Early diagnosis

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Prevention and early diagnosis save men’s lives in the north of Minas Gerais

Prevention and early diagnosis save men’s lives in the north of Minas Gerais

Abstract: Goal: describe the epidemiological profile of the men’s population assisted by the tent of urology in the 8th Campaign of prevention and early diagnosis of cancer in the municipal of Montes Claros, Minas Gerais and show the changes identified. Methodology: A descriptive and quantitative study carried out with data obtained from the care records from the population assisted in the Campaign of 2018. The data were presented in graphs. For tabulation and analysis, SPSS statistical software was used. Results: In the urology tent 572 individuals with the average of 60,7 years were assisted, in which more than half (66,8%) were married or with a stable relationship and had education until elementary school (68,1%). The evaluations identified 151 men with enlarged prostate. In 26 men (4,6%) there was node. 48 digital exams were altered, where 39 were biopsied and 16 cases confirmed prostate cancer. Conclusion: The Prevention and Early Diagnosis of Cancer Campaign, promoted tracking and the early diagnosis of prostate cancer, through the collection of PSAs, following the evaluation of the urologists, that when identifying significant changes in some of the men assisted population, progressed to biopsy and confirmed cases for specific cancer treatment.
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Early diagnosis of junior school age children’s posture disorders

Early diagnosis of junior school age children’s posture disorders

Abstract. Purpose: to describe specificities of early diagnosis method for junior school age children’s posture disorders. Material: in pedagogic experiment 156 junior school age children (boys and girls of 7-10 years’ age) participated. All children had no experience of training in sport circles. For determination of uniformity of the tested we fulfilled experts’ examination for presence or absence of external signs of posture disorders in frontal plane. The children’s examination was conducted by qualified specialists at the beginning and at the end of experiment. For determination of early signs of muscular asymmetry in torso right and left sides of the tested children we used methodic, based on registration of tonic vibration reflex. Results: the pupils’ examination permitted to form a group of 108 persons, who did not have external signs of posture disorders. It was proved that it would be purposeful to take prophylaxis measures at very early stages of imbalance in muscular system’s work. Traditional approach in the form of prophylaxis examination can not give confident information about initial stage of imbalance in muscular system’s work in child’s organism. Conclusions: it was found that imbalance of motor nervous centers reflex excitability on both sides of backbone (if no purposeful prophylaxis measures are taken) can result in muscular tonus asymmetry on right and left sides of torso in lumbar spine area.
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EARLY DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF NEUROMYELITIS  OPTICA PREVENTS RELAPSES AND LIMITS VISUAL DISABILITY

EARLY DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF NEUROMYELITIS OPTICA PREVENTS RELAPSES AND LIMITS VISUAL DISABILITY

CONCLUSION: As there is considerable time lapse between Optic neuritis and Transverse myelitis, every case of Transverse myelitis need to be reffered to an ophthalmologist for thorough ophthalmological examination, for early diagnosis and management of NMO to prevent the relapses and to limit visual disability. It is also necessary for careful assessment of severity of initial index events so as to assess the monophasic versus relapsing type of NMO and to plan management.

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Development and validation of an HPLC-MS/MS method for the early diagnosis of aspergillosis.

Development and validation of an HPLC-MS/MS method for the early diagnosis of aspergillosis.

aspergillosis (IA) and in the sera of cancer patients with documented (proven or probable) IA (65–785 ng mL 21 ) [14]. None of the described methods have precise materials and methods, making them difficult to reproduce. Additionally, none have been fully validated according to the modern worldwide regulations; thus, the reliability of their results cannot be ensured. The aim of this work is the development and validation of a new method based on high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) to detect gliotoxin in human serum for the early diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis.
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Integrative genomic data mining for discovery of potential blood-borne biomarkers for early diagnosis of cancer.

Integrative genomic data mining for discovery of potential blood-borne biomarkers for early diagnosis of cancer.

In examining the common biomarkers between each two cancer types, we observed 3 to 59 biomarkers exclusive to each cancer type (Table S1, Figure 4; see Supplemental File S2). In effect, less than twenty percent of the total identified blood-based biomarkers per cancer type are unique. A few of the biomarkers reported here have been suggested as putative specific biomarkers by other studies. For example, leptin (LEP), a protein hormone with important effects in regulating body metabolism, has been reported as one of the four specific serum biomarkers for the early detection of ovarian cancer [42]. Our study confirms its potential as a unique blood-borne marker for ovarian cancer. Similarly, we identified matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) as a specific biomarker for pancreatic cancer, consistent with the experimental findings showing that its upregulation, compared with that of other metalloproteinases, seems particularly important in the growth and dissemination of pancreatic cancer [47–49]. We believe these unique biomarkers could be combined to produce a panel of markers that could improve selectivity and sensitivity for the early diagnosis of cancer.
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Early diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B: a challenge for physicians

Early diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B: a challenge for physicians

In this report, we describe four patients with MEN2B and incurable MTC due to late diagnosis. The diagnosis of MEN2B is frequent late, especially when there is no family history of MEN2B. In newborns, the characteristic MEN2B phenotype is often absent and the only common manifestation is constipation due to intestinal ganglioneuromatosis. In fact, all our four pa- tients with MEN2B had severe constipation during in- fancy. It would be important to include MEN2B as a differential diagnosis of severe constipation and conge- nital megacolon as, although rare, an early diagnosis of MEN2B could lead to appropriate treatment and po- tential cure (6,16,17).
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Regular Sputum Check-Up for Early Diagnosis of Tuberculosis after Exposure in Healthcare Facilities.

Regular Sputum Check-Up for Early Diagnosis of Tuberculosis after Exposure in Healthcare Facilities.

Adequate sputum sampling is the basis of diagnosing TB [21], and sufficient training to obtain adequate sputum samples is particularly crucial for patients with mental illness [35]. Sputum induction has been proven be a well-tolerated, low-cost technique with a similar diag- nostic yield to bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary TB [36]. Adequate sputum sampling to allow for the early diagnosis of new TB cases is considered to be critical to prevent TB transmission in the beginning of an outbreak since latent TB treatment is infeasible. Indeed, to treat contact subjects with latent TB infection is an effective strategy to stop further transmission of TB in the management of TB outbreak in healthcare facilities [1], while to stop the transmission of TB is particularly critical if latent TB screening and treatment is infeasible. The results of this study provide clinical evidence of using regular sputum check-ups via induc- tion for all contact subjects to early diagnose subjects of TB with minimal lung lesions, and this strategy may be considered to be one of the strategies in stopping further transmission of TB. Our data show that regular sputum check-ups for all high-risk contact participants for up to 4 years were an effective and necessary strategy for the early identification of new TB cases. The use of sputum induction and thorough training for how to obtain sputum samples may at least partly explain the detection of TB patients with minimal lung lesions in this study. However, unlike regular CXR follow-up, continuous regular sputum smear and culture check-ups as in the follow-up protocol used in this study is quite resource-intensive. We thus used our data to analyze the efficacy of focusing resources on high-risk subjects after a two-year regular sputum check-ups, which might be a potential alternative approach in resource-limited set- tings. Our data showed that 68.8% (11/16) of the TB cases were diagnosed within the first 2 (1–2) years, with the other 31.2% (5/16) of TB cases diagnosed in the next 2 (3–4) years. It is worth noting that all of the cases diagnosed in the 3–4 year period were high-risk patients, of whom 80% (4/5) had a long duration of contact (5.5 ± 1.6 months) and 20% (1/5) had a low BMI (20.0 kg/m 2 ) (Table 3). Therefore, regular sputum check-ups for all contact participants for the first 2 years while reserving regular sputum check-ups only for high-risk participants may be a reasonable and resource-saving strategy in clinical practice.
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Assessment of microalbuminuria for early diagnosis and risk prediction in dengue infections.

Assessment of microalbuminuria for early diagnosis and risk prediction in dengue infections.

Another point to consider is the marked variability in serial UACR measurements both within and between individual patients. Urine albumin excretion over 12 or 24 hrs is usually taken as the gold standard for assessment of albuminuria, but measurement of the UACR on spot urine samples is more practical and is generally considered an acceptable surrogate measure [33]. Although the UACR technique is intended to adjust for fluctuations in fluid intake and hydration status, considerable variability within individuals is recognized [34,35]. Given the complex fluid balance status in patients with increased vascular permeability the method may not be appropriate for use in suspected dengue cases. However, it is clear that similar variability was seen in both the OFI and the dengue patient groups suggesting that the problem is intrinsic to the UACR method and that comparisons between the disease groups remain valid. Although significant differences in urine albumin excretion might have been detected using timed urine collections, it would not be Table 3. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis examining relationships between clinical and laboratory features present at enrolment and diagnosis of dengue in the study cohort of 856 patients.
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I-FABP as biomarker for the early diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia and resultant lung injury.

I-FABP as biomarker for the early diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia and resultant lung injury.

AMI is a life-threatening intra-abdominal emergency where the outcome depends on rapid diagnosis. AMI can be caused by occlusive or non-occlusive mechanisms. In both cases, rapid vascular resuscitation results in intestinal reperfusion. The intestinal ischemia/reperfusion induces mucosal barrier damage which results in the translocation of micro-organisms and endotoxins from the gut lumen into the body’s inner tissues [22–25], in combination with the production of oxygen- derived free radicals[26, 27] and other intestinally derived factors[28, 29], as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines [30]. A self-perpetuating signaling cascade that has the potential to escalate into a vicious cycle of continuously increasing intestinal permeability, translocation of microbes and stronger inflammatory response develops. All of these factors ultimately contribute to the onset of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), sepsis, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Of these organ injuries, acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are a common cause of morbidity and mortality following AMI [31, 32]. In fact, the mortality due to ALI has remained at 44% for the past two decades [33]; highlighting the need for a novel biomarker to allow for earlier detection.
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Serological monitoring of antibodies for an early diagnosis of aspergillosis in captive penguins

Serological monitoring of antibodies for an early diagnosis of aspergillosis in captive penguins

In addition, the rates of S, Sp, PPV and NPV for the AGID diagnosis of aspergillosis in penguins found in our study are similar or even superior to those described by Ar- ca-Ruibal et al.(2006), in their study with galactomannan detection for the diagnosis of aspergillosis in falcons (12% S, 95% Sp, 46.1% PPV and 75.4% of VPN using cut-off=1.0), and by Cray et al. (2009a, 2009b) who found 67% sensitiv- ity, 73% specificity, 63% PPV and 76% NPV using the same technique (cut-off=0.5) for the diagnosis of aspergillosis in bird from different species. Likewise, the results are supe- rior to those described by Burco et al. (2012), who used the technique to detect β-glucan for diagnosis of aspergillosis in birds finding rates of sensitivity and specificity of 60% and 92.7%, respectively.
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Psychol. Neurosci.  vol.4 número2

Psychol. Neurosci. vol.4 número2

Dementia, especially Alzheimer’s disease, has a high prevalence in the elderly population. Therefore, identifying individuals who are at a high risk for early diagnosis is crucial to allow both pharmacological and behavioral therapeutic interventions, which in some cases can delay the progression of dementia. This paper describes neuropsychological and neurobiological markers for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease and presents the main risk factors, including neuropathological, neuroanatomical, neurofunctional, genetic, and neuropsychological. The literature shows that the combination of these markers is the best method for predicting Alzheimer’s disease, years before its clinical manifestation. The most prevalent neurobiological and neuropsychological risk factors include (1) senile plaques and neuroibrillary tangles in the medial temporal lobe and cortical regions, (2) low concentrations of Aβ1-42 peptide and high concentrations of total tau protein and phosphorylated tau protein in cerebrospinal luid, (3) reduced global cerebral volume, increased ventricular volume, and atrophy in the hippocampal formation and entorhinal cortex, (4) global reductions in cerebral metabolism and perfusion in the temporoparietal junction, temporal, parietal, and frontal lobes, hippocampal formation, and posterior cingulate cortex, (5) the presence of the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele, and (6) verbal anterograde episodic long-term memory impairment and executive dysfunction. The present review discusses the evidence for markers that identify individuals who are at a high risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease and the importance of longitudinal studies in this context. Keywords: dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, neurobiological markers, longitudinal studies.
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Experimental Ehrlichia canis infection changes acute-phase proteins

Experimental Ehrlichia canis infection changes acute-phase proteins

Early diagnosis of canine ehrlichiosis favors prompt institution of treatment and improves the prognosis for the animal, since this disease causes mortality among dogs. Studies have shown that determining the concentration of acute-phase proteins (APPs) may contribute towards early detection of disease and aid in predicting the prognosis. his study aimed to evaluate the APP proile in dogs experimentally infected with Ehrlichia canis, at the start of the infection and after treatment. It also investigated whether any correlation between APP levels and the clinical and laboratory alterations over the course of the disease would be possible. he results obtained showed abnormal levels of all the APPs on the third day after infection (D3), with the highest levels being reached on D18, with the exception of ceruloplasmin and acid glycoprotein, which presented their peaks on D6 and D12 respectively. We concluded that assessment of APP levels could contribute towards establishing an early diagnosis of canine ehrlichiosis, particularly regarding acid glycoprotein and ceruloplasmin, since these proteins were detected at increased levels even before the onset of clinical and laboratory indings of the disease.
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Detection of Lsr2 Gene of Mycobacterium leprae in Nasal Mucus

Detection of Lsr2 Gene of Mycobacterium leprae in Nasal Mucus

In Brazil, despite actions for the treatment and control of leprosy, the number of new cases is highly threatening, and considering the existence of infected and undiagnosed people as a true reservoir of M. leprae and their contacts (Braber 2004) as infection sources, the development of methods for early diagnosis become imperative. PCR is a useful tool for the diagnosis of leprosy and its recent developments such as helicase dependent amplification point to the possibility of developing methods of detection with better sensitivity and specificity. (Bang et al. 2009) evaluated the sensitivity and utility of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect M. leprae in comparison with other conventional methods for the diagnosis such as split skin smears, histopathology and serodiagnosis. They observed that the PCR detection of M. leprae targeting 16S ribosomal RNA was specific and more sensitive than the conventional methods, and could contribute to early and accurate diagnosis of leprosy. The present work standardized a PCR technique to amplify the single copy gene Lsr2 of M. leprae. This technique presented 100% of specificity for M. leprae relative to other mycobacteria, in agreement with previous reports (Santos et al. 2001; Guerrero et al. 2002; Torres et al. 2003; Willams et al. 2003; Braber 2004; Cortes-Herrera et al. 2008). Therefore, it seemed
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B-mode Ultrasound and Doppler Mode for Early-stage Pregnancy Diagnosis in Shi-Tzu Bitches

B-mode Ultrasound and Doppler Mode for Early-stage Pregnancy Diagnosis in Shi-Tzu Bitches

Discussion: Early diagnosis observed in the present study for canine pregnancy is an important differential in veterinary obstetrics. Gestational sac was detected in the uterine horn on the 20th day post LH peak, 18 days following ovulation in a Beagle bitch and the ultrasound diagnosis of pregnancy was performed 18-24 days following the fi rst and last mating, respectively, in Yorkshire dogs. Those results highlighted the difference between the dates for early-stage pregnancy diag- nosis among different canine breeds. The precocity for the ultrasound pregnancy diagnosis depends on the visualization of the gestational sac, which is directly related to embryogenesis. The assessment of the ecobiometry of the gestational sacs may aid on the early-stage ultrasound pregnancy diagnosis in bitches. The values of corpus luteum vascular index in Shi-Tzu bitches in the current study were different from those found in other trial in bitches and in women. Such values may be justifi ed by the differences on the corpus luteum structures between the canine and human species. Regarding to Triplex Doppler in pregnant bitches, the values of PI and EDV could be determined, which hadn’t been reported before in veterinary medicine for the study of corpus luteum blood fl ow. In conclusion, the detection of pregnancy on early-stage using ultrasound examination is feasible in Shi-Tzu bitches, by the 12th day post conception. It was also possible to de- terminate important ecobiometry values of the gestacional sac and corpus luteum vascular index using Triplex Doppler.
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BMJ Case Reports 2014 Brissos

BMJ Case Reports 2014 Brissos

resulted in increased incidental findings of abnor- mal liver chemistry tests that must be interpreted by physicians. The prevalence and aetiology of hyper- transaminasemia in childhood are not well defined, but it is known to be present in several other situa- tions than viral-induced liver disease. Critical judge- ment of these findings allows early diagnosis in the absence of typical clinical signs. 2

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The profile of hypertensive women in climacterium attended at the program hiperdia

The profile of hypertensive women in climacterium attended at the program hiperdia

Objective: To characterize climacteric women according to the socio-economic and demographic profile, beyond analyzing the life habits and food and clinical-laboratorial profiles and gynecological characteristics. Methods: This is a descriptive study, of a quantitative approach, evaluated with 59 hypertensive women in climacterium, enrolled in Hiperdia, the Program of the Ministry of Health in São Luís- Maranhão. Results: It was found that this group is characterized mostly by women withbrown color, in old age, with low education, working at home, have no smoking or consuming alcohol, do not exercise, do diet, already entered to menopause starting between 45 and 49 years old. Conclusion: It was found in this study the importance of health professionals of this level of complexity to develop strategies for early diagnosis, prevention, health promotion to hypertensive women during the climacterium. Descriptors: Nursing, Women's health, Climacterium.
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Rev. Bras. Anestesiol.  vol.67 número4

Rev. Bras. Anestesiol. vol.67 número4

Perioperative management and treatment for complications during and after peroral endo- scopic myotomy (POEM) for esophageal achalasia. Early diagnosis and manage- ment of delayed bleedi[r]

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Institute of experimental medicine for the study and treatment of cancer

Institute of experimental medicine for the study and treatment of cancer

The Division of Medical Care or Relief includes a dispensary for the early diagnosis and outpatient treatment of cancer; and hospitaliza- tion facilities... 948 OF[r]

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en 2237 9622 ress S1679

en 2237 9622 ress S1679

lesions bigger than 20mm in states from the Brazilian North region possibly justifies the intensification of early diagnosis strategies. Most of confirmed cases for breast cancer were diagnosed from palpable or symptomatic lesions. The same was observed in countries with organized screening programs and great coverage of mammographic screening, as the United Kingdom, where, after almost 20 years of implementation of the national program of population

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