, information on ECE investment, which is above the national average (Felício et al., 2012), and IDEB of the elementary schools, higher than the state average, indicate a well-structured municipal education network. Burger (2010), in his review on the effects of pre-school education on cognitive development, which is primarily assessed by school results, concludes that high-qualityearlychildhood experiences may play a more crucial role than the age of admission into ECE, intensity or duration of the program.
Schoellman (2014) documents, using data of refugees living in the U.S., that adult outcomes are independent of age at arrival to the U.S., up to age 6. He interprets this finding, using a simple model of human capital accumulation, as evidence that the differences across countries in earlychildhoodeducation are not important in explaining development differences. Del Boca et al. (2014) use a standard life-cycle model to study the child quality investment trade-off: Parents work more to have more money to invest in their children, but in turn, less time is allocated to child development. They find that for early investments, parents input is more important than monetary investments. Although it is clear that parental input is also important, we ignore this dimension because in our model fertility is exogenous.
This article presents results from a research whose objectives were to evaluate the quality of earlychildhoodeducation (ECE) in six Brazilian state capitals (quality assessment) and, then, identify differences in school performance of children at the beginning of fundamental education (FE) associate to their attending a good quality ECE school (impact assessment). The impact assessment made use of the results of the quality assessment obtained from the application of grades of quality evaluation to a sample of pre-schools situated in three Brazilian state capitals. These results indicate that the quality level has been compromised in the majority of the institutions evaluated. The sample for the impact assessment was constituted by 762 students from public schools with grades in the Provinha Brasil [National Literacy Exam], from which 605 had attended a pre-school evaluated in the quality assessment, and 157 children who had not attended ECE. The data were treated by multilevel/hierarchical analysis with cross classification, which makes it possible to take into account, simultaneously, the effect of several explicative variables (characteristics of pupils and their families; of the ECE schools and FE schools) upon the results of the response variable (second- year students’ grades in the Provinha Brasil). The impact assessment reveals that attending a good quality pre-school has positive effect in the performance of students in the Provinha Brasil . The analyses also indicate that the child’s age is an important factor for the results obtained in that exam, as well as mother’s level of schooling, family income, and the Ideb result of the ECE attended.
Extant reviews have focused on specific methods to gather children’s voices, children’s participation in specific countries, children’s participation in health settings, or school-aged children’s participation. To the best of our knowledge, there is currently no systematic review mapping international empirical research on young children’s right to participate in ECE settings. We aim to address this gap, acknowledging the importance of the early years, often underestimated and overlooked. We acknowledge the initial assumptions most likely to influence our analyses and interpretation of findings: (1) the field needs a comprehensive evidence-base on participation-related ideas, practices, and outcomes, and their mutual associations and effects; (2) the field needs strong evidence building on quantitative and qualitative studies and transversal and longitudinal high-quality research designs; (3) the field needs to consider the perspectives, experiences, and outcomes of multiple agents, maintaining a strong focus on children.
Earlychildhood skill development is also highly influenced by parenting time, especially quality time they spend with the children, family income and neighborhood characteristics. There are not many time series information on these variables, however. One exception is Cardia and Gomme (2018) that estimates parameters of a childcare production function using data on primary and sec- ondary childcare from the American Time Use Survey. They show that between 1965 and the aver- age of the years 2003-2015 married woman in their prime childcare years (aged 24-29) more than doubled their time working in the market, while in the same period women aged 42-47 increased by only 35% their working time. In contrast, the first group decreased their primary childcare time (e.g., direct and exclusive activities) in the period, but the opposite happened for older woman. Along their entire lifetime the primary time mothers spend with their children increased, but not by much.
Therefore, the general scenario of services offered in 2015 corroborates the idea that ECE in this municipality has a level of high-quality standards, despite the lack of data to evaluate that thoroughly. Even though 573 children remained in the waitlist in 2016, the collected data – based on quantitative indicators and the contact with stakeholders – indicate Telêmaco Borba might be a case of success, with a partial streamlining of the ECE services’ reach, maintaining high-quality standards. All interviewees agree the situation was improved, but each of them underscores his own role in such advancements. That raises up questions concerning the evaluation of the CATs’ effects, being complex to determine if the expansion of enrollment is due to the CAT signing or other initiatives by stakeholders. Therefore, we analyze the different and contradictory narratives in the following session. Those narratives show disagreements regarding what caused improvements in the enforcement of the right to ECE, pointing to the intensification of disputes between administration and PPO.
Both aspects elicit inquietude with respect to ethical standards in evaluation research carried out in public daycare: on the one hand, the need for a clear explanation of the ethics adopted, of the description of eventual reactions when faced with the invasive stimulus and the responses of the researchers; on the other, the clear weighing of the maleficence or beneficence of the research, not just for children and their families, but also for the daycare systems and policy. In reading the articles analyzed by Urra (2011), it is hard to know up to which point these studies are concerned with providing a return, with feeding information back to the daycare centers studied in order to improve their quality. In this case, one can see that the transition from evaluation in earlychildhoodeducation to evaluation of earlychildhoodeducation, or better said, daycare, which is being judged as an institution in perennial crisis, could strengthen the social stigma.
Teachers spend a great deal of time gathering information for the purpose of conducting on-going assessments in the classroom. The literacy development of young children should not be determined by one formal (or standardized) assessment tool. Rather, should involve gathering data from multiple instruments, daily observations, and work samples that measure progress. Often, schools have a data-gathering system in place that reflects the child’s growth and development in the area of literacy skills. As a parent of young children, it is important to ensure that your child is enjoying the reading process and at the same time, that the child is developing his literacy/reading/writing skills to maximum potential. Not all children learn the alphabet by a specific age, and children often learn to ‘sing’ their abc’s before they can identify letters in isolation, or tell you what sounds a letter makes, or what words start with a specific letter. It is an on-going developmental process that takes time, and this is why assessment is important in earlychildhood. We assess to determine how well a child is progressing at a specific time, and to document a specific aspect of learning. Keeping careful progress records helps teachers adapt the curriculum to make it meaningful and child-centered. Furthermore, if assessment is to be effective, parents need to be kept informed in order to help support the child’s learning at home.
The advancement of technology in today's society has contributed significantly to social development, in this context it is important that the school appropriates the technological benefits in the classroom to raise the process of teaching learning in education. The present work is a bibliographical research and had as objective to discuss the importance of the use of technology in the classroom of children's education, choosing as research question the following question: What is the contribution of the use of technology in the educational practices of children's education? Observing initially, the advancement of technology in the course of history, as well as the positions of theorists regarding the use of technology in earlychildhoodeducation. We also analyze what technological resources are available and accessible to the teacher, as well as the contributions that such resources can provide to the process of teaching learning. Finally, we present a possible proposal for a didactic sequence to work in the classroom. Therefore, we believe that the results of this research will serve as subsidies for the discussions about the importance of using pedagogical practices for earlychildhoodeducation.
In addition to efforts made to increase scientific production on aggressiveness, there is also a growing concern from many sectors of the population related to the prevention of violence in different social contexts. However, despite important advances in research on aggressive behavior in the family and school environments (McCartney et al., 2010; Souza & Castro, 2008), aggressive behaviors in the context of earlychildhoodeducation have not been investigated as frequently as should have been the case in recent years. The growing number of children attending child daycare centers in the country (Finkelhor, 2008; Monks, 2011; Pellegrini et al., 2011) and in particular, the observation that such events in very young children are not being treated as a form of violence (Finkelhor, 2008) need to be considered. In the present work, we interpret aggressive behaviors as antagonistic interactions, considering the children’s reactions, the type of activity and the antecedent and consequent events of the behaviors, as proposed by Tremblay (2008). It is important to make a distinction between the type of behavior known as Rough and Tumble Play (RTP), which is characterized by the use of behaviors involving motor activity that resembles aggressiveness (e.g., pulling, running and knocking down), but in reality, constitutes part of a context of play (DiCarlo, Baumgartner, Ota, & Jenkins, 2015). Aggressive behaviors were identified based on criteria established by Garcia, Almeida and Gil (2013), that is, a behavior was considered aggressive when it was directed from one child to the other or directed toward objects and followed by reactions of discomfort, such as crying and verbal complaints.
Having as reference the perspective of History Education, it will be dealt with conceptual problems related to the development of histori- cal thinking in children aged compatibly with EarlyChildhoodEducation, through work in the classroom with family archives documents. The re- flections presented here are part of the research activities of the research project "Historical Thinking of youth and children from schools located in the municipality of Irati-PR", linked to the Department of History, at State University of the Central West (Unicentro).
In this case report, the interdisciplinary inter- action between Dentistry and Speech Language- Pathology was important for obtaining successful clinic treatment, which involved both preventive and curative approaches, which comprised the preventive and curative treatment of earlychildhood caries, functional and aesthetic reestablishment required because of the premature loss of maxillary incisors, and phonetic and myofunctional adaptation. Thus, the patient was gained considerable improvement in oral health, and in the development of speech, chewing and self-esteem.
HRX/ALL1), located at cytogenetic band 11q23, is often altered in IAL, being rear- ranged in more than 80% of cases (12,13). This gene consists of at least 36 exons, en- coding a 3969-amino acid nuclear protein with a molecular weight of nearly 430 kDa that functions as a positive regulator of gene expression in early embryonic development and hematopoiesis. MLL translocation break- points cluster within an 8.3-kb region span- ning exons 5-11 (Figure 2I). In its germ-line form, MLL protein, a human homologue of the transcriptional regulator Trithorax of Dro- sophila, is an upstream transcriptional effec- tor of HOX genes, which play a key role in the regulation of hematopoietic development (15). To distinguish whether the MLL gene acts as an oncogene or whether the fusion