This research explores the European Consumer Satisfaction Index model applied to higher educationintourism by accounting for unobserved heterogeneity. In particular, it intends to identify segments of Higher Education Institutions’ consumers based on the structural model estimates of the European Consumer Satisfaction Index, enlarged with the employability construct. A model-based segmentation approach in Partial Least Squares path modelling is used. The European Consumer Satisfaction Index was properly adjusted to the educational framework and has shown its effectiveness when assessing students’ satisfaction regarding the attended Higher Education Institution. Two distinctive, graduates’ segments were identified using a sample of 166 Higher Education Institutions’ consumers. Results confirm the assumption of heterogeneity as the relationships differ across segments and the need for Higher Education Institutions to differently target those segments in such a competitive context. These results may be used strategically by Higher Education Institutions and policy makers as segments of graduates are identified according to their perception of employability and the future influence of this on their satisfaction. Deepening the knowledge on their consumers, Higher Education Institutions will be better prepared to adjust their educational performance to graduates’ best interests and to promote their offer.
is the Global Report on Women inTourism (OMT, 2011), where we can observe the main future chal- lenges for promoting women’s empowerment intourismin five main areas: employment, education, entrepreneurship, leadership and community. In terms of employment, it suggests: increase awareness of the important economic role that women play in the tourism industry; strengthen legal protection for women intourism employment; such protections include minimum wage regulations and equal pay laws; improve maternity leave requirements, flexible hours, work-from-home options, and arrangements for childcare. In the education domain, it recommends promoting women’s participation intourism educa- tion and training and improving the educational level of women already working in different areas of the industry through a targeted and strategic program of action. The entrepreneurial program should facili- tate women’s tourism entrepreneurship by ensuring women’s access to credit, land and property, as well as providing appropriate training and resources to support women’s enterprises. The leadership program could support women’s tourism leadership at all levels: public sector, private sector, and community management by establishing leadership programs at national level and in large and small-scale tour- ism enterprises. The community should ensure that women’s contribution to community development is properly recognized and rewarded by taking into account women’s unpaid work and by monitoring tourism activities carried out in the household and in the community. This report synthetizes several crucial areas of action for future policy.
This topic was also discussed during the “International Conference on Tourism and Gender Issues”, hosted by the University of Aveiro in March 2012. The present paper is based on the presentation delivered at this occasion. It is organized in four sections developed after this introduction. The first part presents the theoretical framework regarding the female workforce in the tourism sector, addressing the worldwide situation, but focusing on developing economies, especially Brazil. Then, the methodological aspects are presented, followed by the results, which are organized in three main topics that emerged from the collected data. The first section presents the general findings. The second part discusses the significant differences between women with higher educationintourismin comparison to their male counterparts. The last topic highlights three remarkable features unveiled by the data analysis, shedding some light on the topic. Finally, the conclusions and further work are stated.
Moreover, these institutions should not ignore the fact that there are two segments of graduates with diff erent responses in the ECSI model. Th ese segments diff er mainly with respect to the BSc obtained and the type of HEI attended. Consequently, future marketing communication strategies must be aware of these discriminant variables and consider them when targeting these segments. For example, promotional materials that better explore each type of course specifi city and employability opportuni- ties should be prepared for each segment, including visual materials to improve the image of the HEIs and the expectations of potential new students. Another possible strategy is to strengthen the link between the academic context and the industry, with more signed protocols, considering the specifi c characteristics of each BSc and type of HEI at which the courses can be attended. Th is would allow greater proximity between the companies that are potential employers of each segment of graduates and the corresponding type of HEI, increasing the potential for high levels of employability and, thus, satisfaction and loyalty towards the institutions. Since the relationships between constructs are weaker in segment 2, the communication strategy as well as the protocol eff orts would probably require higher investments to improve the image of the institutions as well as the students' expectations. Th is strategy should also enable to improve the perception of the quality of human elements that students have, with potential positive eff ects on satisfaction and loyalty.
Abs tra ct. This article analyzes the basic concepts that define the essence of the system of vocational education and helps to analyze the problem of tourism staffing support. According to authors’ hypothesis, the personnel problem is related to the im perfection of the tourism conceptual fram ework. As of all enterprises of travel industry only travel agencies and accom m odation facilities work with tourists, the author proves that personnel training for these businesses is the m ajor objective of vocational training intourism .
Abstract | This paper investigates the patterns of tourism growth cycles in domestic and international tourism demand for Portugal and Spain with monthly data on visitor’s arrivals in tourist accommodation establishments from January 1990 to September 2013. The de-trending method proposed by Hodrick-Prescott filter is used to extract the tourism growth cycles for both resident and non-resident tourists. The Bry-Boschan algorithm finds that the duration of contractions tend to be on average twice longer for resident tourists than for non- -resident tourists, and the length of expansions is almost three times higher for non-resident tourists than for resident ones in Portugal. The duration of the tourism growth cycles is much higher in Portugal than in Spain in both groups of tourists by ten to twelve months. Large expansion phases in Portugal tend to coexist with large contraction phases in Spain along the cycles from non-resident tourists. Spectral analysis confirms the existence of one dominant cyclic frequency within tourism demand from both tourist groups. The paper is concluded with a brief discussion of findings.
Most speciality literature deals with the rural tourismin Romania also. For example in the Apuseni Mountains is considered at this stage only trade and tourism might be the best way for investment . This requires the construction of hotels and hostels in major cities in the area of services in major intersections, or development activities campsites near existing restaurants and inns. Apuseni Mountains has a good potential to attract visitors, especially since the area is relatively close to Central Europe, which is very convenient for tourists from Austria and Hungary.
Many rural areas want to develop tourism considering the alleged benefits for the local community. Tourism is considered to boost the local economic development increasing the possibilities of employment, improve the provision of goods and services, contribute to local heritage protection and finally maintain or attract population in remote areas. Currently numerous rural administrative units believe they could become a successful tourist destination because of their authenticity, their local heritage, the welcome of their inhabitants, the richness of their landscape or their food and beverage specialities. They dream of solving several social and economic issues through the development of tourist activities. However, many projects fail due especially to the lack of market analysis and marketing approach. On the other hand, we observe a worldwide trend of segmentation of the tourism market. Tourist products aim to attract a target population, preferably tourists who will spend a lot of money and reinforce the self-esteem of the destination, excluding for instance backpackers or campers. However, is this possible everywhere? Experiences show that this strategy could be very costly for a low reward. Most of the destinations claim uniqueness even if they accommodate for a broader public with very standard services. Indeed, what is the difference between a tropical beach in the Philippines, in the Dominican Republic or even in the subtropical complex of a European or North American city? New tourist products are created and copy pasted at different places. For instance, when looking at the attractions offered in the Languedoc (France) or in Wallonia (Belgium), we found several products (dressine on old railways, rafting, mini-zoo, butterfly garden etc.) which exist in both regions and also in several
As it was previously mentioned across the following research paper promotion in medical tourism industry has its specifics due to intangible qualities of the services and potential risk of medical procedure. Considering that fear of malpractices creates barriers in decision-making process of patients, by all means medical destinations endeavour to establish strong reputation, which will diminish perceived risk of medical services (Gurviez, 1999). From the perspective of Portugal as being the medical destination, the previous research conducted by the Working Group concluded that a major problem in attraction of the foreign patients particularly resides in the lack of reputation and perception of the country as a healthcare provider. Accordingly, the third research question was focused on comprehending the opinions of the respondents about the marketing activities of Portuguese private medical facilities and draw bottom-line about their effectiveness. The empirical part of the study confirmed previously made conclusion, drawn from the literature review, about relevance of the detailed research of the target market specifics prior to structuring final product and creating marketing strategies (Chapter 2.1.3). In this regard, Chapter 4.2.2. of the following paper reviewed the information about previously identified target markets for Portuguese providers and signifies that main concentration should be made on the markets, patients from which have already demonstrated the interest in obtaining treatment in Portugal. Because it is more effective and productive to grow on existing demand rather than build everything from scratch.
One of the first broadly accepted definitions of tourism was Professor Hunziker’s (1942) that defined tourism as the “sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, in so far as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected with any earning activity”. This definition was later adopted in 1981 by the Association Internationale d'Experts Scientifiques du Tourisme (AIEST) defining this way tourismin terms of particular activities selected by choice and undertaken outside the home environment. In 1976, Tourism Society of England defined it as “the temporary, short-term movement of people to destination outside the places where they normally live and work, and their activities during the stay at each destination. It includes movements for all purposes”. Moreover, according to the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), tourism is a “social, cultural and economic phenomenon which entails the movement of people to countries or places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for personal or business/professional purposes”.
On the other hand, rapid tourism growth has also created population pressure, stemming from the increase in permanent residents but also temporary workers 1 – primarily from mainland Chile – employed in the tourism sector. This situation has created conflict between the rapanui and the non-rapanui population, which mostly takes the form of protests from the side of the rapanui against the Chilean government: for instance, a series of demonstrations and closing off of archaeological sites and the airport have occurred in recent years with the rapanui making demands regarding the management of the Rapa Nui National Park, the under-discussion immigration law or the island’s self-determination. Moreover, the largely disorganized tourism development has exacerbated a series of environmental issues related to solid waste disposal, wastewater management, biodiversity, and air and water quality (Figueroa & Rotarou, 2013), which have been identified long ago as critical factors for the sustainable tourism of the island (di Castri, 1999).
Following the timeline, one sees that in 2013 the key actors (mediators) found support and a propitious environment (actors) for intersectori- ality to be established in a space of relations of power that was able to reactivate the partners, establish rules and redistribute the same power between the members of the partnership (stra- tegic translation) through implementation of the intervention, called Healthier Sairé, which was based on the theoretical and methodological assumptions, and the guidelines, of the Healthy Municipality Plan prepared in 2006 as the con- clusion of one of the courses of Healthy Munic- ipality Promoters (NUSP/UFPE). Thus, the in- tervention redeemed the concepts and practices that had been put into action since 2004. With an intersectorial vision, the management and the community began to develop projects and actions that were producers of equity – such as: intergenerational programs; school visits by the mayor (interacting with students at all levels); community radio, incentivating actions for equi- ty; stimulus to the local sense of ownership (par- ticipative composition of a ‘municipal anthem’, and creation of a municipal coat of arms, based on studies of heraldry); a collective commitment to take care of local equipment; participative beautification of streets and squares; photogra- phy competitions in the schools, selecting loca- tions of municipal pride; use of social media for young people; and many other activities.
There was one of the unique battles of century 20 in Iran. Different events of holy defense period in Iran are branch of wonderful events of which examples may not occur in any parts of the world. Battle fronts, chemical regions, holocaust of villages, performed operations are among them. These capabilities and mixture of holy defense with religious and patriotic beliefs and caused many people to visit battlefields in winter and Norooz holidays as Rahian Noor Tour. Although people welcomed the battlefields and it was mixed with religious dimensions, no scientific institution has been included in this category.
However, despite the increasing tendency of tourism development indicators in Kazakhstan, the share of tourismin the national total GDP is only nearly 1.6% (WEF, 2017). Tourism is not yet in the level of its development adequate to maximize its potentials. Natural resources, rich cultural and historical heritage cannot be sucient for the tou- rism development. A similar situation intourism sector development is facing neighboring country Uzbekistan (Sobirov, 2018). Therefore, in order to increase the role of tourismin the country's GDP, it is necessary to address some challenges such as in- frastructure, technology, prices of tourism services, problems with air connectivity and lack of profes- sional skills (Smailova, 2012; Syzdykbayeva et al., 2015). According to Abubakirova et al. (2016), one of the biggest issues of tourismin Kazakhstan is the insuciency of demand due to the lack of eective marketing strategy. In this context, So- birov (2018) emphasizes the importance of deep understanding of consumer behavior, in particular, consumer's buying decision-making process. The author believes that it will enable marketers and tourism businesses to better understand the con- sumer demand side and hence, develop eective marketing strategies to favor the supply side.
These events have placed our country under the spotlight and present an enormous range of opportunities and challenges for public and private managers. In this context, Ebape/FGV and IAG/PUC-Rio, held the Tourismin Rio de Janeiro International Seminar in March this year, with the participation of prominent Brazilian and foreign researchers and Brazilian tourism industry managers.
ABSTRACT - Rural tourism is now determined by limited economic opportunities, poor infrastructure, low motivation to possible offers, lack of proper service guarantees. Nearly 500 Romanian villages are already tourist locations, with certain characteristics determined by a heritage item, or complex ones when multiple components lead to various activities. This paper includes a typology of tourist villages in Romania according to the types of practiced tourist activities, insisting on the use of a more comprehensive terminology: tourismin rural environment, participative and creative tourismin rural areas. Tourism becomes a system accepted in the rural environment as a real opportunity for economic development with multiple social consequences. By multiplying tourism potential to meet tourists’ demands, many villages will get tourism valences with various activities in this filed, including environment protection.
dominant trend along the past century, although it keeps quite up to date nowadays –, a second wave follows, featuring export-channels as traditional private and public higher education institutions decided to export their programs to other countries, through partnerships and twinning programs between higher education institutions (Smart, 1988, quoted by Mazzarol et al., 2003). This rather popular strategy in Asia throughout the 90’s has allowed students to achieve an international degree in their home country (Prystay, 1996) or in neighbouring ones. A third wave involves innovative forms of trans-national education including the creation of branch campuses, new types of partnership and administrative arrangements (twinning and educational franchising) and new delivery methods (internet-based distance learning) (Mazzarol, 1998). Taken together, these new opportunities make student options for higher education no longer constrained by national boundaries. A remarkable example is the Malaysia’s case, analysed by Mazzarol et al. (2003). Facing huge problems related with the reduced dimension of its higher education provision sector and consequently having to deal with flowing effects and human and financial capital losses caused by Malaysian students eager to study abroad, Malaysia started to encourage, since the end of the 80’s, the implementation of partnership and twinning programs. More than stopping the hemorrhagic flows, this strategy repositioned Malaysia from an international mobile students sending country to a destination one: despite the 90’s crisis, the number of international students’ enrolments in Malaysian higher education institutions rose from 5 635, in 1996, to 26 649, in 2000, drained out from a basin of 134 countries (Mazzarol et al., 2003).
The frail development of tourismin the Region West is also due to uncompetitive products of tourism and the unskilled personnel in the field; moreover, in 2006, the Region West disposed of only 10,55% of the total number of the personnel hired in the structures of reception and accommodation in the country, most of them working in the Timis county. The tourismin spas would also have a high potential of development in the region, the region hosting 13,3 % of the total number of health resorts and spas in the country, most of which are to be found in the county of Caras-Severin. Turning account of the attraction for tourism can contribute to the economic growth of the urban centers, which are currently in decline, or of the peripheral rural areas, mainly by favoring the setting up and development of local enterprises, thus transforming the areas with low economic competitive character into areas attractive towards investors. The activity of tourism creates demand for a large range of goods and services, acquired later on by tourists and companies of tourism, including goods and services created by other economic sectors (commerce, constructions, transport, the food industry, confections and footwear, the small industry and handicraft). Last but not least, tourism creates opportunities for regional and local economic growth and has a lasting contribution to creating new employment forms by turning into account the cultural and natural patrimony; in addition, a significant part of the newly created jobs involves a regional opportunity to absorb the female work-force.